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By  arrangement  with  the  publishers,  a  Large 
Paper  Edition  of  this  volume  (limited  to  200  copies, 
150  for  sale]  has  been  printed,  for  inclusion  in  the 
Editor's  Series  of  "  Select  Early  English  Poems " 
(Milford,  Oxford  University  Press). 

'(  ''  '/'f  •</?•/  .''  f//tr///  /~,  >////  />rar/s 

•  //'////<>{/  ////'  '/'f(  if/9  -ft  /or/,"  <; 

,/  and  throua/i  ////• 






rights  reserved 





QUATRAIN    .  ...  ^TENNYSON      vii 


INTRODUCTION         ......       xi 

TRANSLATION  ......         i 


EXPLANATORY  NOTES       .         .         .         .         .114 

GLOSSARY      .......      175 

BOCCACCIO'S  OLYMPIA      .         .         .         .         .241 


FRONTISPIECE          .          .       By  W.  HOLMAN  HUNT 

to  face  title-page 
FROM  MS.  COTTON  NERO  A.  x. : 

FACSIMILE,  11.  1-29  „  2 

ILLUSTRATION,  11.  57-64  „  6 

„             11.  101-108  „  16 

„              11.  193-228  .                    „  18 

FACSIMILE,  11.  829-837  .                   „  72 

ILLUSTRATION,  11.  961-972  .         .          „  82 


MY  edition  of  *  Pearl'  in  1891  was  my  first  contribution  to 
Middle  English  studies,  and  my  interest  in  the  poem  has 
remained  unabated  all  these  years,  during  which  I  have 
endeavoured  to  understand  it  aright  and  to  unravel  many 
a  problem.  Many  requests  have  reached  me  from  far  and  wide 
to  re-issue  the  book,  now  long  out  of  print,  but  I  resisted 
these  appeals  until  I  could  feel  satisfied  in  respect  of  all 
the  outstanding  difficulties  of  the  poem.  I  trust  that  those 
who  are  qualified  to  judge  will  recognise  that  the  present 
new  edition  makes  good  its  claim.  As  in  the  issue  of  1891, 
so  in  the  present  edition,  an  unrhymed  rendering  into  modern 
English  faces  the  Middle  English  text.  A  translation  which 
aims  at  interpreting  the  original  is  to  my  mind  the  best 
form  of  commentary  ;  at  all  events  it  clearly  indicates  the 
editor's  decision,  good  or  bad,  on  difficult  passages.  At  the 
same  time,  for  those  who  are  not  deeply  interested  in  Middle 
English,  it  may  serve  as  an  adequate  introduction  to  the 
poem,  not  the  less  effective  for  avoiding  the  perversions  and 
obscurities  that  too  often  mar  the  attempts  to  maintain  the 
highly  complicated  rhyming  system  of  the  original.  It  will, 
I  think,  be  admitted  that,  both  as  regards  text  and  inter 
pretation,  a  new  edition  of c  Pearl '  is  much  needed. 

I  am  proud  to  know  that  my  early  enthusiasm  for  the 
poem,  still  maintained,  has  been  effective  in  stimulating  so 
much  interest  in  '  Pearl,'  far  beyond  the  limited  circle  of 
students  of  Middle  English,  and  has  gained  for  it,  through 



its  intrinsic  worth,  a  foremost  place  among  the  choicest 
treasures  of  medieval  literature. 

I  feel  sure  that,  whatever  may  be  the  views  of  students  as 
to  the  relationship  of  'Pearl'  and  Boccaccio's  Eclogue, 
f  Olympia,'  they  will  be  grateful  to  me  for  adding,  as  a  com 
plement  to  '  Pearl,'  the  original  text  of  the  Latin  poem, 
together  with  my  rendering  into  English. 

In  1891  it  was  my  privilege  to  express  my  grateful  acknow 
ledgment  to  three  great  men  who  have  since  passed  away : 
to  Professor  Skeat,  my  beloved  master,  for  valued  help  ;  to 
Holman  Hunt,  for  having  given  'Pearl'  a  noble  place  in 
English  art  by  his  drawing  of  the  frontispiece  for  my  edition 
of  the  poem  ;  to  Alfred  Tennyson  for  having  graced  with 
the  most  coveted  of  distinctions  my  efforts  to  re-set  this 
Pearl  *  in  Britain's  lyric  coronet.' 

In  recognition  of  cordial  help  in  those  now  far-off  days,  it 
is  a  pleasure  to  refer  to  the  fourth  name  then  mentioned,  that 
of  Dr.  Henry  Bradley,  happily  still  with  us. 

I.  G. 

July  13,  1921. 


«  Of  the  West  Cuntre  it  semeth  that  he  was, 
Bi  his  maner  of  spec  he  and  bi  his  style? 

•  Pearl '  in  the  Lineage  of  English  Poetry.— While  Chaucer 
was  still  learning  from  Guillaume  de  Machault  and  his 
followers  the  cult  of  the  Marguerite,  flower  of  flowers,  as 
symbol  of  womanhood,  a  contemporary  English  poet  had 
already  found  inspiration  in  the  more  spiritual  associations 
of  the  Marguerite  as  the  Pearl  of  Price. 

It  is  indeed  rather  with  the  Prologue  of  '  The  Legend  of 
Good  Women'  than  with  Chaucer's  earlier  effort  of  'The 
Book  of  the  Duchess '  that  the  poem  of  *  Pearl '  may  best 
be  contrasted,  though  Chaucer's  Lament  for  Blanche  the 
Duchess,  as  an  elegy,  invites  comparison  with  'Pearl'  as 
elegy.  From  this  point  of  view,  Chaucer's  Lament  seems 
somewhat  unreal  and  conventional  ;  our  poem  exercises 
its  spell,  not  merely  by  its  artistic  beauty,  but  even  more 
by  its  simple  and  direct  appeal  to  what  is  eternal  and 
elemental  in  human  nature. 

Again,  its  artistic  form  indicates  the  peculiar  position  that 
this  early  '  In  Memoriam '  holds  in  the  progress  of  English 
poetry.  It  represents  the  compromise  between  the  two 
schools  of  poetry  that  co-existed  during  the  latter  half  of 
the  fourteenth  century,  the  period  with  which  Chaucer  is 
especially  identified  as  its  greatest  and  noblest  product. 



On  the  one  hand,  there  were  the  poets  of  the  East  Midland 
district,  with  the  Court  as  its  literary  centre,  who  sought 
their  first  inspiration  in  the  literature  of  France.  Chaucer 
and  his  devotees  were  the  representatives  of  this  group,  for 
whom  earlier  English  poetry  meant  nothing,  and  whose 
debt  to  it  was  indeed  small.  These  poets  preluded  'the 
spacious  times  of  great  Elizabeth ' ;  they  were  the  forward 
link  in  our  literary  history.  But  there  were  also  poets 
suggesting  the  backward  link,  whose  literary  ancestors  may 
be  found  before  the  Conquest,  poets  belonging  to  districts 
of  England  where  the  old  English  spirit  lived  on  from  early 
times  and  was  predominant,  notwithstanding  other  in 
fluences.  This  school  had  its  home  in  the  West — along 
the  line  of  the  Welsh  Marches,  in  Lancashire,  Westmorland 
and  Cumberland,  well-nigh  to  the  Tweed  ;  and  it  is  clear 
that  in  these  regions  not  only  did  the  old  English  spirit 
survive  after  the  days  of  the  Conquest,  but  also  the  old 
English  alliterative  measure  was  at  no  time  wholly  forgotten, 
until  at  last  Langland  and  a  band  of  other  poets,  whose 
names  have  not  come  down  to  us,  revived  this  verse  as  an 
instrument  of  literary  expression.  In  these  West  Midland 
poets,  kinship  in  feeling  with  the  older  English  tradition 
predominated,  even  as  the  Norman  in  the  East  Midland 
poets.  It  was  not  merely  a  matter  of  vocabulary  and  versifi 
cation,  though  indeed  Chaucer  could  not  have  appreciated 
Langland's  poetry  at  its  proper  worth  '  right  for  strangness 
of  his  dark  langage,'  to  use  the  actual  words  of  an  East 
Midland  poet  concerning  another,  whose  '  manner  of  speech 
and  style'  pronounced  him  'of  the  West  country.'1  Lang- 

1  The  poet  in  question  was  Capgrave ;  see  Prologue  to  the  '  Life 
of  St.  Katherine,'  printed  in  Capgrave's  'Chronicle,'  edited  by  Sir 
E.  Maunde  Thompson,  Rolls  Series. 


land,  on  the  other  hand,  with  his  intensely  didactic  purpose, 
would  have  had  but  scant  sympathy  with  the  light-hearted 
and  genial  spirit  of  his  greater  contemporary. 

But  it  would  seem  that  there  arose  a  third  class  of  poets 
during  this  period,  whose  endeavour  was  to  harmonise 
these  diverse  elements  of  Old  and  New,  to  blend  the  archaic 
Teutonic  rhythm  with  the  measures  of  Romance  song.  We 
see  this  already  in  the  extant  remains  of  lyrical  poetry, 
especially  in  a  number  of  those  preserved  in  MS.  Harl.  2253, 
dating  from  some  years  before  the  middle  of  the  fourteenth 
century.  The  later  political  ballads  of  Minot  and  other 
fourteenth-century  poems  point  also  in  this  direction.  But 
I  can  name  no  sustained  piece  of  literature  at  all  comparable 
with  '  Pearl'  as  an  instance  of  success  in  reconciling  elements 
seemingly  so  irreconcilable.  The  poet  of  'Pearl'  holds,  as 
it  were,  one  hand  towards  Langland  and  one  towards 
Chaucer ;  as  poet  of  '  Sir  Gawain  and  the  Green  Knight/ 
he  was  the  direct  precursor  of  the  poet  of  the  '  Faerie 
Queene,'  and  helps  us  to  understand  the  true  significance 
of  Spenser  as  the  Elizabethan  poet  par  excellence.  *  Pearl ' 
stands  on  the  very  threshold  of  modern  English  poetry. 

The  Manuscript.— A  kindly  fate  has  preserved  this  poem 
from  oblivion ;  a  fate  that  has  saved  for  us  so  much  from 
the  wreckage  of  time.  Indeed,  the  Old  English  Muse  must 
have  borne  a  charmed  life,  surviving  the  many  ills  that 
ancient  books  were  heirs  to.  Our  knowledge  of  early 
English  literature  seems  almost  miraculous,  when  we  note 
that  so  many  extant  works  are  preserved  to  us  in  unique 
MSS.  '  Cotton  Nero  A.  x.,'  in  the  British  Museum,  is 
one  of  these  priceless  treasures.  Bound  up  with  a  dull 
'panegyrical  oration'  on  a  certain  John  Ched worth,  Arch 
deacon  of  Lincoln  in  the  fifteenth  century,  four  English 


poems  are  contained  in  this  small  quarto  volume,  each  of 
high  intrinsic  worth,  and  of  special  interest  to  the  student 
of  our  early  literature.  The  handwriting  of  the  poems, 
'  small,  sharp,  and  irregular,'  belongs  on  the  best  authority 
to  the  latter  years  of  the  fourteenth  century  or  the  early 
fifteenth.  There  are  neither  titles  nor  rubrics  in  the  MS.; 
but  the  chief  divisions  are  marked  by  large  initial  letters  of 
blue,  flourished  with  red,  and  several  illuminations,  coarsely 
executed,  serve  by  way  of  illustration,  all  but  one  occupying 
a  full  page.  The  difficulty  of  the  language  of  these  poems 
and  the  strangeness  of  the  script  are  no  doubt  answerable 
for  the  treatment  they  received  at  the  hands  of  the  old  cata 
loguers  of  the  Cottonian  collection ;  probably  few  modern 
scholars  before  Warton,  Conybeare,  and  Madden  knew 
more  of  the  poems  than  the  first  page  of  the  MS.,  and  from 
this  they  hastily  inferred  that  the  whole  was  a  continuous 
poem  '  in  Old  English,  on  religious  and  moral  subjects,'  or, 
'Vetus  poema  Anglicanum,  in  quo  sub  insomnii  figmento 
multa  ad  religionem  et  mores  spectantia  explicantur.'  An 
old  librarian,  who  attempted  a  transcription  of  the  first  four 
lines,  produced  the  following  result : 

1  Perle  pleasaunte  to  prynces  paye 
To  claulx  clos  in  gode  soeter, 
Oute  se  wyent  I  hardely  saye 
Ne  proved  I  never  her  precios  pere.' 

We  now  know  that  the  MS.  came  to  Sir  Robert  Cotton 
from  the  library  of  Henry  Savile,  of  Banke  in  Yorkshire 
(1568-1617),  a  great  collector,  who  secured  rich  spoils  from 
the  Northern  monasteries  and  abbeys.1  To  Madden 
belongs,  it  would  seem,  the  credit  of  having  shown  for  the 

1  See  Preface  to  '  Patience, '  ed.  Sir  I .  Gollancz,  (  Select  Early 
English  Poems.' 


first  time  that  these  earlier  describers  of  the  MS. 
had  confused  four  distinct  poems,1  and  since  his  days 
the  poems  have  received  increased,  though  by  no 
means  adequate,  attention  from  all  students  of  our 

The  Vision  and  the  Allegory.— The  first  of  the  four  poems, 
'  Pearl,3  tells  of  a  father's  grief  for  a  lost  child,  and  how  he 
was  comforted,  and  learnt  the  lesson  of  resignation. 

This  briefly  is  the  theme  of  the  poem  of  'Pearl.'  A 
fourteenth-century  poet,  casting  about  for  the  form  best 
suited  for  such  a  theme,  had  two  sources  of  inspiration.  On 
the  one  hand,  there  was  that  great  storehouse  of  'dream 
pictures,'  'The  Romaunt  of  the  Rose';  on  the  other,  the 
symbolic  pages  of  Scripture.  A  poet  of  the  Chaucer  school 
would  have  chosen  the  former,  and  the  lost  'Marguerite' 
would  have  suggested  an  allegory  of  the  '  flour  that  bereth 
our  alder  pris  in  figurynge,'  and  in  his  vision  the  '  Marguerite ' 
would  have  been  transfigured  as  the  type  of  truest  woman 
hood,  a  maiden  in  the  train  of  Love's  Queen,  Alcestis.  But 
the  cult  of  the  '  daisy '  seems  to  have  been  altogether  un 
known  to  our  poet,  or  at  least  to  have  had  no  attraction  for 
him ;  his  lost  '  Marguerite,'  a  beloved  child,  was  for  him  a 
lost  jewel,  a  pearl,  and  '  he  bethought  him  on  the  man  that 
sought  the  precious  Margarites,  and  when  he  had  founden 
one  to  his  liking,  he  solde  all  his  good  to  buy  that  Jewell.'  / 
The  basis  of  the  '  Vision '  is  this  verse  of  the  Gospel,  together  - 
with  the  closing  chapters  of  the  Apocalypse.  Mary,  the 
Queen  of  Heaven,  not  Alcestis,  Queen  of  Love,  reigns  in  the 
visionary  Paradise  that  the  poet  pictures  forth. 

The  Pearl  of  the  Gospel  was  a  favourite  allegorical  theme 

1  For  a  general  description  of  the  MS.,  see  'Syr  Gawayne,'  ed. 
Sir  F.  Madden,  1839. 


with  medieval  theologians,  but  rarely  with  the  poets.1  I 
know  of  but  one  piece  of  English  literature  other  than  this 
poem  in  which  it  figures  strikingly;  it  is  poetical  in  thought 
though  written  in  prose,  and  belongs  to  a  later  date  than 
our  poem.  I  allude  to  the  *  Testament  of  Love,'  a  rather 
crude  composition,  the  history  of  which  we  know  now  in 
relation  to  the  life  of  its  author,  Thomas  Usk,  who  was  a 
contemporary  and  clearly  a  disciple  of  Chaucer.2  It  is 
an  obvious  imitation  of  the  'Consolation  of  Philosophy'  of 
Boethius ;  but  in  allegorising  the  Grace  of  God  by  'a  precious 
Margaret ' — '  Margarete  of  virtue,'  for  whose  love  he  pines — 
the  author  may  perhaps  have  been  influenced  by  the  poem 
of  '  Pearl.'  Under  any  circumstances,  the  poem  gives  the 
prose  work  some  interest ;  the  'Testament'  shows  how  our 
poet  has  avoided  the  danger  of  being  over  mystical  in  the 
treatment  of  his  subject.  Where  the  poem  is  simple  and 
direct,  the  prose  is  everywhere  abstruse  and  vague,  and  Usk 
is  forced  to  close  his^  book  with  a  necessary  explanation  of 
his  allegory  : — 

'  Right  so  a  jewel  betokeneth  a  gemme,  and  that  is  a  stoon 
vertuous  or  els  a  perle,  Margarite,  a  woman,  betokeneth 
grace,  lerning,  or  wisdom  of  God,  or  els  Holy  Church.  If 
breed,  thorow  vertue,  is  mad  holy  flesshe, 'what  is  that  our 
God  sayth?  It  is  the  spirit  that  yeveth  lyf ;  the  flesshe,  of 
nothing  it  profiteth.  Flesshe  is  flesshly  understandinge ; 
flessh  without  grace  and  love  naught  is  worth.  The  letter 

1  In  the  really  fine  poem  called  '  A  Luue  Run,'  by  Thomas  de 
Hales  (O.  E.  Miscellany,  E.E.T.S.,  1882),  the  precious  gem-stone, 
maidenhood,  more  precious  than  any  earthly  gem,  is  dealt  with 
most  suggestively.     It  is  set  'in  Heaven's  gold/  and  shines  bright 
in  Heaven's  bower,  but  is  not  specified  as  the  pearl  (cp.  Note  on 


2  See  supplement  to  «  Works  of  Chaucer,'  ed.  Skeat,  Vol.  VII. 


sleeth  ;  the  spirit  yeveth  lyfelich  understanding.     Charite  is 
love,  and  love  is  charite. 

God  graunt  us  al  therin  to  be  Trended  ! 
And  thus  The  Testament  of  Love  is  ended.' 

It  is  not  my  purpose  to  deal  with  the  history  of  the  pearl 
as  treated  allegorically  from  far-off  times.1  To  do  so  would 
lead  me  into  studies  of  Oriental  mysticism  ;  but  there  can  be 
no  doubt  that  in  Hebrew  symbolism  the  soul  was  likened  to 
a  pearl,  the  '  muddy  vesture  of  decay '  being  regarded  as  the 
mere  shell,  or  as  the  precious  metal  in  which  the  jewel  was 

1  Perhaps  the  most  striking  mystical  poem  on  the  Pearl  is  the 
beautiful  gnostic  '  Hymn  of  the  Soul,'  attributed  to  the  Syrian  gnostic 
Bardaisan,  circa  A.D.  150.  Here  the  Pearl  '  lies  in  the  sea,  hard  by 
the  loud-breathing  Serpent.'  It  has  to  be  brought  by  the  King's 
son  to  the  House  of  his  Father's  Kingdom.  I  take  the  Pearl  in  the 
Hymn  to  be  symbol  of  purity  amid  the  defilements  of  the  world. 
Mr.  G.  R.  S.  Mead,  in  '  The  Hymn  of  the  Robe  of  Glory '  (London 
and  Benares,  1908),  gives  the  poem,  together  with  Bibliography, 
Comments,  and  Notes.  Mr.  Mead,  in  a  fascinating  article  in  '  The 
Quest,'  January  1913,  discussed  a  new-found  Manichean  Treatise, 
from  China,  translated  and  annotated  by  MM.  Ed.  Chavannes  and 
P.  Pelliot  ('Journal  Asiatique,'  November-December  1911).  It 
would  appear  probable  that  certain  gnostic  elements  link  this  work 
with  the  Hymn  attributed  to  Bardaisan.  Here  we  have  seven 
pearls  '  hidden  in  the  labyrinth  of  the  impure  city  of  the  Demon  of 
Lust.'  Also,  it  is  of  special  interest  that  the  precious  pearl  called 
'  moon-light,'  with  which  pity  and  compassion  are  compared,  is  'the 
first  among  all  jewels.' 

Dr.  R.  M.  Garrett  ('University  of  Washington  Publications,  IV, 
1918)  quotes  the  charming  letter  of  St.  Hilary  of  Poictiers  to  his 
twelve-year-old  daughter  Abra  (A.D.  358),  concerning  a  certain 
Prince  who  possesses  a  pearl  and  a  robe  of  priceless  value.  He 
tells  her  how  humbly  he  begged  the  gift  for  the  little  daughter  he 
so  tenderly  loved.  With  the  letter  he  sends  a  hymn  ;  she  is  to 
ask  her  mother  to  explain  both  letter  and  hymn. 

On    the    Pearl    in    Mystical    Literature,    cp.    also    Kunz   and 
Stevenson's  '  The  Book  of  the  Pearl'  (London,   1908). 


set.  '  It  is  meet,'  said  the  Cabbalistic  Rabbi,  *  a  man  should 
have  compassionate  regard  for  his  soul,  the  pure  pearl  which 
God  has  given  to  him,  for  it  is  not  proper  that  he  should 
defile  it,  but,  as  is  said  in  the  Talmud,  should  give  it  back  to 
God  pure  as  he  received  it' *•  The  Pearl  of  the  Gospel  links 
itself  to  this  fine  thought ;  and  our  poem  emphasises  this  same 
aspect  of  the  pearl  as  the  undefiled  spirit,  the  soul  of  the  child, 
reclaimed  by  the  Prince — the  Pearl  that  He  has  set  in  the 
radiant  gold  of  heaven,  transcending  its  earthly  setting  in  all 
the  grace  and  charm  of  child-beauty.  The  Pearl  has  now 
been  sundered  from  the  shell.  '  The  sowle  is  the  precious 
marguarite  vnto  God,'  the  good  Knight  of  La  Tour-Landry 
taught  his  daughters  in  his  book,  which,  as  I  have  attempted 
to  show  elsewhere,  seems  to  have  been  well  known  to  our 

The  Plan  of  the  Poem. — Distraught  with  grief  at  the  loss 
of  his  little  daughter,  the  poet,  prone  on  the  child's  grave, 
beholds  her  in  a  vision,  gloriously  transfigured.3  He  sees 
her  radiant,  clad  in  white,  her  surcoat  and  kirtle  broidered 
with  pearls,  and  on  her  head  a  pinnacled  crown,  her  hair 

1  From  the  late  Cabbalistic  work  Reshith  Chochmah,  III.  i.,  by 
Elias  de  Vidas,  who  notes  that  the  idea  of  the  soul  as  a  pearl  is 
in   the  Zohar,   a  medieval  Jewish  gnostic  work  containing  much 
ancient  lore.     I  owe  this  reference  to  the  Rev.   Morris  Joseph,  in 
whose  Judaism  in  Creed  and  Life  the  passage  is  alluded  to. 

2  See  Preface  to  'Cleanness'  (Select  Early  English  Poems). 

3  Nothing  that  has  been  written   attempting  to  prove  that  the 
poem  is  merely  an  allegory,  and  is  not  inspired  by  a  personal  grief, 
has  impressed  me  in  the  least  degree.     The  chief  exponent  of  this 
view  was  the  late  Professor  Schofield  ;  see  Appendix.     As  further 
illustration  of  the  personal  aspect  of  the  poem,  cp.  De  Quincey, 
on   the    death  of  little    Kate  Wordsworth,    who   died   aged  '  not 
above  three'  (De  Quincey's  Works,  ed.  Masson,   1896,  Vol.  II. 


loose  upon  her  shoulders,  while  '  a  wonder  pearl '  is  set  upon 
her  breast.  The  little  child,  as  the  very  embodiment  of 
Reason,  or  rather  of  Divine  Sapience,  disputes  with  the 
father  on  the  error  of  impious  grief,  and  explains  that  the 
whiteness  of  her  robe  and  the  crown  on  her  head  betoken 
her  bridal  as  Queen  of  Heaven,  and  that  though  she  has 
worked  but  little  in  the  vineyard  of  earth,  her  innocence  has 
given  her  the  like  reward  with  those  who  by  righteousness 
have  won  the  crown.  All  who  enter  the  realm  are  kings 
and  queens.  The  pearl  she  wears  is  the  token  of  the  bride's 
betrothal — a  token,  too,  of  Truce  with  God.  And  the  father 
is  begged  by  his  child  to  purchase  his  peace,  even  as  the 
merchant  of  the  Gospel,  having  found  one  pearl  of  price,  sold 
his  all  to  buy  it.  By  her  exposition  of  the  Parable  of  the 
Vineyard,  Pearl  explains  that,  little  child  as  she  was,  she 
reached  at  once  the  great  goal  of  queenship  in  the  court  of 
heaven,  where  Mary  reigns  as  Empress.  For  the  father 
it  would  have  sufficed  had  she  attained  the  state  of  countess, 
or  even  of  a  lady  of  less  degree.  But,  he  urges,  surely  she  and 
her  peers  dwell  in  some  great  manor  or  within  castle-walls. 
Could  he  not  behold  their  dwelling-place  ?  In  the  vision  the 
father  is  on  one  side  of  the  stream,  his  transfigured  child  on 
the  other,  and  she  tells  him  that  by  Divine  grace  he  is  to  be 
granted  a  sight  of  their  glorious  home.  She  bids  him  follow 
on  his  side,  while  she  shows  the  way  on  hers,  until  he  reaches 
a  hill.  Then,  as  the  seer  of  Patmos,  from  a  hill  he  beholds 
the  New  Jerusalem  descending  as  a  bride  from  heaven,  and 
the  City  of  God,  as  pictured  by  the  Apostle,  is  revealed  to 
him  in  all  its  glory  and  rich  radiance.1  Amid  the  golden 
splendour,  dazzling  as  the  light  of  the  sun,  suddenly  there 
appears  within  the  citadel  a  procession  of  maidens,  as  moons 
Cp.  Faerie  Queene,'  Book  I.  x. 



of  glory,  all  crowned  and  clad  in  self-same  fashion,  gentle  '  as 
modest  maids  at  Mass.'  And  lo,  among  them  he  beholds 
his  'little  queen,'  who  he  thought  had  stood  by  him  in  the 
glade.  The  sight  of  his  lost  Pearl  is  too  much  for  his  love- 
longing,  and  notwithstanding  the  earlier  warning  that  no 
one  living  could  pass  the  stream,  the  dreamer  dashes 
forward  to  plunge,  determined  to  cross.  The  movement 
wakes  him,  and  he  declares  that  the  lesson  of  resignation 
has  now  been  learnt. 

The  Poem  in  Relation  to  its  Main  Sources.  —  As  I  read  the 
poem,  it  seems  to  me  that  its  scheme  is  elaborated  from  the 
one  thought  of  the  transfiguration  of  the  child,  and  that 
the  poet  successively  explains  the  significance  of  the  spotless 
whiteness  of  her  attire,  of  the  regal  crown  she  wears,  of  the 
pearl  of  price  ;  and  then,  by  a  natural  culmination,  proceeds 
to  portray  the  heavenly  dwelling  —  the  New  Jerusalem. 

For  the  last,  he  naturally  paraphrased  Revelation  xxi.  and 
other  passages  from  the  Apocalypse  of  St.  John,  which  book 
indeed  inspired  his  whole  conception  of  the  mystical  bridal, 
—  'And  to  her  was  granted  that  she  should  be  arrayed  in 
fine  linen,  clean  and  white,'  Rev.  xix.  8.  Truly,  white  is 
almost  the  burden  of  the  poet's  description  of  the  maiden's 
robe,  her  kirtle  and  all  her  vesture,  her  crown,  and  the  pearls 
that  bedeck  her.  It  is  of  interest  to  contrast  this  emphasis 
on  '  white  '  with  the  more  direct  but  less  effective  reference, 

1  And  gode  faire  Whyte  she  hete, 
That  was  my  lady  name  right,'  1 

and  the  lines  which  follow,  in  which  Chaucer  appraises 
Blanche,  Duchess  of  Lancaster.  To  Chaucer  the  possi- 

1  '  Book  of  the  Duchess,'  948-9. 


bilities  of  the  name  with  reference  to  its  spiritual  significance 
were  hardly  present  ;  in  our  poet's  mind  the  text  is  uppermost 
concerning  those  '  which  have  not  defiled  their  garments ; 
and  they  shall  walk  with  me  in  white,  for  they  are  worthy,' 
Rev.  iii.  4. 

With  obvious  delight  in  pictorial  description,  the  poet 
depicts  the  white  surcoat,1  with  its  hanging  lappets,  after 
the  fashion  of  those  of  highest  degree,  and  leads  up  to  the 
crown,  with  its  whiteness  of  pearl  and  its  ornamentation  of 
flowers,  the  aureole  of  maidenhood.  In  the  Apocalypse  it  is 
the  Elders  that  have  on  their  heads  the  crowns  of  gold,  but 
the  coronation  of  the  Virgin  as  empress  of  heaven,  and  of 
the  brides  as  queens,  forms  a  very  integral  part  of  medieval 
homiletic  literature  as  of  medieval  art.2  The  allegorical 
interpretation  of  the  Song  of  Songs  in  relation  to  the  bridal 
of  the  Apocalypse  seems  to  have  influenced  this  idea  of  the 
crowning  :  *  Go  forth,  O  ye  daughters  of  Sion,  and  behold 
King  Solomon  with  the  crown  wherewith  his  mother  crowned 
him  in  the  day  of  his  espousals'  (Song  of  Solomon  iii.  n). 
A  like  crown  was  bestowed  upon  the  bride.3  '  Come  with 
me  from  Lebanon,  my  spouse,  with  me  from  Lebanon ' 
(iv.  8),  became  the  burden  of  the  mystical  Epithalamium. 
Thus  our  poet  applies  the  words  in  Stanza  Ixiv,  11.  763-4. 
So,  too,  in  '  Olympia '  we  have  '  De  Libano  nunc  sponsa  veni 
sacrosque  hymenaeos '  as  the  heavenly  songs  they  sing  ;  and 
in  the  '  Song  of  Great  Sweetness,'  belonging  to  the  early 
fifteenth  century,  there  is  the  same  application, — 'Veni  de 

1  The  surcoat  above  the  robe  had  probably  some  special  mystical 
significance.  So,  too,  in  the  '  Hymn  of  the  Soul '  there  is  the 
Purple  Mantle  over  the  Robe  of  Glory  (cp.  Mead,  p.  46). 

a  Cp.  Didron,  'Christian  Iconography,'  London,  1886. 

8  Cp.  Ezek.  xvi.  12.  ^"*-»— 


Libano  .  .  .  veni  coronaberis.' 1     The  main  portion  of  our 

poem  is  drawn  from  the  Parable  of  the  Vineyard  and  the 

Apocalypse,  and  is   the   amplification   of  the  Gospel  text 

r  concerning  the  Pearl  of  Price  in  its  twofold  application,  as 

A  typifym&  on  tne  one  hand  ideal  maidenhood,  that  is,  the  jewel 

^"N* above  rubies,'2  and  on  the  other  the  Kingdom  of  Heaven, 

(/the  Peace  of  God. 

•"  In  the  earlier  part  of  the  poem,  both  in  the  description  of 
the  spice-garden,  where  Pearl  is  at  rest,  and  in  the  visionary 
scenes  through  which  the  poet  passes  till  he  comes  to  the 
sundering  stream  beyond  which  he  sees  the  '  maiden  of 
mensk,'  he  is  haunted  by  the  dream-pictures  of  the  '  Romaunt 
of  the  Rose,'  and  even  Divine  Love  seems  to  the  bereft  father 
to  be  '  Luf-Daungere,'  that  is,  Love  the  Severer,  as  in 
the  Romaunt,  *  Daunger '  is  the  power  that  keeps  the  lover 
from  the  object  of  his  love.  And  Pearl,  as  portrayed  and 
in  her  utterance,  recalls  the  figure  of  Reason  drawn  by 
William  de  Lorris  (cp.  Chaucerian  version,  11.  3189-216). 
The  wells  joined  by  conduits,  in  the  garden  of  Sir  Mirth,  are 
very  directly  referred  to  by  our  poet  in  his  description  of 
the  country  of  his  dream.3  Thereafter,  the  Romaunt,  save 
for  a  few  slight  echoes,  gives  place  to  the  Scriptures.  The 
stream  is  not  the  artificial  conduit  of  the  Garden  of  the  Rose, 
but,  whatever  its  Biblical  source,  its  beauty  has  been  sug 
gested  by  the  river  in  the  Romaunt  described  before  the 
Lover  reached  the  garden. 

'  Et  pave 
Lefons  de  1'iaue  de  gravele,' 

1  Early  English  Text  Society,  Original  Series,  24,  ed.  Furnivall. 

2  The  marginal  reference  in  Matt.  xiv.  45-6  to  Proverbs  iii.  14-15 
indicates  this  application. 

3  See  note  on  11.  139-40. 


which  in  the  Chaucerian  rendering  is  as  follows, — 

*  paved  everydel 
With  gravel,  ful  of  stones  shene'  (11.  126-7) 

becomes  richly  transformed  in  '  Pearl ' ;  but  the  words  '  in 
)?e  founce3  betray  the  direct  source  of  the  lines, — 

'  In  )>e  founce  )>er  stonden  stone^  stepe, 
As  glente  )>ur3  glas  >at  glowed  &  gly3t,'  etc.  (11.  113  ff.). 

Metre,  Diction,  and  Style. — The  stanzaic  form  of  *  Pearl,' 
twelve  lines  with  four  accents,  rhymed  according  to  the 
scheme  ababababbcbc,  and  combining  rhyme  with  allitera 
tion,  may  have  been  used  by  previous  poets,  but  it  is 
difficult  to  say  whether  any  of  the  extant  poems  in  this 
metre,  which  seems  to  have  been  popular,  belong  to  a  date 
earlier  than  *  Pearl.' l  But  not  one  of  them  is  comparable 

1  The  metre  is  fairly  common ;  see  poems  in  Trans.  Phil.  Soc., 
1858,  ed.  Furnivall ;  'Political,  Religious  and  Love  Poems,'  ed. 
Furnivall,  E.E.T.S.  15;  'Hymns  to  the  Virgin  and  Christ,' ed. 
Furnivall,  E.E.T.S.  24  ;  'Twenty-six  Political  and  Other  Poems,' 
ed.  Kail,  E.E.T.S.  124.  Ten  Brink  was  of  opinion  that  'Pearl' 
was  modelled  on  the  'Song  of  Mercy '  (Trans.  Phil.  Soc.,  1858, 
p,  118),  but  there  is  no  evidence  in  favour  of  this,  nor  can  the 
date  be  fixed.  The  only  poem  in  this  metre  that  seems  to  give 
evidence  of  being  influenced  by  'Pearl'  is  'God's  Complaint.' 
'  Thou  art  an  vnkynde  omagere '  sounds  much  like  an  echo  of 
Pearl's  '  f>ou  art  no  kynde  jueler.'  Concerning  this  poem  and 
its  author,  Glassinbery,  and  the  similar  poem,  '  This  World  is 
Very  Vanity,' see  my  article  in  '  Athenaeum, '  March  29,  1902. 

The  earlier  alliterative  rhyming  poems  in  Harl.  MS.  2253,  though 
not  in  the.  same  form  as  '  Pearl,'  indicate  certain  points  in  common, 
and  have  similar  characteristics  as  regards  linking  and  alliteration. 

On  the  metrical  structure  of  the  poem,  see  article  by  Professor 
Clark  S.  Northup,  'Study  of  the  Metrical  Structure  of  The  Pearl? 
Publications  of  the  Modern  Language  Association  of  America,  XII. 
pp.  326-40.  This  article  seems  to  me  to  fail  by  reason  of  the  writer's 
assumption  in  respect  of  the  sounding  or  non-sounding  of  final  -is 


to  our  poem  in  rhythm,  beauty  of  well-defined  caesura, 
and  dignity  of  movement.  There  are  in  'Pearl'  101  such 
stanzas.  These  divide  again  into  twenty  sections,  each 
consisting  of  five  stanzas,  having  the  same  refrain ;  section 
fifteen  is  exceptional,  with  six  stanzas.  Throughout  the 
poem  the  last  or  main  word  of  the  refrain  is  caught  up  in 
the  first  line  of  the  next  stanza.1  Finally,  the  last  line  of 
the  poem  re-echoes  the  first,  and  rounds  the  whole. 

through  not  giving  sufficient  recognition  to  the  trisyllabic  character 
of  the  metre  of  the  poem.  An  examination  of  the  rhyming  words 
goes  far,  in  my  opinion,  to  prove  that  the  dialect  in  respect  of  the 
final  -e  is  artificial,  for  -e's  obviously  mute  at  the  end  are  in  many 
cases  distinctly  syllabic  within  the  line.  Nor  do  I  agree  that  the 
great  number  of  words  in  which  final  -e  is  written  but  unsounded, 
as  compared  with  the  few  which  sound  an  -e  not  written,  tends  to 
confirm  the  theory  of  Fick  and  Knigge  that  the  copyist  of  the 
MS.  spoke  Sth.  or  S.W.  M.  In  the  case  of  so  late  a  MS.  as  Cotton 
Nero  A.  x.  the  conventional  writing  of  the  final  -e  would  prove 

In  my  present  text  I  have  supplied  the  syllabic  -<?'s  within  the 
line  necessary  for  the  minimum  metrical  requirement  in  the  follow 
ing  cases:  11.  17,  51,  72,  122,  225,  286,  381,  486,  564,  586,  635, 
678,  683,  825,  912,  999,  looo,  1004,  1036,  1041,  1076.  Professor 
Osgood  considers  these  irregularities  as  perfectly  natural  in  a  poet 
whose  usual  medium  is  the  alliterative  long  line,  and  therefore  re 
tains  the  MS.  readings,  to  the  detriment,  in  my  view,  of  the  metrical 
effect  of  the  poem.  The  omission  of  some  twenty  -e's  is  a  very  small 
proportion  in  a  poem  of  1212  lines,  and  it  is  noteworthy  that  a  large 
proportion  of  the  words  in  question  end  in  consonant  combinations, 
of  which  the  first  is  often  r,  or  other  voiced  continuant.  As  regards 
1.  709,  the  line  as  in  the  MS.  seems  to  indicate  a  monosyllabic  foot 
at  the  beginning  of  the  line  and  after  the  csesura  ;  but  '  so '  was 
probably  omitted  by  the  scribe  after  'quo';  cp.  '  quat  so,'  1.  566. 
With  reference  to  1.  990,  the  only  line  mentioned  by  Northup  in 
which  the  unstressed  syllable  is  lacking,  see  my  Note. 

1  On  the  stanza-linking,  cp.  'The  Romanic  Review,'  arts,  by 
Margaret  Medary  and  A.  C.  L.  Brown  ;  Vol.  VII.  pp.  243,  271. 


While  alliteration  is  used  effectively  by  the  poet,  he  does 
not  attempt  to  employ  it  rigidly,  or  sacrifice  thereto  either 
thought  or  feeling. 

I  can  point  to  no  direct  source  to  which  the  poet  of 
'  Pearl '  was  indebted  for  his  measure ;  that  it  belongs  to 
French  or  Provengal  poetry,  I  have  little  doubt.  These 
twelve-line  stanzas  seem  to  me  to  resemble,  in  effect,  the 
earliest  form  of  the  sonnet  more  than  anything  else  I 
have  as  yet  discovered.  Perhaps  students  may  find  '  a 
billow  of  tidal  music  one  and  whole'  in  the  'octave,3  and 
in  the  closing  quatrain  of  the  verse  the  'ebbing'  of  the 
sonnet's  '  sestet.'  It  is  noteworthy  that  the  earliest  extant 
sonnet,  that  of  Pier  delle  Vigne,  for  a  knowledge  of  which 
we  are  indebted  to  J.  A.  Symonds,  has  the  same  arrange 
ment  of  rhymes  in  its  octave  as  the  stanzas  of '  Pearl,'  viz., 
abababab.  Be  this  as  it  may,  all  will,  I  hope,  recognise 
that  there  is  a  distinct  gain  in  giving  to  the  101  stanzas  of 
the  poem  the  appearance  of  a  sonnet  sequence,  marking 
clearly  the  break  between  the  initial  octave  and  the  closing 
quatrain.  In  the  MS.  there  is  no  such  indication.  When 
'  Pearl '  was  written,  the  sonnet  was  still  foreign  to  English 
literature  ;  the  poet,  if  he  knew  of  this  form,  wisely  chose 
as  its  counterpart  a  measure  less  '  monumental,'  and  more 
suited  for  lyrical  emotion.  The  refrain,  the  repetition  of 
the  catch-word  of  each  verse,  the  trammels  of  alliteration, 
all  seemed  to  have  offered  no  difficulty  ;  and  as  far  as  power 
over  technical  trammels  contributes  to  poetic  greatness, 
the  author  of  '  Pearl '  must  take  high  rank  among  English 

To  judge  by  the  result,  our  poet  seems  to  have  discovered 
the  artistic  form  best  suited  for  his  subject.  With  a  rich 
vocabulary  at  his  command,  consisting,  on  the  one  hand, 


of  alliterative  phrases,  '  native  mother- words,'  derived  from 
his  local  dialect,  in  which  English,  French,  and  Scandinavian 
elements  were  strikingly  blended,  and  on  the  other  hand, 
of  words  and  allusions  due  to  knowledge  of  Latin  and 
French  literature,  he  succeeded  in  producing  a  series  of 
stanzas  so  simple  in  syntax,  so  varied  in  rhythmical  effect, 
now  lyrical,  now  epical,  never  undignified,  as  to  leave  the 
impression  that  no  form  of  metre  could  have  been  more 
suitably  chosen  for  this  elegiac  theme. 

It  has  been  alleged  that  the  diction  of  the  poem  is  faulty 
in  too  great  copiousness.  On  the  contrary,  the  richness  of 
its  vocabulary  seems  to  me  one  of  its  special  charms,  and 
this  might  be  well  illustrated  by  comparing  such  a  section 
of  the  poem  as  the  Parable  of  the  Vineyard  with  the 
earlier  poetical  version  of  the  same  parable  in  MS.  Harl. 
2253,  or  with  the  Wycliffite  prose  version. 

Imagery. — The  wealth  and  brilliancy  of  the  poet's  descrip 
tions  have  been  the  subject  of  criticism.  But  surely  this 
richness  is  what  one  would  expect  in  a  poem,  the  inspiration 
of  which  is  mainly  derived  from  the  visionary  scenes  of  the 
Apocalypse,  with  its  pictorial  phantasies,  and  the  '  Roman 
de  la  Rose,'  with  its  personifications  and  allegory.  The  poet's 
fancy  revels  in  the  richness  of  the  heavenly  and  the  earthly 
paradise,  but  it  is  subordinated  to  his  earnestness  and  inten 
sity.  The  heightened  style  of  'Pearl'  responds,  moreover, 
to  the  poet's  own  genius  for  touching  vividly  his  dream- 
pictures  with  rich  imagery  and  bright  colour.  The  wealth 
and  brilliancy  pervading  'Pearl'  may  still  delight  those 
theorists  who  seek  in  our  literature  that  '  fairy  dew  of  natural 
magic,'  which  is  supposed  to  be  the  peculiar  gift  of  the 
Celtic  genius,  and  which  can  be  discovered  as  'the  sheer 
inimitable  Celtic  note'  in  English  poetry.  It  would,  I 


think,  be  fair  to  say  that  the  Apocalypse  has  had  a  special 
fascination  for  the  poet  because  of  its'  almost  Romantic 
fancy,  and  that  he  has  touched  certain  scenes  of  the  book 
with  a  brilliancy  of  colour  and  richness  of  description 
altogether  foreign  to  the  Germanic  strain  of  our  literature. 
'  Pearl '  finds  its  truest  counterpart  in  the  delicate  miniatures 
of  medieval  missals,  steeped  in  richest  colours  and  bright 
with  gold,  and  it  is  just  those  scenes  of  the  Apocalypse 
which  the  old  miniaturists  loved  to  portray,  one  might  better 
say  lived  to  portray,  that  seemed  to  have  been  uppermost 
in  our  poet's  mind, — such  favourite  themes  as,  '  I  looked, 
and  behold,  a  door  was  opened  in  heaven,5  which  gave 
special  scope  to  medieval  artists.  On  the  title-page  of 
this  book  will  be  found  an  imprint  from  one  of  these  old 
miniatures  ;  it  is  part  of  an  illustration  to  the  verse  just 
quoted,  and  may  well  apply  to  our  poet, 

*  Falling  with  his  weight  of  cares 
Upon  the  world's  great  altar-stairs.' 

The  Poet's  Sources:  (i)  The  Bible;  (2)  The  Roman  de  la 

Rose. — The  poet's  main  sources  of  inspiration  were,  as 
already  indicated,  the  Bible  and  the  '  Roman  de  la  Rose,' 
that  secular  Bible  of  medieval  poets.  The  latter  pervades 
his  fancy,  and  influences  thought,  diction,  and  imagery, 
while,  when  once  he  has  chosen  as  his  theme  the  Pearl  of 
the  Gospel  and  the  problem  of  the  Parable  of  the  Vineyard, 
the  former  dominates  his  whole  conception.  Whatever 
theological  questions  may  be  enunciated  in  the  course 
of  the  poem,  '  Pearl '  is  to  my  mind,  without  a  doubt,  an 
elegiac  poem  expressive  of  personal  grief,  a  poet's  lament 
for  the  loss  of  his  child,  and  in  its  treatment  transcends 
the  scholastic  and  theological  discussions  of  the  time. 


The  Question  of  Boccaccio's  'Olympia,'  and  Dante. — An 

attempt  has  been  made  to  demonstrate  that  'Pearl'  is 
merely  allegorical  and  theological,  but  this  view  ignores 
or  fails  to  recognise  the  personal  touches  whereby  the 
poem  soars  above  all  theological  questions,  and  makes  its 
^simple  and  direct  appeal  to  the  human  heart.  It  is  of 
great  interest  that,  soon  after  1358,  some  years  before 
'Pearl,'  Boccaccio  wrote  an  elegy  on  his  young  daughter 
Violante — the  Latin  Eclogue  '  Olympia.'  There  is  no  clear 
evidence  that  this  most  charming  of  Boccaccio's  shorter 
poems'  was  known  to  our  poet,  or  was  one  of  his  sources  of 
inspiration.  'Olympia,'  however,  may  well  be  considered 
as  a  companion  poem,  of  the  highest  interest  and  fascination 
both  intrinsically  and  for  the  purposes  of  comparative  study. 
Accordingly,  the  Latin  text,  with  a  translation,  is  included 
in  the  present  volume,  together  with  a  brief  introductory 
study  of  its  history  and  the  question  of  its  relation  to  '  Pearl.' 

I  can  trace  no  direct  influence  of  Dante  on  our  poet, 
though  parallels  may  be  found,  both  in  the '  D  ivina  Commedia ' 
and  the  'Vita  Nuova,'  as  regards  conception,  imagery,  and 
description.  However  striking  the  similarities  may  appear, 
these  parallels  are  due,  in  my  opinion,  to  similar  thought, 
and  to  the  common  methods  of  medieval  mysticism.  It 
cannot  be  proved  that  our  poet  was  acquainted  with  the 
writings  of  the  greatest  mind  of  the  medieval  age.  Yet 
again,  it  is  not  without  profit  for  the  student  of  'Pearl' 
to  re-rea4  the  Divine  Comedy  and  the  New  Life,  and  to 
recognise( Pearl's  spiritual  kinship  to  Dante's  Beatrice. 

The  Poet  and  English  Writers. — The  author  was  no  doubt 
acquainted  with  English  poets,  his  contemporaries  and 
predecessors.  He  would  have  been  attracted  to  the  writings 
of  Hampole  and  other  mystics,  and  also  to  the  English 


homilies  on  Holy  Maidenhood,1  the  English  legends  of 
Saints,  especially  those  dealing  with  St.  Margaret.  He 
was  a  disciple  of  the  alliterative  poets.  As  regards  Chaucer, 
I  can  discover  no  trace  of  influence.  The  '  Book  of  the 
Duchess,'  which  is  adduced  as  a  source  of  inspiration,  is 
but  another  elegiac  poem  belonging  to  the  same  genre  as 
4  Pearl.'  That  Chaucer  should  refer  to  Blanche  as  the 
Phoanix  of  Araby,  and  that  the  poet  of  *  Pearl '  applies 
the  same  term  to  the  Virgin  Mary,  cannot  be  taken  seriously 
as  evidence  of  direct  influence  ;  and  so,  too,  with  other 
medieval  conventional  phrases  or  ideas  common  to  the  two 

We  know  from  his  other  poems  that  he  was  acquainted 
with  French  contemporary  literature,  the  romances  of 
chivalry,  and  Mandeville's  Travels.  In  'Pearl'  so  far  we 
have  not  succeeded  in  finding  any  traces  of  the  influence 
of  this  secular  literature,  though  perhaps  in  such  a  charming 
touch  as  we  find  in  11.  489-92, 

'As  countess,  damosel,  par  ma  fay, 
'Twere  fair  in  heaven  to  hold  estate, 
Or  as  a  lady  of  lower  degree, 
But  Queen, — it  is  too  high  a  goal,' 

we  have  a  note  suggestive  of  a  writer  who  would  have  been 
specially  interested  in  the  higher  social  life  depicted  in 
romances  of  courtesy  and  chivalry. 

The  MS.  Illustrations  of  the  Poems. — The  pictorial  character 
of  his  poem  could  not  have  escaped  the  poet.  The  unique 
MS.  of  'Pearl'  contains  four  crude  illustrations  depicting 

1  Compare  especially  the  thirteenth-century  alliterative  homily, 
'  HaH  Meidenhad,'  ed.  Cockayne,  E.E.T.S.,  1866,  which  on  p.  22 
strikingly  illustrates  certain  passages  of  the  poem,  see  Note  on  11. 
205,  1 1 86. 


its  chief  episodes.  In  the  first,  the  author  is  represented 
slumbering  in  a  meadow,  by  the  side  of  a  beflowered  mound 
(not  a  stream,  as  has  been  said),  clad  in  a  long  red  gown 
with  falling  sleeves,  turned  up  with  white,  and  a  blue 
hood  attached  round  the  neck.  Madden  and  others  who 
have  described  the  illustrations  have  not  noticed  that  there 
are  wings — 'wings  of  fancy' — attached  to  the  shoulders  of 
the  dreamer,  and  a  cord  reaching  up  into  the  foliage  above, 
evidently  intended  to  indicate  that  the  spirit  has  '  sped  forth 
into  space.'  In  the  second,  the  same  figure  appears,  drawn 
on  a  larger  scale,  and  standing  by  a  river.  In  the  third,  he 
is  again  represented  in  a  similar  position,  with  his  hands 
raised,  and  on  the  opposite  side  is  Pearl,  dressed  in  white, 
in  the  costume  of  the  time  of  Richard  the  Second  and 
Henry  the  Fourth  ;  her  dress  is  buttoned  tight  up  to  the  neck, 
and  on  her  head  is  a  crown.  In  the  fourth,  the  author  is 
kneeling  by  the  water,  and  beyond  the  stream  is  depicted  a 
castle  or  palace,  on  the  embattled  walls  of  which  Pearl  again 
appears,  with  her  arm  extended  towards  him.  I  had  the 
good  fortune  to  induce  my  ever-revered  friend,  the  late 
W.  Holman  Hunt,  to  give  Pearl  a  place  in  the  history  of 
English  art,  and  by  way  of  contrast  to  the  illustrations  of 
the  MS.,  now  reproduced,  the  portrayal  of  the  poet's  theme 
as  conceived  by  the  greatest  of  modern  Pre-Raphaelites  is 
given  as  frontispiece  to  the  present  volume. 

Two  illustrations  follow  after  the  pages  of  '  Pearl ;  ;  they 
are  evidently  intended  to  represent  respectively  Noah  and 
his  family  in  the  Ark,  and  the  prophet  Daniel  expounding 
the  writing  on  the  wall  to  the  affrighted  Belshazzar  and  his 
queen.  It  is  clear  that  these  have  nothing  to  do  with  the 
subject  of  '  Pearl ' ;  they  belong  to  a  second  poem,  written 
in  a  distinctly  different  metre,  the  short  lines  of  '  Pearl ' 


giving  place  to  longer  lines,  alliterative  and  rhymeless.  The 
subject  of  the  poem  is  its  first  word,  '  Cleanness,'  and  it 
relates  in  epic  style  the  lessons  of  the  Flood,  the  fall  of 
Sodom  and  Gomorrah,  Belshazzar's  fate,  in  order  to 
exemplify  the  Divine  resentment  that  visits  the  impenitent 
who  are  guilty  of  faults  of  '  Uncleanness.'  A  prelude  on 
the  parable  of  the  Marriage  Feast  precedes,  and  by  way  of 
illustrating  Divine  moderation,  the  Fall  of  the  Angels  and 
the  Fall  of  Man  are  briefly  handled. 

In  the  MS.  two  new  pictures  precede  what  is  obviously 
a  third  poem.  The  medieval  artist  is  evidently  representing 
episodes  in  the  life  of  Jonah.  The  poem  is  a  metrical 
rendering  of  the  story  of  Jonah,  and  is  in  the  same  metre  as 
'  Cleanness '  ;  the  subject,  too,  is  indicated  by  its  first  word, 

It  is  noteworthy  that  both  these  alliterative  poems,  though 
rhymeless,  are  intentionally  written  in  quatrains,  and  the 
recognition  of  this  device  is  necessary  for  their  right 
understanding  and  appreciation. 

Links  with  *  Cleanness '  and  '  Patience.'— These  two  poems, 
'  Cleanness '  and  *  Patience,'  may  actually  be,  or  may  well 
be  regarded  as  pendants  to  '  Pearl,'  dwelling  more  definitely 
on  its  two  main  themes — purity  and  submission  to  the 
Divine  will.  The  link  that  binds  'Cleanness'  to  'Pearl'  is 
unmistakable.  The  significance  of  the  pearl  is  dwelt  on  as 
symbol  of  the  purified  spirit : — 

'  How  can'st  thou  approach  His  court  save  thou  be  clean  ?  .  .   . 
Through  shrift  thou  may'st  shine,  though  thou  hast  served  shame  ; 
Thou  may'st  become  pure  through  penance,  till  thou  art  a  pearl. 

The  pearl  is  praised  wherever  gems  are  seen, 
Though  it  be  not  the  dearest  by  way  of  merchandise. 
Why  is  the  pearl  so  prized,  save  for  its  purity, 
That  wins  praise  for  it  above  all  white  stones  ? 


It  shineth  so  bright,  it  is  so  round  of  shape, 
Without  fault  or  stain,  if  it  be  truly  a  pearl. 
It  becometh  never  the  worse  for  wear, 
Be  it  ne'er  so  old,  if  it  remain  but  whole. 

If  by  chance  'tis  uncared  for  and  becometh  dim, 
Left  neglected  in  some  lady's  bower, 
Wash  it  worthily  in  wine,  as  its  nature  requireth  : 
It  becometh  e'en  clearer  than  ever  before. 

So  if  a  mortal  be  defiled  ignobly, 

Yea,  polluted  in  soul,  let  him  seek  shrift ; 

He  may  purify  him  by  priest  and  by  penance, 

And  grow  brighter  than  beryl  or  clustering  pearls.' 

'  One  speck  of  a  spot  may  deprive  us  even 
Of  the  Sovereign's  sight  who  sitteth  on  high.  .  .   . 

As  the  bright  burnished  beryl  ye  must  be  clean, 

That  is  wholly  sound  and  hath  no  flaw; 

Be  ye  stainless  and  spotless  as  a  margery  pearl.' 

('Cleanness,'  11.  mo,  1115-32,  551-2,  554-6.) 

Similarly,  it  would  be  an  easy  matter  to  point  out  links 
that  bind  together  the  poems  of  '  Cleanness'  and  *  Patience.' 
We  find  in  each  of  them  the  same  didactic  purpose,  the 
same  strength  of  descriptive  power,  the  same  delight  in 
nature,  more  especially  when  agitated  by  storm  and  tempest, 
the  same  rich  gift  of  expression,  and  the  same  diction  and 
rhythm.  But  if  there  were  any  question  of  the  identity  of 
authorship,  the  descriptions  of  the  Deluge  from  '  Cleanness ' 
and  of  the  sea-storm  which  overtook  Jonah  from  *  Patience ' 
would,  I  think,  be  almost  adequate  proof;  the  writer  of  the 
one  was  most  certainly  the  writer  of  the  other. 

*  Pearl'  and  'Sir  Gawain.' —  A  fourth  poem  follows 
'  Cleanness  '  and  '  Patience '  in  the  MS.  As  one  turns  the 
leaves,  it  becomes  clear  at  a  glance  that  the  metre  of  the 
poem  is  a  combination  of  the  epic  alliterative  measure  and 


the  rhyming  verse  of  romances  of  the  '  Sir  Thopas '  type ; 
for  a  lyrical  burden,  introduced  by  a  short  line  of  one  accent, 
and  rhyming  according  to  the  scheme  ababa,  breaks  the 
sequence  of  the  unrhymed  alliterative  lines  at  irregular 
intervals,  producing  the  effect  of  stanzas  averaging  some 
twenty  lines. 

The  poem  is  illustrated  much  in  the  same  way  as  those 
that  precede  it,  the  scriptural  pictures  yielding  to  scenes  of 
medieval  romance.  In  the  first  a  headless  knight  on  horse 
back  carries  his  head  by  its  hair  in  his  right  hand,  looking 
benignly  at  an  odd-eyed  bill-man  before  him  ;  while  from  a 
raised  structure  above  him  a  king  armed  with  a  knife,  his 
queen,  an  attendant  with  a  sabre,  and  another  bill-man  look 
on.  Three  other  illustrations,  dealing  with  various  episodes 
of  the  poem,  are  added  at  the  end.  One  of  them  represents 
a  stolen  interview  between  a  lady  and  a  knight.  Above  the 
picture  is  written  the  following  couplet : 

'  Mi  mind  is  mukel  on  on,  that  will  me  noght  amende, 
Sum  time  was  trewe  as  ston,  and  fro  schame  couthe  her  defende.' 

The  couplet  has  proved  a  crux.  '  It  does  not  appear,' 
wrote  Sir  Frederick  Madden,  'how  these  lines  apply  to  the 
painting  ' ;  Dr.  Morris  quoted  the  remark  without  comment. 
We  shall  see  the  possible  value  of  the  cryptic  lines  later  on, 
But  first  concerning  the  subject  of  the  poem.  It  is  the 
well-known  romance  of  Sir  Gawain  and  the  Green  Knight, — 
the  weird  adventure  that  befell  Sir  Gawain,  the  son  of  Loth 
and  nephew  of  King  Arthur,  the  favourite  hero  of  medieval 
romance,  popular  more  especially  in  the  west  and  northern 
parts  of  England,  where  in  all  probability  traditions  of  the 
knight  lived  on  from  early  times.  The  English  Gawain 
literature  of  the  fourteenth  century,  though  for  the  most  part 


derived  from   French   originals,   betrays   on    all   sides  the 

writers'    eagerness  to  satisfy  popular   enthusiasm  for  the 

hero's   ideal   character.     Sir   Gawain   was   indeed    the  Sir 
Calydore  of  Spenser's  fourteenth-century  precursor, — 

'  beloved  over  all, 

In  whom  it  seems  that  gentlenesse  of  spright 
And  manners  mylde  were  planted  natural!, 
To  which  he  adding  comely  guise  withall 
And  gracious  speech  did  steal  men's  hearts  away. 
Nathless  thereto  he  was  full  stout  and  tall, 
And  well  approved  in  batteilous  affray, 
That  did  him  much  renovvne,  and  far  his  fame  display.' 

The  fourteenth-century  poets  of  the  West  and  North  of 
England  regarded  Gawain,  '  the  falcon  of  the  month  of  May,3 
as  the  traditional  embodiment  of  all  that  was  chivalrous  and 
knightly.  The  depreciation  of  the  hero  in  later  English 
literature  was  doubtless  due  to  the  direct  influence  of  one 
particular  class  of  French  romances,  and  it  is  from  these 
very  romances  that  modern  Englishmen  ultimately  derive 
their  view  of  Gawain's  character.  'Light  was  Gawain  in 
life,  and  light  in  death,'  is  the  thought  that  rises  now  in 
every  English  mind  at  mention  of  the  hero's  name.  I  know 
but  one  passage  in  the  whole  of  early  English  poetry  where 
the  knight  is  similarly  characterised  ;  it  is  significantly  by 
an  East  Midland  poet,  probably  the  last  of  English  men  of 
letters  to  write  in  Anglo-French.  In  one  of  his  Anglo-French 
ballades  the  'moral'  Gower,  singing  in  praise  of  truest 
constancy,  declares  : 

(  Cil  qui  tout  ditz  change  sa  fortune, 
Et  ne  voet  estre  en  un  soul  lieu  certein 
Om  le  poet  bien  resembler  a  Gawein, 
Courtois  d!  amour,  mais  il  fuist  trap  volage.' 

During  the  second  half  of  the  fourteenth  century  there 


was  special  activity  in  the  western  districts  of  England  in 
the  making  of  Gawain  romances,  the  poets  vying  with  each 
other  in  their  glorification  of  the  hero. 

The  Arthurian  literature  of  the  reign  of  Edward  III.  may 
well  be  considered  in  relation  to  that  monarch's  attempt  to 
revive  at  Windsor  some  of  the  glories  of  Camelot,  and  the 
present  poem  may  be  in  some  way  suggested  by  the  Order 
of  the  Garter,  or  connected  with  the  bestowal  of  the  Order 
upon  some  noble,  in  honour  of  whom  Gawain  was  depicted 
with  such  obvious  enthusiasm  on  the  part  of  the  poet.  It  is 
noteworthy  that  at  the  end  of  the  MS.  of  the  romance  a 
somewhat  later  hand  has  written  the  famous  legend  of  the 
Order : 

'  Hony  soit  qui  mal  penc.' 

There  is,  moreover,  stronger  confirmation  of  this  aspect 
of  the  poem.  A  later  poet,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  a 
ballad  of  *  The  Green  Knight,' — a  rifacimento  of  this  romance, 
or  of  some  intermediate  form  of  it, — has  used  the  same  story 
to  account  for  the  origin  of  another  Order.  Evidently  aware 
of  its  original  application,  but  wishing  to  make  his  ballad 
topical,  he  ends  it  with  the  following  reference  to  the 
Knighthood  of  the  Bath,  then  newly  instituted : 

'  All  the  Court  was  full  faine 
Alive  when  they  saw  Sir  Gawain, 

They  thanked  God  abone  ; 
That  is  the  matter  and  the  case, 
Why  Knights  of  the  Bath  wear  the  lace, 

Until  they  have  wonnen  their  shoon. 

Or  else  a  ladye  of  high  estate 
From  about  his  necke  shall  it  take 

For  the  doughtye  deeds  that  hee  hath  done  ; 
It  was  confirmed  by  Arthur  the  King, 
Thorow  Sir  Gawain's  desiringe, 

The  King  granted  him  his  boone.' 
c  2 



This  theory  gives  us,  at  all  events,  a  terminus  a  quo  for 
the  date  of  the  romance  of  Gawain ;  it  must  belong  to  some 
year  later  than  1345,  the  probable  date  of  the  foundation  of 
the  Order  of  the  Garter.  Language,  diction,  thought,  rhythm, 
power  of  description,  moral  teaching,  vividness  of  fancy, 
artistic  consciousness,  and  love  of  nature,  all  link  this  most 
remarkable  Spenserian  romance  to  '  Pearl,3  '  Cleanness,'  and 
1  Patience' ;  and  for  a  right  understanding  of  the  poet  and  his 
work  the  four  poems  must  be  treated  together.  The  relation 
that  they  bear  to  one  another,  as  regards  time  of  composition, 
cannot  be  definitely  determined. 

Probable  Date. — There  is  no  definite  evidence  for  the 
date  of  '  Pearl.'  General  considerations  of  language  point 
to  the  second  half  of  the  fourteenth  century.  In  view,  how 
ever,  of  evidence  adduced  by  me  enabling  us  to  fix  1373 
as  the  earliest  date  for  '  Cleanness,' 1  it  may  be  safe  to  accept 
about  1370  as  the  date  of  composition  of  'Pearl,'  if  we  are 
right  in  assuming  that  the  elegy  preceded  the  homily. 
'Patience'  and  'Cleanness'  must  certainly  belong  to  about 
the  same  time.  The  workmanship  and  skill  of  '  Gawain,'  to 
say  nothing  of  its  tone  and  pervading  spirit,  are  so  trans 
cendent  as  to  make  it  difficult  for  one  to  assign  the  poem  to 
a  date  at  all  near  that  of  '  Cleanness '  and  '  Patience/  unless 
we  have  here  an  instance  of  an  early  achievement  of  a  poet's 
genius  which,  for  some  cause  or  other  affecting  its  buoyancy, 
joy  in  life,  and  enthusiasm  for  romance,  failed  to  maintain 
its  power.  On  the  whole,  I  am  at  present  inclined  to  the 
view  that  a  long  period  intervened  between  the  homiletic 
poems  and  the  matured  excellence  of  '  Gawain.'  Yet  again 
in  this  poem  we  have  a  striking  reference  to  the  pearl : 

1  See  Preface  to  '  Cleanness.' 


'  As  perle  bi  )>e  quite  pese  is  of  prys  more, 
So  is  Gawayn,  in  god  fayth,  bi  o]>er  gay  kny3te3,' — 

'as   the  pearl  is  of  greater  price  than  white  pease,  so  is 
Gawain,  in  good  faith,  than  other  gay  knights.' 

Huehown  and  the  Alliterative  Poems.— And  who  was 
the  poet  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  these  remarkable 
poems?  The  question  must  still  remain  unanswered. 
Unfortunately  no  tradition  concerning  their  authorship  has 
come  down  to  us,  and  no  definite  link  has  as  yet  been  dis 
covered  connecting  the  poems  with  any  name.  Some  fifty 
years  back,  Dr.  Guest,  the  historian  of  English  Rhythms, 
set  up  a  claim  for  a  Scotch  poet,  Huehown  by  name,  but 
this  claim  cannot  stand  the  test  of  philological  analysis,  in 
spite  of  any  circumstantial  evidence  in  its  favour.  The  story 
of  Huchown's  supposed  connection  with  the  poems  is  an 
interesting  piece  of  literary  history.  Andrew  of  Wyntown,  in 
his  'Orygynale  Cronykil'of  Scotland,  written  at  the  end  of 
the  fourteenth  century,  mentions  a  poet,  Huehown  of  the 
'  Awle  Ryale,'  who,  in  his  '  Gest  Hystoriale,' 

'  Called  Lucius  Hiberius  Emperoure, 
When  King  of  Britain  was  Arthoure.' 

The  chronicler  excuses  the  poet,  for  the  mistake  was  not 
originally  his,  and  adds  enthusiastically  : 

'  men  off  gud  dyscretyowne 
Suld  excuse  and  love  Huchowne, 
That  cunnand  was  in  literature. 
He  made  the  gret  Geste  of  Arthure 
And  the  Awntyre  of  Gawane, 
The  Pystyll  als  offSwete  Susane. 
He  wes  curyws  in  his  style, 
Fayre  off  fecund,  and  subtylle, 


And  ay  to  plesans  and  delyte 
Made  in  metyre  mete  his  dyte, 
Lytil  or  nocht  nevyrtheles 
Waverand  fra  the  suthfastnes.' 

Huchown  was  therefore  the  author  of  an  'Adventure  of 
Gawain.'  Is  the  poem  referred  to  identical  with  the  'Gawain ' 
poem  described  above,  the  romance  written  by  the  author  of 
*  Pearl '  ?  Most  certainly  not.  The  '  Pystyll  of  Susan '  men 
tioned  by  Wyntown  is  extant ;  all  are  agreed  in  regarding  it 
as  Huchown's  work  :  it  is  a  rhyming  poem,  and  therefore  of 
special  worth  as  a  criterion  of  dialect.  The  result  of  a  com 
parative  study  of  this  poem  and  of  'Pearl'  proves  conclusively 
that  they  are  in  different  dialects,  the  one  belonging  to  a 
district  north  of  the  Tweed,  the  other  to  a  more  southern 
district.  '  Pearl '  cannot,  therefore,  be  the  work  of  the  poet 
of  the  'Pystyll'  ;  and  if  this  is  true  of  Pearl,'  it  is  equally 
true  of  'Gawain.'  It  is,  moreover,  very  probable  that 
Huchown's  '  gret  geste  of  Arthure'  is  preserved  to  us, 
though  in  a  changed  dialect  and  with  some  slight  intentional 
modifications,  in  the  alliterative  '  Morte  Arthur,'  and  that  the 
'  Awntyre  of  Gawane '  may  be  identified  with  the  '  Awntyrs 
off  Arthure  at  the  Terne  Wathelyne,'  which,  as  far  as  diction 
is  concerned,  is  closely  connected  with  the  '  Pystyll  of 

Dr.  Guest  rested  his  claims  for  Huchown  not  merely  on 
this  passage  from  Wyntoun's  Chronicle.  In  the  blank  space 
at  the  head  of  '  Gawain  and  the  Green  Knight,'  a  hand  of  the 
fifteenth  century  has  written  '  Hugo  de  ,'  and  this  piece  of 
evidence  seemed  to  him  to  confirm  his  view  of  the  author 
ship  of  the  poem.  In  the  first  place,  it  is  not  certain  that 
the  inscription  is  intended  for  the  name  of  the  author,  but 
even  had  we  clear  proof  that  '  Hugo  de  aula  regali J  was  to 


be  read,  the  conclusion,  from  internal  evidence,  would  be 
forced  upon  us,  that  the  writer  had  made  a  mistake  by  no 
means  uncommon  in  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries. 
The  great  masters  of  literature  have  always  been  made  the 
official  fathers  of  unclaimed  productions.  It  would  be  easy 
enough  to  illustrate  this  from  the  pseudo-Chaucerian  poems, 
but  an  interesting  parallel  may  be  adduced  from  the  literary 
history  of  Huchown's  great  contemporary,  Barbour.  In  the 
Cambridge  University  Library  there  is  a  MS.  of  Lydgate's 
*  Troy  Book.'  Some  portion  of  Lydgate's  work  has  been  lost 
and  is  replaced  by  extracts  from  a  version  by  a  northern 
poet.  The  scribe  definitely  assigned  these  inserted  passages 
to  Barbour  merely  on  the  evidence  of  a  general  likeness  in 
style,  but  minute  investigation  places  it  beyond  doubt  that 
the  fragments  are  not  from  the  pen  of  the  author  of  the 
'  Bruce.' 

The  works  of  five  individual  poets  have,  at  different  times, 
been  fathered  on  Huchown  ; l  of  these  poems  some  are 
undoubtedly  West  Midland,  others  genuinely  Scottish,  but 
all  of  them  belong  to  the  great  period  of  alliterative  poetry, 
the  second  half  of  the  fourteenth  century  or  the  early  years 
of  the  fifteenth,  and  show  the  influence  of  that  school  of 
English  poets  that  strove  on  the  one  hand  to  revive  the  old 
English  measure,  and  on  the  other  to  combine  this  archaic 
rhythm  with  the  most  complex  of  Romance  metres.  In  the 
fifteenth  century  the  tradition  of  this  West  Midland  influence 

1  Dr.  George  Neilson,  in  his  '  Huchown  of  the  Awle  Ryale,' 
1902,  attempted  to  assign  to  Huchown  the  great  bulk  of  anonymous 
alliterative  poetry,  including  'Pearl.'  Among  other  criticisms  of 
Dr.  Neilson's  work,  Dr.  MacCracken's  '  Concerning  Huchown ' 
(Publications  of  the  Modern  Language  Association  of  America, 
1910)  should  be  noted. 


still  lived  on  north  of  the  Tweed,  but  the  greatest  of  Scottish 
bards  turned  to  the  East  Midland  poets  for  their  forms,  and, 
following  the  example  of  their  poet-king,  were  fascinated  by 
the  irresistible  spell  of  Chaucer's  genius.  This  influence  of 
the  great  English  poet  on  the  chief  poets  of  Scotland  has 
received  abundant  recognition ;  not  so  the  earlier  influence 
of  the  West  Midland  poets,  whose  best  representative  is  the 
nameless  author  of  *  Pearl.' 

From  among  all  these  poems  only  one  can  be  singled  out  as 
being  possibly  by  the  author  of  *  Pearl.'  On  the  strength  of 
diction,  metre,  and  other  characteristics,  the  anonymous 
alliterative  poem  of  '  Erkenwald/1  though  it  lacks  the  peculiar 
intensity  of  *  Cleanness '  and  '  Patience,'  may  be  an  early  or 
very  late  work,  unless  we  have  here  an  imitation  by  an  en 
thusiastic  disciple.  The  theme,  however,  seems  to  point  to 
London  as  its  place  of  origin,  with  about  1386  as  its  probable 
date.  Anyhow,  the  poem  is  a  noteworthy  product  of  the 
school,  and  must  be  linked  with  '  Cleanness '  and  '  Patience,' 
even  in  the  matter  of  the  quatrain  arrangement.2 

Imaginary  Biography. — But  though  he  be  nameless,  the 
poet's  personality  is  so  vividly  impressed  on  his  work  that 
one  may  be  forgiven  the  somewhat  hazardous  task  of  attempt 
ing  to  evolve  an  account  of  his  earlier  life  from  mere  con 
jecture  and  inference.  Such  an  attempt,  though  fanciful,  at 
all  events  serves  to  link  together  certain  facts  and  impres 
sions,  and  with  this  reservation  cannot  but  prove  helpful. 

1  An  edition  of  '  Erkenwald,'  edited  by  me,  is  appearing  in 
c  Select  Early  English  Poems.'  The  pagan  judge,  who  is  described 
as  '  ane  heire  of  anoye,'  i.e.  a  justice  in  eyre,  oyer  and  terminer,  may 
well  have  been  drawn  from  some  legal  contemporary,  or  as  an  ideal 
picture  by  way  of  contrast. 

*  The  only  other  alliterative  poem  outside  this  group  showing 
this  quatrain  arrangement  is  the  '  Siege  of  Jerusalem. ' 


If  documentary  evidence   is  ever  discovered,  hypothetical 
conjecture  will  no  doubt  be  put  to  a  very  severe  test. 

The  poet  was  born  about  the  same  time  as  Chaucer,  1340. 
His  birthplace  was  somewhere  in  Lancashire,  or  perhaps  a 
little  to  the  north,1  but  under  no  circumstances  in  any  district 
beyond  the  Tweed.  The  evidence  of  dialect  proves  this 
abundantly.  The  wild  solitudes  of  the  Cumbrian  coast,  near 
his  native  home,  seem  to  have  had  special  attraction  for  him. 
Like  a  later  and  greater  poet,  he  must  already  as  a  youth 
have  felt  the  subtle  spell  of  Nature's  varying  aspects  in  those 
West  Midland  parts  ;  he  too  loved  to  contemplate,  even  in 
his  childhood, 

' .  .  .  Presences  of  Nature  in  the  sky 
And  on  the  earth  !  .  .  .  Visions  of  the  hills 
And  souls  of  lonely  places  ! ' 

Wordsworth's  country  may  perhaps  justly  claim  our  poet  as 
one  of  its  sons. 

Concerning  the  condition  of  life  to  which  the  boy  belonged, 
we  have  no  definite  clue  ;  but  I  am  inclined  to  infer  that  his 
father  was  closely  connected,  in  some  official  capacity,  with 
a  family  of  high  rank,  and  that  it  was  amid  the  gay  scenes 
that  brightened  life  in  some  great  castle  that  the  poet's 
earliest  years  were  passed.  In  later  life  he  loved  to  picture 

1  It  is  noteworthy  that  the  poet  in  his  rhymes  uses  such  Northern 
forms  as  wate  (502),  abate  (617),  strate3  (1043),  rnare  U45)»  brade 
(138),  ware  (151)  (cp.  wore,  154),  side  by  side  with  his  more 
common  o  forms.  In  one  case  (byswyke},  568)  he  uses  the  Northern 
-cs  for  is.  pr.  ind.  With  reference  to  the  phonology  of  the  poem  in 
general,  Fick's  investigation  ( '  Zum  Mittelenglischen  Gedicht  von  der 
Perle,'  Kiel,  1885),  generally  referred  to  as  though  authoritative, 
must  now  be  considered  obsolete  ;  and  to  a  large  extent  the  same  is 
true  of  Knigge's  'Die  Sprache  des  Dichters  von  Sir  Gawain,' 
Marburg,  1885. 


this  home,  with  its  battlements  and  towers,  its  stately  hall 
and  spacious  parks.  There  too,  perhaps,  the  minstrel's  tales 
of  chivalry  first  revealed  to  him  the  rich  world  of  medieval 
Romance,  and  made  him  yearn  to  gain  for  himself  a  worthy 
place  among  a  noble  band  of  contemporary  English  poets, 
whose  memory  is  now,  for  the  most  part,  lost  to  us  for  ever. 

The  English  poets  were  certainly  his  masters  in  poetic 
art,  and  although  he  had  read  the  '  Roman  de  la  Rose,3  and 
the  chief  products  of  early  and  contemporary  French  litera 
ture,  their  influence  was  comparatively  slight  as  far  as  the 
general  tone  of  his  poetry  is  concerned.  It  is  a  significant 
fact  that  the  poet's  only  direct  reference  to  the  '  Roman ; 
speaks  of  'Clopyngel's  dene  Rose.'  Indeed,  the  intensely 
religious  spirit  of  the  poems,  together  with  the  knowledge 
they  undoubtedly  display  of  Holy  Writ,  makes  it  probable 
that  the  youth  may  have  been  destined  for  the  service  of 
the  Church.  He  must  have  studied  sacred  and  profane 
literature  at  some  monastic  school,  or  at  one  of  the 
universities.  It  is  evident  that  theology  and  scholasticism 
had  formed  an  important  part  of  his  education.  But  the 
author  of  '  Pearl'  was  certainly  no  priest. 

The  four  poems  preserved  in  the  Cottonian  collection 
seem  to  have  belonged  to  eventful  periods  of  the  poet's  life. 
(  Gawain,3  written  probably  for  some  special  occasion,  and  in 
honour  of  some  nobleman,  perhaps  the  generous  patron  to 
whose  household  the  poet  was  attached,  is  remarkable  for 
the  evidence  it  contains  of  the  writer's  minute  knowledge  of 
the  '  gentle  science  of  woodcraft,3  and  of  all  that  pertained 
to  the  higher  social  life  of  that  time.  He  has  introduced 
into  his  romance  elaborate  descriptions  of  the  arming  of  a 
knight,  and  of  the  hunting  of  the  deer,  the  boar,  and  the 
fox.  From  his  evident  enthusiasm  it  is  clear  that  he  wrote 


from  personal  experience  of  the  pleasures  of  the  chase,  and 
that  he  was  accustomed  to  the  courtly  life  described  by 

The  poet  had  married  ;  his  wedded  life  was  unhappy  ; 
the  object  of  his  love  had  disappointed  him,  and  had 
perhaps  proved  unfaithful.  He  had  passed  through  some 
such  experience  before  'Gawain'  was  written.  The  poet 
was,  I  think,  speaking  for  himself  when  he  made  his 
knight  exclaim  :  *  It  is  no  marvel  for  a  man  to  come  to 
sorrow  through  woman's  wiles  ;  so  was  Adam  beguiled,  and 
Solomon  and  Samson  and  David,  and  many  more.  It  were 
indeed  great  bliss  for  a  man  to  love  them  well  and  believe 
them  not — if  one  but  could.' 

'Gawain'  is  the  story  of  a  noble  knight,  bearing  the 
shield  of  Mary,  triumphing  over  sore  temptations  that  beset 
his  vows  of  chastity.  How  often,  while  drawing  his  ideal 
picture  of  the  Knight  of  Courtesy,  did  the  poet's  thoughts 
recur  to  the  reality  of  his  own  life  !  Perhaps  in  a  musing 
mood  he  wrote  in  the  blank  space  at  the  head  of  one  of  the 
illustrations  in  his  MS.  the  suggestive  couplet  : 

'  My  mind  is  much  on  one,  who  will  not  make  amend  ; 
Sometime   she   was   true  as  stone,  and  from   shame  could  her 

His  wedded  life  had  brought  him  happiness — an  only 
child,  his  'little  queen.'  He  perhaps  named  the  child  'Mar 
gery  '  or  '  Marguerite ' ;  she  was  his  '  pearl,' — emblem  of 
holiness  and  innocence.  But  his  happiness  was  short-lived ; 
before  two  years  had  passed  the  poet's  home  was  desolate.1 

1  It  is  noteworthy  that  throughout  the  poem  there  is  no  single 
reference,  such  as  one  might  expect,  to  the  mother  of  the  child. 
The  poet's  first  words  when  he  beholds  his  transfigured  '  Pearl '  are 
significant : 


His  grief  found  expression  in  verse  :  a  heavenly  vision 
of  his  lost  jewel  brought  him  comfort  and  taught  him 
resignation.  On  the  child's  grave  he  placed  a  garland 
of  song,  blooming  yet,  after  the  lapse  of  five  hundred 

With  the  loss  of  his  dearest  possession  a  blight  seems  to 
have  fallen  on  his  life,  and  even  poetry  may  have  lost  its 
charm  for  him.  The  lyrist  became  the  stern  moralist  of 
'  Cleanness '  and  '  Patience.'  Other  troubles,  too,  seem  to 
have  befallen  him.  '  Patience 5  seems  to  us  to  be  almost  as 
autobiographical  as  '  Pearl.'  The  poet  is  evidently  preaching 
to  himself  the  lesson  of  fortitude  and  hope  amid  misery,  pain, 
and  poverty.  Something  had  evidently  happened  to  deprive 
him  of  the  means  of  subsistence.  '  Poverty  and  Patience,' 
he  exclaims,  '  are  needs  playfellows ' : 

'  Be  bold  and  be  patient,  in  pain  and  in  joy, 
For  he  that  rends  his  clothes  too  rashly 
Must  sit  anon  in  worse  to  sew  them  together. 
Wherefore  when  poverty  presses  me  and  pains  enow, 
Calmly  in  sufferance  it  behoves  me  to  be  patient ; 
Despite  penance  and  pain,  to  prove  to  men's  sight 
That  patience  is  a  noble  point,  though  it  oft  displease.' 

4  Cleanness '  and  '  Patience '  were  probably  written  not 
long  after  'Pearl.'  But  the  vivid  descriptions  of  the  sea 
in  these  two  poems  perhaps  justify  the  inference  that  the 
poet  may  have  sought  distraction  in  travel,  and  may  have 
weathered  the  fierce  tempests  he  describes. 

«'O  Pearl,"  quoth  I  .   .  . 
"  Art  thou  my  Pearl  that  I  have  playned, 
Regretted  by  me,  so  lone  ?  "  ' 

[11.  241-3. 

This  is  consistent  with  my  theory  concerning  the  poet's  married 


Perchance  new  joy  came  into  his  life,  and  into  whatever 
occupation  he  may  have  thrown  himself,  he  may  still  have 
found  in  poetry  life's  chief  delight.  In  this  period  the 
attraction  of  Romance  and  Chivalry  may  well  have  re 
asserted  itself.  Was  '  Gawain  '  the  outcome  of  this  happier 
condition,  or  did  it,  in  spite  of  many  considerations  gain 
saying  the  view,  belong  to  the  period  of  his  early 
happiness  ? 

If,  late  in  life,  he  wrote  the  poem  on  'Erkenwald,'  the 
great  Bishop  of  London,  whose  magnificent  shrine  was  the 
glory  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  and  whose  festival  Bishop 
Braybroke  re-established  in  the  year  1386,  it  would  seem 
that  the  poet  may  have  found  occupation  in  the  City  of 
London,  in  some  secular  office,  allowing  him  leisure  for 
poetry  or  theology  or  philosophy,  or  other  intellectual  exer 
cise.  It  is  pleasant  to  think  of  the  possibility  of  the  poet  of 
'Pearl'  and  Chaucer  being  brought  together  as  London 
officials.  Certainly  it  was  a  West  Midlander  who  wrote 
1  Erkenwald,'  but  the  poem  is  a  London  poem,  without 
any  doubt,  and  may,  I  think,  have  been  associated  with 
Bishop  Braybroke's  efforts  to  establish  the  due  observance 
of  St.  Erkenwald's  Day. 

If  the  poet  took  any  part  in  the  Church  controversies 
then  troubling  men's  minds,  his  attitude  would  have  been 
in  the  main  conservative.  Full  of  intense  hatred  towards 
all  forms  of  vice,  especially  immorality,  he  would  have 
spoken  out  boldly  against  ignoble  priests  and  friars,  and 
all  such  servants  of  the  Church,  who,  preaching  righteous 
ness,  lived  unrighteously.  But  whatever  his  views  on 
theological  questions,  his  allegiance  to  the  authority  of 
the  Church,  to  Papal  supremacy,  and  to  the  doctrine 
of  Rome,  and  his  attitude  towards  the  amenities  of 


social  life  and  wealth,  would  have  kept  him  aloof  from 
Wycliffe  and  his  partisans.  Professor  Carleton  Brown  has 
well  said  that  his  religious  outlook  was  '  evangelical '  rather 
than  ecclesiastical.1 

The  *  PhUosophical  Strode.' — It  is  indeed  remarkable  that 
no  tradition  has  been  handed  down  to  us  concerning  one  of 
the  most  distinctive  of  fourteenth-century  writers.  It  can 
only  be  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that,  in  the  first  place,  his 
instrument  of  expression  was  regarded  as  uncouth  by  the 

1  Professor  Carleton  Brown  in  his  article  on  '  The  Author  of  The 
Pearl  considered  in  the  Light  of  his  Theological  Opinions'  (Publi 
cations  of  the  Modern  Language  Association  of  America,  Vol.  XIX., 
1904)  has  some  interesting  and  valuable  observations  on  the  rela 
tion  of  the  poem  to  the  theology  of  the  time.  He  holds,  against 
my  view,  that  the  assumption  of  a  necessary  antagonism  between 
our  author  and  Wycliffe  is  unwarranted.  lie  deals  also  with  the 
attitude  of  the  poet,  with  special  reference  to  the  paraphrase  of  the 
Parable  of  the  Vineyard,  towards  the  views  held  by  some  of  his 
contemporary  theologians,  notably  Bradwardine. 

As  an  indication  that  the  author  had  in  mind  the  discussions  of 
the  theologians,  Professor  Carleton  Brown  refers  to  some  of  the 
terms  which  he  employs.  He  takes  as  his  example  the  word  'pre- 
termynable,'  1.  596,  suggesting  a  definite  acquaintance  with  the 
'  predeterminatio '  of  the  Schoolmen.  But  see  my  Note  on  what  I 
think  is  the  correct  interpretation  of  the  word.  I  am  convinced  that 
the  poem  is  not  primarily  associated  with  questions  of  contemporary 
theology,  though,  as  Professor  Brown  points  out,  'from  Augustine 
to  the  fourteenth  century  the  "baptized  infant"  played  an  important 
role  in  the  treatises  of  the  theologians.' 

More  recently  Dr.  R.  M.  Garrett  in  '  The  Pearl :  an  Interpreta 
tion '  (University  of  Washington  Publications,  IV.,  No.  I,  1918), 
argues  that  '  Pearl '  '  has  in  its  central  idea  the  fundamental  teach 
ing  of  the  Eucharist.'  The  article,  though  unconvincing,  is  of 
special  interest  for  its  quotations  from  the  '  Epistola  Sancti  Hilarii 
ad  Abram  Filiam  Suam '  (to  which  I  have  already  referred) ;  and 
for  calling  attention  to  this  charming  piece  of  literature  Professor 
Garrett  deserves  the  best  thanks  of  students  of  the  subject. 


generality  of  cultured  Englishmen,  and,  in  the  second  place, 
that  the  bulk  of  his  poetry  was  small  as  compared  with  the 
writings  of  his  better  known  contemporaries.  Langland 
was  indeed  the  only  West  Midland  poet  who  gained  any 
thing  approaching  national  recognition  and  escaped  the 
oblivion  of  mere  local  fame.  Nevertheless,  one  must  not 
despair  of  finding  some  evidence  that  may  settle,  once  for 
all,  the  problem  of  the  poet's  personality.  Indeed,  of  one 
fourteenth-century  writer,  whose  name  and  Latin  writings 
are  preserved,  it  is  recorded  that  during  his  youth  and  early 
manhood  he  was  an  ardent  wooer  of  the  Muses,  and  that 
his  fame  rested  on  a  poem  described  as  an  'Elegy3  and 
possibly  as  a  'Vision.3  Our  knowledge  of  this  writer  is 
mainly  due  to  the  happy  chance  that  Chaucer  seems  to  have 
been  his  friend  and  admirer,  and  dedicated  to  him  no  less 
important  a  poem  than  his  '  Troilus  and  Creseide 5 : 

*  O  moral  Gower  this  book  I  direct 
To  thee  and  to  the  Philosophical  Strode, 
To  vouchsafe  there  need  is  for  to  correct, 
To  your  benignities  and  zelis  good.' 

The  antiquary  Leland  was  the  first  to  inquire  concerning 
the  second  of  the  two  names  held  in  such  esteem  by  Chaucer. 
In  an  old  catalogue  of  worthies  of  Merton  College,  drawn 
up  in  the  early  years  of  the  fifteenth  century,  and  still  pre 
served  in  the  College  muniment  room,  he  discovered  the 
following  most  valuable  reference  : 

'  Radulphus  Strode,  nobilis  poeta  fuit  et  versificavit  librum 
elegiacum  vocatum  Phantasma  Radulphi.' 

This  Ralph  Strode,  poet,  is  clearly  to  be  identified  with 
the  famous  philosopher  of  that  name  whose  philosophical 
works  hold  an  important  place  in  the  history  of  medieval 
logic.  He  was  also  famous  in  his  time  as  a  controversialist 


with  Wycliffe,  and  from  statements  by  Wycliffe  it  is 
possible  to  gain  some  insight  into  Strode's  religious  views. 
But  neither  his  theology  nor  his  philosophy  help  us  to 
identify  him  with  the  writer  of  the  poems  in  the  Cottonian 

The  evidence,  such  as  it  is,  tending  to  connect  Strode 
and  the  writer  of  'Pearl,'  is  derived  from  the  following 
considerations.  The  Merton  description  (\iphantasma  may 
be  taken  as  a  somewhat  crude  Latin  rendering  of  '  dream ' 
or  some  such  word)  does  not  apply  to  any  known  poem  so 
well  as  to  '  Pearl.'  Again,  the  peculiar  force  of  Chaucer's 
dedication  should  be  considered.  Chaucer  felt  that  his 
'  Troilus  and  Creseide 3  was  open  to  the  charge  of  being 
somewhat  too  free;  wherefore,  in  a  spirit  of  banter,  he 
evidently  offered  it  to  the  correction  of  two  fellow-poets 
whose  writings  aimed  primarily  at  enforcing  moral  virtue. 
Now,  if  asked  to  name  the  very  antithesis  of  'Troilus,'  a 
student  of  fourteenth-century  literature  could  choose  no 
better  instance  than  the  romance  of  'Gawain.'  Further, 
there  is  a  tradition  that  Strode,  leaving  his  native  land, 
journeyed  through  France,  Germany,  and  Italy,  and  visited 
Syria  and  the  Holy  Land.  'An  Itinerary  to  the  Holy 
Land,'  by  this  writer,  seems  to  have  been  known  to  Nicholas 

1  In  my  article  on  Strode,  in  the  Dictionary  of  National  Bio 
graphy ',  will  be  found  the  first  attempt  to  dispose  of  the  legend  of 
Strode's  description  as  a  monk  of  Jedburgh  Abbey,  and  to  write 
an  authentic  biography  of  the  famous  Schoolman.  As  regards  the 
possible  identification  of  Chaucer's  '  philosophical  Strode '  with  the 
author  of  '  Pearl,'  the  theory,  whatever  may  be  its  worth,  was  mine, 
in  spite  of  a  wrongful  claim  made  by  Dr.  Horstmann. 

Professor  Carleton  Brown,  in  his  article  to  which  I  have  referred, 
indicates  many  points  that  tell  against  Strode's  authorship,  though 
I  do  not  agree  with  his  attempt  to  differentiate  the  poet,  the 
philosopher,  and  the  lawyer. 


Brigham,  the  enthusiastic  devotee  of  Chaucer,  to  whom  we 
owe  his  monument  in  Westminster  Abbey.  According  to 
Antony  Wood,  Strode's  name  as  a  fellow  of  Merton  occurs 
for  the  last  time  about  1361. 

The  statement,  still  repeated  in  text-books  on  Chaucer,  to 
the  effect  that  Strode  was  a  Scotch  monk  in  Jedburgh  Abbey, 
was  due  to  the  mendacious  Dempster,  who  in  his  desire  to 
claim  the  logician  for  Scotland  described  Strode  as  a  Scotch 
monk,  who  had  received  his  early  education  at  Dryburgh 

It  is  noteworthy  that  a  'Ralph  Strode'  was  Common 
Serjeant  of  the  City  of  London.  There  is  every  reason  for 
identifying  him  with  Chaucer's  '  philosophical  Strode.'  They 
were  evidently  neighbours,  for  Chaucer  lived  over  the  gate 
at  Aldgate,  while  Strode  was  living  over  the  gate  at  Alders- 
gate.  Ralph  Strode,  the  Common  Serjeant  of  the  City,  died 
in  1387,  and  his  will  was  proved  in  the  Archdeaconry  Court 
of  London  ;  but,  though  duly  indexed  in  the  archives  of  the 
Archdeaconry  now  at  Somerset  House,  the  document  itself 
is  missing.  He  was  involved  in  the  municipal  politics  that 
distracted  London,  in  the  struggles  between  the  partisans  of 
the  two  great  Londoners,  Brember  and  Northampton,  the 
latter  the  staunch  supporter  of  Wycliffe.  The  fortunes  of 
Northampton  were  linked  with  the  fate  of  Thomas  of  Usk, 
the  author  of  the  '  Testament  of  Love.'  Usk  was  executed 
early  in  1388  ;  in  the  same  year  Strode's  friend  and 
supporter,  the  former  Lord  Mayor  Brember,  paid  the  same 
penalty.  Strode  had  died  the  previous  year.  But  so  far 
as  the  identity  of  Strode  with  the  author  of  'Pearl'  is 
concerned,  all  is  mere  conjecture ;  no  definite  piece  of 
evidence  tending  to  confirm  it  is  adducible.  The  question 
still  remains  unanswered, 


*  Who  and  what  he  was — 
The  transitory  Being  that  beheld 
This  Vision  ;  when  and  where  and  how  he  lived. ' 

Bibliography. — The  present  edition  of  '  Pearl '  is  based  on 
my  edition  published  by  Nutt  in  1891,  but  both  text  and 
translation  have  been  minutely  revised  as  the  result  of  long 
and  continuous  study.  My  attempt  in  1891  adequately  to 
interpret  the  poem  and  to  gain  recognition  for  its  intrinsic 
merit  apart  from  its  philological  importance  succeeded 
beyond  my  expectation,  and  since  then  much  literature, 
many  renderings  into  modern  English,  and  a  number  of 
investigations  have  testified  to  the  increased  interest  taken 
in  '  Pearl.'  But  the  credit  of  having  first  printed  the  poem 
belongs  to  Dr.  Richard  Morris,  who,  in  1864,  printed  it  in 
the  first  issue  of  the  Early  English  Text  Society,  the  'Al 
literative  Poems.3  The  volume  was  revised  and  reprinted  in 
1869,  etc. 

In  the  Academy,  Vols.  XXXIX.  and  XL.,  after  the  publica 
tion  of  my  edition,  a  discussion  on  a  number  of  difficult 
problems  ensued  between  Dr.  Morris  and  myself,  which 
helped  to  elaborate  and  establish  certain  views  of  mine  on 
contestable  points.  In  1897  I  prepared  a  revised  edition  of 
the  text,  which  was  privately  printed.  In  1918  a  revision  of 
the  English  translation  was  issued,  imprinted  and  published 
by  George  W.  Jones,  at  the  Sign  of  the  Dolphin,  Gough 
Square,  Fleet  Street,  London,  sold  for  and  on  behalf  of  the 
British  Red  Cross. 

In  1906  Dr.  C.  G.  Osgood  published  an  edition  of  the 
poem  in  the  Belles  Lettres  Series.  As  will  be  seen  from  my 
notes  to  the  present  edition,  Dr.  Osgood's  contribution  to 
the  textual  interpretation  of  the  poem  cannot  be  considered 
satisfactory.  Indeed,  to  the  textual  study  of  the  poem  very 


little  has  been  contributed  in  recent  years,  though  many 
problems  have  been  hitherto  unelucidated. 

As  regards  translations, — my  own  in  1891,  being  of  the 
nature  of  a  commentary,  was  rhymeless  though  metrical. 
In  1906  Dr.  Weir  Mitchell  produced  a  charming  rendering, 
on  the  basis  of  my  own,  of  about  the  first  half  of  the  poem 
(New  York,  1906).  In  the  same  year  appeared  Mr.  Coulton's 
rendering  into  modern  English  in  the  metre  of  the  original. 
The  very  attempt  to  reproduce  the  highly  elaborate  rhyming 
system  of  the  Middle  English  must,  in  my  opinion,  unless 
carried  through  by  a  gifted  poet,  prove  detrimental  to  the 
simple  grace  of  the  original  ;  rhyme  and  meaning  become 
almost  necessarily  crude  and  forced.  Mr.  Coulton's  version 
exemplified  these  and  other  dangers.  In  1907  Dr.  Osgood 
published  a  prose  translation  of  the  poem  (Princeton).  In 
1908  (New  York)  appeared  Miss  Jewett's  rendering  in  the 
original  metre;  in  1912  (London)  Miss  Jessie  L.  Weston's  in 
'Romance,  Vision  and  Satire'  (in  a  modified  form  of  the 
original  metre)  ;  in  1916  (Boston)  a  prose  translation  by 
W.  A.  Neilson  and  K.  G.  T.  Webster,  in  <  Chief  British  Poets. 
There  have  also  been  other  renderings  of  the  whole  poem  or 
parts  of  it ;  and,  as  evidence  of  the  widespread  enthusiasm 
for  'Pearl,'  I  may  mention  that  I  have  received  MS.  versions 
of  portions  of  the  poem  not  only  in  various  European  lan 
guages,  but  also  in  languages  of  India.  In  1916  appeared  a 
German  translation  of  the  poem  by  Otto  Decker  (Schwerin). 

As  regards  phonological  studies,  W.  Fick's  'Zum  mittel- 
englischen  gedicht  von  der  Perle,'  Kiel,  1885,  as  well  as 
F.  Knigge's  'Die  sprache  des  dichters  von  Sir  Gawain,' 
Marburg,  1885,  often  mentioned  in  connection  with  the 
poem,  are  now  in  my  opinion  quite  obsolete,  and  should  be 
used  with  the  utmost  caution. 


In  dealing  with  the  metre  of  the  poem,  I  have  referred  to 
the  only  important  contribution  on  the  subject,  namely, 
Dr.  C.  S.  Northup's  'Study  of  the  Metrical  Structure  of 
Pearl]  Pub.  Mod.  Lang.  Ass.  America,  Vol.  XII. 

Professor  W.  H.  Schofield's  papers  on  'The  Nature  and 
Fabric  of  The  Pearl]  ibid.  Vol.  XIX.,  'Symbolism,  Allegory, 
and  Autobiography  in  The  Pearl]  ibid.  Vol.  XXIV.,  Professor 
Carleton  Brown's  'Author  of  The  Pearl  Considered  in  the 
Light  of  his  Theological  Opinions,'  ibid.  Vol.  XIX.,  Dr. 
Garrett's  '  The  Pearl  :  an  Interpretation,'  University  of 
Washington  Publications,  IV.,  No.  i,  Seattle,  1918,  and 
other  studies  on  interpretation  and  authorship,  are  referred 
to  in  the  course  of  the  present  Introduction. 

All  recent  histories  of  English  literature  recognise  the 
importance  of  the  poet  of  '  Pearl '  and  (  Gawain,'  and  treat  of 
these  and  the  other  two  alliterative  poems.  The  first 
historian  of  English  literature,  however,  to  give  them  ade 
quate  consideration  was  the  gifted  and  scholarly  Bernhard 
Ten  Brink,  who  in  the  first  volume  of  his  '  History  of  English 
Literature,'  1877  (translated  from  the  German  by  Horace  M. 
Kennedy,  1883)  dealt  in  a  masterly  way  with  these  and  other 
poems  of  the  alliterative  revival. 

In  the  '  Manual  of  the  Writings  in  Middle  English,'  by 
Professor  J.  E.  Wells,  1916,  with  Supplement,  1919,  will  be 
found  a  fairly  exhaustive  bibliography.  To  this  should  be 
added  the  Bibliography  in  the  Cambridge  History  of  English 
Literature,  Vol.  I.,  pertaining  to  ch.  xv.  on  'Pearl,'  etc., 
written  by  me,  and  my  article  on  *  Pearl '  in  the  Encyclopedia 
Britannica,  nth  edition,  Vol.  XXL,  with  the  bibliography 

As  regards  '  Olympia,'  the  chief  bibliographical  data  will 
be  found  in  my  Introduction  to  the  poem  in  this  volume. 



PERLE  plesauwte  to  prynces  paye, 
To  clanly  clos  in  golde  so  clere  ! 
Oute  of  Oryent,  I  hardyly  saye, 
Ne  proued  I  nevur  her  precios  pere.  4 

So  rouwde,  so  reken  in  vche  araye, 
So  smal,  so  smo])e  her  syde^  were  ; 
Quere-so-eu^r  I  jugged  gemme^  gaye, 
I  sette  hyr  sengeley  in  syng[u]l[e]re.  8 

Alias  !   I  leste  hyr  in  on  erbere  ; 
J^ur^  gresse  to  grouwde  hit  fro  me  yot. 
I  dewyne,  for-do[k]ked  of  luf-daungere 
Of  fat  pryuy  perle  wjt/>-outen  spot.  12 

FROM  COTTON  MS.,  XKKO  A.x.,  i.i..   1—29. 


PEARL  all-pleasing,  prince's  treasure, 
too  chastely  set  in  gold  so  pure  ! 
From  out  the  Orient,  I  aver, 
ne'er  proved  I  pearl  its  precious  peer. 
So  round,  so  royal  wherever  ranged, 
so  sweetly  small,  so  wondrous  smooth  ; 
where'er  I  judged  of  joyous  gems, 
I  placed  my  Pearl  apart,  supreme, 
I  lost  it  —  in  a  garden  —  alas  ! 
Through  grass  to  ground  'twas  gone  from  me. 
I  pine,  by  Severing  Love  despoil'd 
of  Pearl  mine  own,  without  a  spot. 


Sypen  in  pat  spote  hit  fro  me  sprange, 
Ofte  haf  I  wayted,  wyschande  pat  wele, 
pat  wont  wat^  whyle  deuoyde  my  wrange, 
&  heuen  my  happe  &  al  my  hele.  16 

ptft  dot}  hot  prych  my  hert[e]  grange, 
My  breste  in  bale  bot  bolne  &  bele ; 
3et  po^t  me  ueuer  so  swete  a  sange, 
As  stylle  stoiwde  let  to  me  stele.  20 

For-sope  tyer  fleten  to  me  fele, 
To  penke  hir  color  so  clad  in  clot. 
O  moul,  pou  marre^  a  myry  Lm^ele,- 
My  prmy  perle  wjyt^-outen  spotte.  24 

pat  spot  of  spyse^  [mo]  t  nede^  sprede, 

per  such  ryche^  to  rot  is  ru/mef  ; 

Blome^  blayke  &  blwe  &  rede 

per  schyne^  ful  schyr  agayn  J>e  su«ne^  2^ 

Flor  &  fryte  may  not  be  fede 

per  hit  dou/z  drof  in  molde^  duwne  ; 

For  vch  gresse  mot  grow  of  grayne$  dede, 

No  whete  were  elle^  to  wone^  wowne.  32 

Of  goud  vche  goude  is  ay  by-go/me  ; 
So  semly  a  sede  mo^t  fayly  not, 
pat  spry[«]gande  spyce^  vp  ne  spowne 
Of  pat  pr^cios  perle  wyth-outen  spotte.        36 


There,  in  that  spot,  since  hence  it  sped, 
oft  have  I  watch'd,  wanting  that  gem 
that  once  was  wont  to  vanquish  woe, 
and  raise  my  hap  and  all  my  weal. 
It  doth  but  pierce  my  heart  with  pangs, 
my  breast  in  bale  but  boil  and  burn ; 
yet  ne'er  me  seem'd  so  sweet  a  song 
as  that  still  hour  let  steal  to  me. 

Yea,  many  a  thought  to  me  flow'd  there, 
musing  its  charm  so  clad  in  clay. 
O  earth  !  thou  marrest  a  merry  theme,— 
Pearl  mine  own,  without  a  spot. 


From  spot  where  such  rich  treasure  wastes 
fragrant  spice  must  needs  spring  forth  ; 
blossoms  white  and  blue  and  red 
shine  there  full  sheer  against  the  sun. 
Flower  and  fruit  shall  know  no  flaw 
where  it  down  drave  to  earth's  dark  mould  ; 
for  from  dead  grain  each  blade  must  grow, 
no  wheat  were  else  brought  ever  home. 
Each  good  from  good  is  aye  begun  j 
so  seemly  a  seed  can  never  fail ; 
ne'er  fragrant  spice  shall  cease  to  spring 
from  that  precious  Pearl  without  a  spot. 

6  PERLE. 


f.  39*      To  pat  spot  pat  I  in  speche  expou//, 

I  entred  in  pat  erber  grene, 

In  Augoste  in  a  hy^  seysoun, 

Quen  corne  is  coruen  wyth  croke^  kene.  4° 

On  huyle  per  perle  hit  trendeled  dou« 

Schadowed  pis  worte^  ful  schyre  &  schene,- 

Gilofre,  gyngure,  &  gromylyou#, 

&  pyonys  powdered  ay  by-twene.  44 

3if  hit  wat}  semly  on  to  sene, 
A  fayr  reflayr  ^et  fro  hit  flot, 
))er  wonys  pat  worpyly,  I  wot  &  wene, 
My  precious  perle  wyth-outen  spot.  48 

Bifore  pat  spot  my  honde  I  spe«n[e]d, 

For  care  ful  colde  pat  to  me  ca^t ; 

A  deuely  dele  in  my  hert[e]  dewned, 

Jpa^  resou«  sette  my  seluen  sa^t.  5Z 

I  playned  my  perle  p0t  p*r  wat^  pe«nedf, 

Wyth  fyr[cje  skylle^  pat  faste  fa^t ; 

J^  kynde  of  Kryst  me  comfort  ke«ned, 

My  wreched  wylle  in  wo  ay  wra^te.  56 

I  felle  vpon  pat  flowry  fla3t, 

Suche  odowr  to  my  herne^  schot, 

I  slode  vpon  a  slepy/zg-sla^te, 

On  pat  pr/rc[i]os  perle  wyt^-outen  spot.        60 


Unto  the  spot  I  picture  forth 
I  entered  into  that  garden  green  ; 
'twas  August,  at  a  festal  tide, 
when  corn  is  cut  with  keen-edg'd  hook.  ^  c 
The  mound  my  Pearl  had  roll'd  adown 
with  herbs  was  shadow'd,  beauteous,  bright,- 
gilvers,  ginger,  and  gromwell-seed, 
and  peonies  powderM  all  about. 
But  if  the  sight  was  sweet  to  see, 
fair,  too,  the  fragrance  floating  thence, 
where  dwelleth  that  glory,  I  wot  full  well, 
my  precious  Pearl  without  a  spot. 


Before  that  spot  my  hands  I  clasp'd, 

for  care  full  cold  that  seized  on  me  ; 

a  senseless  moan  dinned  in  my  heartf 

though  Reason  bade  me  be  at  p 

I  plain'd  my  Pearl,  imprison'd  there, 

with  wayward  words  that  fiercely  fought ; 

though  Christ  Himself  me  comfort  show'd,  \s         *»*" 

my  wretched  will  worked  aye  in  woe. 

I  fell  upon  that  flowery  plat ; 

such  fragrance  flash'd  into  my  brain, 

I  slid  into  a  slumber-swoon 

o'er  that  precious  Pearl  without  a  spot. 

8  PERLE. 

§  II. 

FRO  spot  my  spyryt  per  sprang  in  space, 
My  body  on  balke  per  bod  in  sweuen  ; 
My  goste  is  gon  in  Gode^  grace 
In  auenture  p<?r  meruayle^  meuen.  64 

I  ne  wyste  in  pis  worlde  quere  p#t  hit  wace, 
Bot  'I  knew  me  keste  ]>er  klyfe^  cleuen  ; 
To-warde  a  foreste  I  bere  pe  face, 
Where  rych[e]  rokke^  wer  to  dyscreuen  ;         68 
)}e  ly^t  of  hem  my$t  no  mon  leuen, 
)2e  glemande  glory  pat  of  hem  gle/zt  ; 
For  wern  neiur  webbe^  pat  wy^e^  weuen 
Of  half  so  dere  adub[be]mente.  7Z 


f.  40*  Dubbed  wern  alle  po  downe^  syde^ 
Wyt^  crystal  klyfFe^  so  cler  of  kynde  ; 
Holte-wode^  bry^t  aboute  hem  byde^, 
Of  bolle^  as  blwe  as  ble  of  ynde  ;  76 

As  bornyst  syluer  pe  lef  onslyde^, 
})at  pike  con  trylle  on  vch  a  tynde  ; 
Quen  glem  of  glode^  agayn^  hem  glyde^, 
Wyth  schym^ry/zgschenefulschryllepay  schynde; 
)?e  grauayl  pat  [I]  on  groiwde  con  grynde    81 
Wern  pr<?cio«j-  perle^  of  Oryente  ; 
}2e  su/zne-beme^  bot  bio  &  blynde 
In  respecte  of  pat  adubbement.  84 

PEARL.  9 

§  II- 

THENCE,  from  that  spot,  my  spirit  sprang  ; 
my  body  lay  in  trance  on  mound  ; 

my  soul,  by  grace  of  God,  had  fared 

adventuring,  where  marvels  be. 

I  knew  not  where  that  region  was  ; 

I  was  cast,  I  knew,  where  cliffs  rose  sheer. 

Towards  a  forest  I  set  my  face, 

where  rocks  so  rich  were  to  descry, 
that  none  can  trow  how  rich  the  light, 
the  gleaming  glory  glinting  thence, 
for  ne'er  a  web  that  mortals  wove 
was  half  so  wondrously  bewrought. 

Wondrously  the  hill-sides  shone 
with  crystal  cliffs  that  were  so  clear  ; 
and  all  about  were  holt-woods  bright, 
with  boles  as  blue  as  hue  of  Inde  ; 
and  close-set  leaves  on  every  branch 
as  burnish'd  silver  sway'd  and  swung ; 
when  glided  'gainst  them  glinting  gleams, 
splendent  they  shone  with  shimmering  sheen ; 

and  the  gravel  I  ground  upon  that  strand 

were  precious  pearls  of  Orient ; 

the  sunbeams  were  but  dim  and  dark, 

if  set  beside  that  wondrous  glow  ! 

io  PERLE. 


The  adubbemente  of  po  downe}  dere 

Garten  my  goste  al  greffe  for-^ete ; 

So  frech  flauore^  of  fryte^  were, 

As  fode  hit  con  me  fayre  refete  ; 

Fowle^  ]>er  flowen  in  fryth  in  fere, 

Of  flauwzbande  hwe^,  bope  smale  &  grete  ; 

Bot  sytole-stry«g  &  gytmiere 

Her  reken  myrpe  mo^t  not  retrete ;  9Z 

For  quen  pose  brydde^  her  wynge^  bete, 

J2ay  songen  wyth  a  swete  asent ; 

So  grac[/]os  gle  coupe  no  mon  gete 

As  here  &  se  her  adubbement.  96 


So  al  wat}  dubbet  on  dere  asyse 

)}at  fryth  per  fortwne  forth  me  fere}, 

J)e  derpe  per-of  for  to  deuyse 

Nis  no  wy}  worpe  J?at  tonge  bere^.  too 

I  welke  ay  forth  in  wely  wyse  ; 

No  bonk  so  byg  Ipat  did  me  dere^  ; 

fie  fyrre  in  pe  fryth  pe  fei£r]er  con  ryse 

)?e  playn,  pe  plontte^,  pe  spyse,  pe  pere^,        104 

&  rawe^  &  rande^  &  rych  reuere^, 

As  fyldor  fyn  her  b[o]nkes  brent. 

I  wan  to  a  water  by  schore  pat  schere^,- 

Lorde,  dere  wat^  hit  adubbement  !  108 

PEARL.  ii 


'Mid  the  magic  of  those  wondrous  hills 

my  spirit  soon  forgot  all  grief; 

flavours  of  fruit  so  fresh  were  there, 

as  food  full  well  they  gave  me  strength  ; 

birds  in  the  wood  together  flew, 

of  flaming  hues,  both  small  and  great ; 

nor  citole-string  nor  citherner 

could  e'er  re-tell  their  goodly  glee  ; 

for  when  those  birds  did  beat  their  wings, 
they  sang  with  such  a  sweet  accord, 
no  rapture  could  so  stir  a  man 
as  to  hear  and  see  that  wonderment. 


All  was  so  dight  in  wondrous  wise, 
no  tongue  of  man  hath  power  to  tell 
the  beauty  of  that  forest-land, 
where  fortune  led  me  on  and  on. 
Still  forth  I  pressed  in  blissful  mood ; 
no  hill,  though  high,  might  hinder  me. 
Deeper  in  wood,  more  fair  arose 
plains  and  plants  and  spice  and  fruits, 

hedgerows  and  borders,  and  river-meads  ; 

as  fine  gold-thread  were  their  steep  banks. 

A  water  I  reach'd  that  cleft  the  strand,- 

Lord,  how  wondrous  was  the  sight ! 

12  PERLE. 

f.  40*5   The  dubbemente  of  po  derworth  depe 
Wern  bonke}  bene  of  beryl  bry}t  ; 
Swangeande  swete  pe  water  con  swepe, 
Wyth  a  rownande  rourde  raykande  ary}t ;      n* 
In  ]?e  fou«ce  \er  stonden  stone}  stepe, 
As  glente  )>ur}  glas  pat  glowed  &  gly}t, 
A[s]  stremande  sterne},  quen  strope-me/z  slepe, 
Staren  in  welkyn  in  wynter  ny}t ;  "6 

For  vche  a  pobbel  in  pole  Jjer  py}t 

Wat}  emerad,  saffer,  olper  gewme  gente, 

})at  alle  ]?e  lo^e  lemed  of  ly^t, 

So  dere  wat}  hit  adubbeme«t.  120 

§  III. 

THE  dubbemewt  dere  of  dou«  &  dale}, 
Of  wod  &  water  &  wlonk[e]  playne}, 
Bylde  in  me  blys,  abated  my  bale}, 
For-didden  my  stresse,  dystryed  my  payne}.    124 
Dou«  after  a  strem  J?at  dry}ly  hale} 
I  bowed  in  blys,  bred-ful  my  brayne}  ; 
)}e  fyrre  I  fol}ed  pose  floty  vale}, 
)pe  more  strengh J>e  of  ioye  my n  herte  str ay ne} .  128 
As  fortune  fares  Jw-as  ho  frayne}, 
Whe]j<rr  solace  ho  sende  olpfr  elle}  sore, 
)pe  wy}  to  wham  her  wylle  ho  wayne} 
Hytte}  to  haue  ay  more  &  more.  is2 

PEARL.  1.3 

The  marvels  of  that  wondrous  flood  ! 

Beauteous  its  banks  with  beryl  bright ; 

with  music  sweet  its  waters  swept ; 

with  whispering  voice  it  wander'd  on. 

And  in  the  depths  shone  glittering  stones ; 

as  glint  through  glass  they  glimmer'd  and  glowM; 

as  streaming  stars  in  the  welkin  shine 

on  a  winter  night,  when  dalesmen  sleep. 
Each  pebble  set  there  in  that  pool 
was  an  emerald,  sapphire,  or  goodly  gem, 
that  all  the  water  with  light  did  gleam,  - 
the  glamour  was  so  wondrous  rare ! 

§  III.  xi. 

THE  wondrous  glamour  of  down  and  dale, 
of  wood  and  water  and  noble  plain, 

stirr'd  in  me  bliss,  my  bale  allay'd,^ 

scatter'd  sorrow,  pain  destroyed. 

Along  a  stream  I  wended  in  joy,— 

slowly  it  flow'd,-my  mind  was  full ; 

the  farther  I  follow'd  those  watery  vales-, 

the  mightier  joy  constrained  my  heart. 
Fortune  fareth  where  she  listeth, 
sends  she  solace,  or  sends  she  care ; 
the  wight  on  whom  her  will  she  worketh 
hath  ever  chance  of  more  and  more. 



More  of  wele  wat^  in  pat  wyse 

J)e«  I  cowpe  telle  pa}  [torn  I]  hade  ; 

For  vrpely  herte  my^t  not  sufFyse 

To  pe  tenpe  dole  of  po  Gladne}  glade  ;          '36 

For-py  I  po^t  p<zt  Paradyse 

Wat}  per  o[u]d>r  gayn  po  bonke}  brade  ; 

I  hoped  }>e  water  were  a  deuyse 

By-twene  [mere}]  by  [Myrpe]  made  ;  H0 

By-}onde  pe  broke,  by  slente  olper  slade, 
I  hope[d]  Ipat  mote  merked  wore  ; 
Bot  )>e  water  wat3  depe,  I  dorst  not  wade, 
&  eiur  me  longed  a[y]  more  &  more.          144 


f.  4ia  More  &  more,  &  ^et  wel  mare, 

Me  lyste  to  se  J?e  broke  by-^onde  ; 
For,  if  hit  wat^  fayr  ]>er  I  con  fare, 
Wel  loueloker  wat^  pe  fyrre  londe.  J48 

Abowte  me  con  I  stote  &  stare, 
To  fynde  a  forpe  faste  con  I  fonde  ; 
Bot  wope^  mo  i-wysse  ]>er  ware, 
Jje  fyrre  I  stalked  by  pe  stronde  ;  15* 

&  euer  me  jjo^t  I  schulde  not  wonde 
For  woQ?e],  per  wele^  so  wy«ne  wore ; 
)5e«ne  nwe  note  me  com  on  honde, 
Jpat  meued  my  mynde  ay  more  &  more.      156 



More  was  of  wealth  there,  of  this  kind, 
than  I  could  tell,  were  leisure  mine, 
for  earthly  heart  might  not  attain 
unto  the  tenth  of  that  glad  Joy. 
Certes,  methought  that  Paradise 
lay  there  beyond,  o'er  those  broad  banks. 
The  stream  was  some  device,  I  trow'd, 
Sir  Mirth  had  made  between  great  wells  ; 
beyond  the  brook,  by  hill  or  dale, 
the  castle-bounds,  I  trow'd,  were  mark'd; 
but  the  water  was  deep,  I  durst  not  wade, 
and  ever  long'd  I,  more  and  more. 


More  and  more,  and  yet  still  more, 

I  long'd  to  see  beyond  the  brook ; 

for  if  'twas  fair  where  I  then  pass'd, 

far  fairer  was  the  farther  land. 

About  me  stumbled  I  and  stared ; 

to  find  a  ford  full  hard  I  sought ; 

but  perils  more,  iwis,  there  were, 

the  further  I  stalk'd  along  the  bank  ; 
and  ever  methought  I  could  not  flinch, 
afeard,  where  wealth  so  winsome  was ; 
when  new  delights  at  hand  were  nigh, 
that  moved  my  mind,  e'en  more  and  more. 

16  PERLE. 


More  meruayle  con  my  dom  adau«t ; 

I  se$  by^onde  pat  myry  mere 

A  crystal  clyfTe  ful  relusauwt  ; 

Mony  ryal  ray  con  fro  hit  rere.  160 

At  pe  fote  Iper-of  Iper  sete  a  fauwt, 

A  mayden  of  menske,  ful  debonere  ; 

Blysnande  whyt  wat$  hyr  bleau/zt ; 

I  knew  hyr  wel,  I  hade  sen  hyr  ere.  164 

As  glysnande  golde  pat  man  con  schere, 

So  schon  pat  schene  an-vnder  schore  ; 

On  lengh<?  I  loked  to  hyr  pere  ; 

Jpe  lenger,  I  knew  hyr  more  &  more.          168 


The  more  I  frayste  hyr  fayre  face, 
Her  fygure  fyn  quen  I  had  fonte, 
Suche  gladande  glory  con  to  me  glace 
As  lyttel  byfore  perto  wat}  wonte.  172 

To  calle  hyr  lyste  con  me  enchace, 
Bot  baysme«t  gef  myn  hert  a  bruwt ; 
I  se^  hyr  in  so  strange  a  place, 
Such  a  burre  my^t  make  my«  herte  blu«t.        i?6 
jpe«ne  vere^  ho  vp  her  fayre  frou«t, 
Hyr  vysayge  whyt  as  playn  yuore, 
jpat  stonge  my/z  hert,  ful  stray  a[sjtou«t, 
&  eutfr  pe  lenger,  pe  more  &  more.  180 



More  marvels  then  did  daunt  my  soul ; 

I  saw  beyond  that  merry  mere 

a  crystal  cliff  that  shone  full  bright, 

many  a  noble  ray  stood  forth  ; 

at  the  foot  thereof  there  sat  a  child,  - 

so  debonair,  a  maid  of  grace ; 

glistening  white  was  her  rich  robe ; 

I  knew  her  well,  I  had  seen  her  ere. 
As  gleaming  gold,  refin'd  and  pure, 
so  shone  that  glory  'neath  the  cliff ; 
long  toward  her  there  I  look'd,— 
the  longer,  I  knew  her  more  and  more. 


The  more  I  scann'd  her  face  so  fair, 
her  beauteous  form  when  I  had  found, 
such  gladdening  glory  came  to  me 
as  seldom  had  been  wont  to  come. 
Longing  me  seized  to  call  her  name, 
but  wonder  dealt  my  heart  a  blow  ; 
I  saw  her  in  so  strange  a  place, 
well  might  the  shock  mine  heart  appal. 
Then  lifted  she  her  visage  fair, 
as  ivory  pure  her  face  was  white ; 
it  thrill'd  mine  heart,  struck  all  astray, 
and  ever  the  longer,  more  and  more. 

1 8  PERLE. 

§  IV.  xvr. 

f.  41*  Tt  /TORE  }>en  me  lyste  my  drede  arcs  ; 
J.V.L      I  stod  ful  stylle  &  dome  not  calle  ; 
Wyth  y^en  open  &  mouth  ful  clos, 
I  stod  as  hende  as  hawk  in  halle.  184 

I  hope[dj  Ipat  gostly  wat^  ]>at  porpose  ; 
I  dred  on-ende  quat  schulde  byfalle, 
Lest  ho  me  eschaped  ]?at  I  Iper  chos, 
Er  1  at  steuen  hir  mo^t  stalle.  188 

)?at  gracios  gay  wyt/6-outen  galle, 

So  smo]?e,  so  smal,  so  seme  sly^t, 

Ryse^  vp  in  hir  araye  ryalle, 

A  p/vc[/]os  pyece  in  perle^  py^t.  19* 


Perle^  py^te  of  ryal  prys 
J)ere  mo^t  mon  by  grace  haf  sene, 
Quen  ]?at  frech  as  flor-de-lys 
Dou//  pe  bonke  con  bo^e  by-dene.  J9^ 

Al  blysnande  whyt  wat}  hir  beau  mys, 
Vpon  at  syde^,  &  bou/zden  bene 
Wyth  J>e  myryeste  margarys,  at  my  deuyse, 
))at  eu^-r  I  se^  ^et  with  myn  [ene]  ;  200 

Wyth  lappe^  large,  I  wot  &  I  wene, 
Dubbed  with  double  perle  &  dy^te  ; 
Her  cortel  of  self  sute  schene, 

prvcios  perle^  al  vmbe-py^te.  i°4 

PEARL.  19 

§  IV.  xvi. 

MORE  than  me  pleased  was  now  my  dread ; 
I  stood  full  still,  I  dared  not  speak ; 

with  open  eyes  and  fast-closed  mouth, 

I  stood  as  gentle  as  hawk  in  hall. 

A  ghostly  vision  I  trow'd  it  was  ; 

I  dreaded  what  might  there  betide, 

lest  what  I  saw  should  me  escape 

ere  I  it  held  within  my  reach  ; 

when,  lo  !   that  spotless  child  of  grace, 
so  smooth,  so  small,  so  sweetly  slight, 
arose  in  all  her  royal  array,- 
a  precious  piece,  bedight  with  pearls. 


Choicest  pearls,  of  sovereign  price, 
favoured  mortal  there  might  see, 
when  all  as  fresh  as  a  fleur-de-lys 
adown  that  bank  she  came  anon. 
Gleaming  white  was  her  surcoat  fine, 
open  at  sides,  and  nobly  edged 
with  pearls,  the  merriest,  I  trow, 
that  e'er  I  saw  yet  with  mine  eyes^j 
ample  the  sleeves,  I  ween  and  wot, 
with  double  braid  of  pearl  bedeck'd  ; 
her  beauteous  kirtle,  matching  well, 
with  precious  pearls  was  all  bedight. 

20  PERLE. 


A  py^t  coroune  ^et  wer  )>at  gyrle, 

Of  mariorys  &  non  olper  ston, 

Hi^e  pynakled  of  cler  quyt  perle, 

Wyth  flurted  flowre^  perfet  vpon.  »oS 

To  bed  hade  ho  non  olper  werle  ; 

Her  [h]ere  [h]eke  al  hyr  vmbe-gon  ; 

Her  semblau«t  sade,  for  doc  ojxrr  erle  ; 

Her  ble  more  bla^t  peri  whalle^  bon.  *i* 

As  schorne  golde  schyr  her  fax  J>e/me  schon, 

On  schyldere}  )>at  legh<?  vnlapped  ly^te ; 

Her  depe  colour  }et  wonted  non 

Of  pra:ios  perle  i«  porfyl  py^te.  *i6 


Py^t  wat^  poyned  &  vche  a  hemme, 

At  honde,  at  syde$,  at  ouerture, 

Wyth  whyte  perle  &  non  o]>er  gemme, 

&  bornyste  quyte  wat^  hyr  uesture  ;  »*o 

Bot  a  wonder  perle,  wyt^-outen  wemme, 

In  mydde}  hyr  breste  wat^  sette  so  sure ; 

A  ma/me}  dom  mo^t  dry^ly  demme, 

Er  mynde  mo^t  malte  in  hit  mesure.  **4 

I  hope  no  tong[e]  mo^t  endure 

No  sau/rly  saghe  say  of  ]>at  sy^t, 

So  wat3  hit  clene  &  cler  &  pure, 

pat  p/vcios  perle  ]>er  hit  wat^  py^t.  «* 

PEARL.  21 


A  crown  that  maiden  wore,  bedight 

with  margarites,  and  no  stone  else  ; 

high  pinnacled  with  clear  white  pearls, 

with  figured  flowers  wrought  thereon. 

No  other  tire  was  on  her  head ; 

her  hair,  too,  hung  about  her  neck  ; 

her  look  was  grave,  as  duke's  or  earl's ; 

whiter  than  whale-bone  was  her  hue. 
Bright  as  clear  gold  her  tresses  shone, 
loose  on  her  shoulders  they  softly  lay  ; 
her  glowing  beauty  had  no  lack 
of  precious  pearls  on  broid'ry  dight. 


The  hems  and  wristbands  were  bedight, 
at  the  hands,  at  sides,  at  openings, 
with  white  pearl,  and  none  other  gem ; 
and  burnish'd  white  her  vesture  was ; 
but  a  wondrous  pearl,  without  a  flaw, 
amid  her  breast  was  firmly  set ; 
soul  of  man  would  surely  fail 
ere  mortal  mind  might  mete  its  worth. 
No  tongue  might  e'er  avail,  I  trow, 
that  sight  to  tell  in  fitting  word, 
so  fair  was  it,  and  clear,  and  pure, 
that  precious  pearl,  where  it  was  dight. 

22  PERLE. 


Py^t  in  perle,  ]?at  pr<?cios  py[ec]e 

On  wy]w-half  water  com  doun  J>e  schore ; 

No  gladder  gome  hepen  in-to  Grece, 

)?ew  I,  quen  ho  on  brywzme  wore ;  23* 

Ho  wat^  me  nerre  pen  au«te  or  nece  ; 

My  joy  for-py  wat^  much  pe  more. 

Ho  p[ro]fered  me  speche,  Jwrt  special  sp[e]ce, 

Enclynande  lowe  in  wowmon  lore  ;  23 6 

Ca^te  of  her  corouw  of  grete  tresore, 

&  haylsed  me  wyth  a  lote  ly^te. 

Wei  wat}  me  Ipat  euer  I  wat^  bore, 

To  sware  J»at  swete  in  perle^  py^te.  24o 

§  V.  xxi. 

PERLE,"  qwo)>  I,  "  in  perle^  py^t, 
Art  )>0u  my  perle  )?at  I  haf  playned, 

Regretted  by  my«  one,  on  ny^te  ? 

Much  longey/?g  haf  I  for  pe  layned,  ^44 

Sy)?en  into  gresse  fou  me  agly^te  ; 

Pensyf,  payred,  I  am  for-payned, 

&  pou  in  a  lyf  of  lyky«g  ly^te 

In  Paradys  erde,  of  stryf  vnstrayned.  M8 

What  wyrde  hat^  hyder  my  iuel  vayned, 
&  don  me  in  J>ys  del  &  gret  dauwger  ? 
Fro  we  in  twywne  wern  towen  &  twayned, 
I  haf  ben  a  joyle^  juelere."  252 

PEARL.  23 


Bedight  with  pearls,  that  precious  thing 

came  down  the  shore  beyond  the  stream ; 

from  here  to  Greece  no  gladder  man    \    s 

than  I,  when  she  was  at  the  brink. 

She  was  me  nearer  than  aunt  or  niece, 

wherefore  my  joy  was  much  the  more. 

ProfFer'd  me  speech  that  creature  rare, 

inclining  low  in  womanly  wise ; 

her  crown  of  richest  worth  she  dofPd, 
and  hail'd  me  with  obeisance  blithe. 
Well  was  me  that  e'er  I  was  born, 
to  answer  that  Sweet,  in  pearls  bedight. 

§  V. 

PEARL !  "  quoth  I,  "bedight  in  pearls, 
art  thou  my  Pearl,  that  I  have  plain'd, 
bewept  by  me,  so  lone,  a-night  ? 
Much  longing  have  I.  borne  for  thee, 
since  into  grass  thou  hence  didst  glide  ; 
pensive,  broken,  forpined  am  I ; 
but  thou  hast  reach'd  a  life  of  joy, 
in  the  strifeless  home  of  Paradise. 

What  fate  hath  hither  brought  my  jewel, 

and  me  in  dolorous  plight  hath  cast  ? 

Since  we  were  sunder'd  and  set  apart, 

a  joyless  jeweller  I  have  been." 

24  PERLE. 


f.  42$  That  juel  pe«ne,  in  gewme^  gente, 

Vered  vp  her  vyse  wyt/6  y^en  graye, 

Set  on  hyr  corouw  of  perle  orient, 

&  soberly  after  pe/me  con  ho  say:-  *S6 

"  S;>,  ^e  haf  your  tale  myse-tente, 

To  say  yowr  perle  is  al  awaye, 

)}at  is  in  cofer  so  comly  clente, 

As  in  pis  gardyn  gracios  gaye,  260 

Here-i«ne  to  lenge  for  ever  &  play, 
)}er  mys  nef  morny/zg  com  neu#-  [n]ere ; 
Her  were  a  forser  for  pe  in  faye, 
If  pou  were  a  gentyl  jueler.  264 


"  Bot,  jueler  gente,  if  J>ou  schal  lose 

Jpy  ioy  for  a  gewme  J>at  fe  wat^  lef, 

Me  ]>ynk  fe  put  i«  a  mad  porpose, 

&  busye^  ]?e  aboute  a  raysou/z  bref ;  268 

For  pat  )>0u  leste^  wat^  bot  a  rose, 

)}at  flowred  &  fayled  as  kynde  hyt  gef ; 

Now  Jnir}  kynde  of  J)e  kyste  ]>at  hyt  con  close 

To  a  perle  of  prys  hit  is  put  in  pref.  *72 

&  pou  hat$  called  }>y  wyrde  a  pef, 

Jpat  o^t  of  no^t  hat^  mad  ]?e  cler  ; 

pou  blame}  pe  bote  of  )>y  meschef, 

])ou  art  no  kynde  jueler."  276 

PEARL.  25 


That  jewel  there,  so  fair  begemm'd, 
up-rais'd  her  face,  her  eyes  so  grey, 
put  on  her  crown  of  Orient  pearl, 
and  thus  full  gravely  then  she  spake  : 
"  Sir,  thou  hast  misread  thy  tale, 
to  say  thy  Pearl  is  all  perdu, 
that  is  in  chest  so  comely  and  strong 
as  in  this  garden  of  grace  and  glee  ; 

for  ever  to  dwell  and  play  herein, 

where  miss  and  mourning  come  never  nigh ; 

this  were  thy  treasure-hold,  i*  faith, 

wert  thou  a  gentle  jeweller. 


"  But,  gentle  sir,  if  thou  must  lose 

thy  joy  for  a  gem  that  to  thee  was  dear, 

thou'rt  set,  methinks,  on  mad  intent,    ^      ^^ 

and  carest  for  too  brief  a  cause  :  ^    \pjj> 

what  thou  didst  lose  was  but  a  rose,  — 

that  flower'd  and  fail'd,  as  Nature  bade ; 

through  the  casket's  grace,  enclosing  it, 

it  now  is  proved  a  pearl  of  price. 

And  thou  hast  call'd  thy  fate  a  thief, 

that  ought  from  nought  hath  made  for  thee; 

thou  blamest  the  balm  of  all  thine  ill, 

thou  art  a  graceless  jeweller." 

26  PERLE. 


A  juel  to  me  fen  wat}  fys  geste, 

&  iuele}  wern  hyr  ge«tyl  sawe^. 

"  I-wyse,"  qwof  I,  "  my  blysfol  beste, 

My  grete  dystresse  fou  al  to-drawe}.  280 

To  be  excused  I  make  requeste ; 

I  trawed  my  perle  don  out  of  dawe}  ; 

Now  haf  I  fonde  hyt,  I  schal  ma  feste, 

&  wony  wj>t^>  hyt  in  schyr  wod-schawe},         284 
&  loue  my  Lorde  &  al  his  lawe}, 
J?at  hat}  me  bro}[t]  fys  blys[se]  ner. 
Now  were  I  at  yow  by-}onde  fise  wawe}, 
I  were  a  ioyfol  jueler  !  "  288 


"  Jueler,"  sayde  fat  gewme  clene, 

«  Wy  borde  ^e  men  ?   So  madde  ^e  be  ! 
re  worde^  hat}  Ipou  spoken  at  ene  ; 
i-a-vysed,  for-sofe,  wern  alle  j^e  ;  292 

])OM  ne  woste  in  worlde  quat  on  dot}  mene, 

})y  worde  by-fore  fy  wytte  con  fle. 

])o\a  says  you  trawe}  me  in  Ipis  dene, 

By-cawse  Ipou  may  wjt^  y}en  me  se ;  -96 

Anof^r  ]>ou  says,  in  ]>ys  couwtre 
})y  self  schal  won  wjt/>  me  ry}t  here  ; 
Jje  frydde,  to  passe  J>ys  wat<?r  fre,— 
jpat  may  no  ioyfol  jueler.  3°° 

PEARL.  27 


A  jewel  to  me  was  then  this  guest, 

and  jewels  were  her  gentle  words. 

"  Indeed,"  quoth  I,  "  blest  dearest  mine, 

my  dire  distress  away  thou  draw'st. 

I  make  request  to  be  excused  ; 

I  trow'd  my  Pearl  had  pass'd  from  Day ; 

but  now  'tis  found,  I  shall  make  mirth, 

and  dwell  with  it  in  radiant  groves, 

and  praise  my  Lord  and  all  His  Jaws, 

who  hath  me  brought  this  bliss  anigh. 

Were  I  with  thee  beyond  these  waves, 

I  were  a  joyful  jeweller  !  " 


"  Jeweller  !  "  said  that  purest  gem, 
"  Why  jest  ye  men  ?  So  mad  ye  are  ! 
Three  words  thou  spakest  at  one  time ; 
thoughtless,  forsooth,  were  all  the  three  ; 
thou  knowest  not  what  one  doth  mean ; 
surely  thy  words  outrun  thy  wit. 
Thou  sayest,  thou  deemest  me  in  this  dale, 
because  thou  seest  me  with  thine  eyes ; 

again,  thou  sayest,  that  in  this  land 

thyself  wilt  dwell  with  me  e'en  here  ; 

thirdly,-this  stream  would' st  freely  pass; 

this  may  no  joyful  jeweller. 

28  PERLE. 

§  VI.  xxvi 

"  T  HALDE  pat  iueler  lyttel  to  prayse, 

JL     Jpat  l[e]ue^  wel  p#t  he  se^  wyth  y^e, 
&  much  to  blame  &  vn-cort[a]yse, 
j?at  l[e]ue}  oure  Lorde  wolde  make  a  ly^e,    3°4 
J}at  lelly  hy^te  your  lyf  to  rayse, 
J}a$  fortune  dyd  yoz/r  flesch  to  dy^e. 
3e  setten  hys  worde^  ful  westernays, 
j?at  l[e]ue^  no  py«k  bot  ^e  hit  sy^e  ;  308 

&  pat  isf  a  poy«t  o  sorquydry^e, 

|?at  vche  god  mon  may  euel  byseme, 

To  leue  no  tale  be  true  to  try^e, 

Bot  pat  hys  one  skyl  may  dem[e].  312 


"  Deme  now  py  self,  if  pou  con  dayly 

As  man  to  God  worde^  schulde  heue ; 

Jpou  sayt^  pou  schal  won  in  pis  bayly ; 

Me  pynk  pe  burde  fyrst  aske  leue ;  316 

&  ^et  of  grauwt  pou  my^te^  fayle. 

Jpou  wylne^  ou^r  pys  water  to  weue; 

Er  moste  pou  ceuer  to  op^r  cou«sayl[e]  ; 

jty  corse  in  clot  mot  calder  keue ;  320 

For  hit  wat3  for-garte  at  Paradys  greue  ; 

Oure  ^ore- fader  hit  con  mysse^eme ; 

Jpur^  drwry  deth  003  vch  ma  dreue, 

Er  ourr  pys  dam  hym  Dry^tyw  deme."        324 

PEARL.  29 

§  VI.  xxvi. 

"  T  HOLD  that  jeweller  little  j:oj>£ajse 

JL      that  trusteth  what  with  eye  he  seeth, 
and  much  to  blame  and  graceless  he 
that  thinketh  our  Lord  would  speak  a  lie, 
who  leally  promised  to  raise  thy  life, 
though  fortune  gave  thy  flesh  to  death. 
Full  widdishins  thou  read'st  His  words, 
that  trowest  nought  but  what  thou  seest ; 

and  'tis  an  overweening  thing, 

that  ill  beseems  each  righteous  man, 

to  trow  no  tale  be  trustworthy, 

save  his  mere  reason  deem  it  so. 


"  Deem  now  thyself,  if  thou  hast  dealt 
such  words  as  man  to  God  should  lift. 
Thou  sayest  thou  wilt  dwell  in  this  burgh ; 
'twere  meet,  methinks,  first  to  ask  leave  ; 
and  yet  thou  mightest  miss  the  boon. 
Thou  wishest,  too,  to  cross  this  stream  ; 
first  must  thou  reach  another  goal,- 
colder  thy  corse  must  cling  in  clay ; 

'twas  forfeit  in  grove  of  Paradise  ; 

our  forefather  ill  guarded  it ; 

through  dreary  death  each  man  must  pass, 

ere  God  deem  right  he  cross  this  flood."  ' 

30  PERLE. 


f.  43*5  "  Deme}  )?0u  me,"  quo])  I,  "  my  swete, 

To  dol  agayn,  pe/me  I  dowyne. 

Now  haf  I  fonte  pat  I  for-lete, 

Schal  I  efte  for-go  hit,  er  euer  I  fyne  ?  3*8 

Why  schal  I  hit  bope  mysse  &  mete  ? 

My  pn?cios  perle  dot}  me  gret  pyne  ! 

What  serue^  tresor  hot  garef  men  grete, 

When  he  hit  schal  efte  wjyt^  tene}  tyne  ?         33* 
Now  rech  I  neuer  for  to  declyne, 
Ne  how  fer  of  folde  pat  man  me  fleme. 
When  I  am  partle}  of  perlef  myne, 
Bot  durande  doel  what  may  men  deme  ?  "  336 


"  Thow  deme^  no^t  hot  doel  dystresse," 

fienne  sayde  J>at  wy^t ;   **  why  dot^  Ipou  so  ? 

For  dyne  of  doel  of  lure^  lesse 

Ofte  mony  mon  for-gos  J)e  mo  ;  340 

J)e  o^te  better  ]?y  seluen  blesse, 

&  loue  ay  God,  [in]  wele  &  wo, 

For  anger  gayne}  pe  not  a  cresse  ; 

Who  nede^  schal  pole,  be  not  so  ]?ro.  544 

For  )x>3  ]>ou  dauwce  as  any  do, 
Brauwdysch  &  bray  J>y  brafe^  breme, 
When  pou  no  fyrre  may,  to  ne  fro, 
)5ou  moste  abyde  pat  he  schal  deme.  348 


PEARL.  31 


"  Doomest  thou  me,"  quoth  I,  "  my  Sweet, 

to  dole  again,  I  pine  away. 

Now  have  I  found  what  I  had  lost, 

must  I  forgo  it,  ere  ever  I  end  ? 

Why  must  I  it  both  meet  and  miss  ? 

My  precious  Pearl  doth  me  great  pain ! 

What  serveth  treasure  but  tears  to  make, 

if  one  must  lose  it  soon  with  woe  ? 
Now  reck  I  ne'er  how  low  I  droop, 
how  far  men  drive  me  from  my  land ; 
when  in  my  Pearl  no  part  is  mine, 
what  is  my  doom  but  endless  moan  ?  " 


"  Thou  deem'st  of  nought  but  doleful  grief," 

said  then  that  maid  ;   "  why  dost  thou  so  ? 

Through  din  of  dole  for  losses  small 

many  a  man  oft  loseth  more. 

Rather  shouldst  thou  cross  thyself, 

and  praise  aye  God,  in  woe  and  weal ; 

anger  avails  thee  not  a  cress ; 

who  needs  must  bow,  be  not  so  bold ; 
for  though  thou  dance  as  any  doe, 
chafe  and  cry  in  fiercest  ire, 
since,  to  or  fro,  no  way  thou  mak'st, 
thou  must  abide  what  He  shall  deem. 

32  PERLE. 

"  Deme  Dry^tyn,  euer  hym  adyte 

Of  )?e  way  a  fote  ne  wyl  he  wryfe  ; 

\)y  mende}  mouwte}  not  a  myte, 

\)a$  Ipou  for  sor^e  be  neiurr  blyj>e.  35* 

Sty«t|  of  J>y  strot  &  fyne  to  flyte, 

&  sech  hys  bly)>e  ful  swefte  &  swyfe ; 

})y  prayer  may  hys  pyte  byte, 

)3at  Mercy  schal  hyr  crafte}  kype.  356 

Hys  comforte  may  py  langowr  lyfe, 
[]>at  alle]  J)y  lure}  of  Iy3tly  leme  ; 
For,  marre[d]  olper  madde,  morne  &  my]?e, 
Al  lys  in  hym  to  dy^t  &  deme."  360 

§  VII.  XXXK 

f.  44*  ^T^HENNE  demed  I  to  pat  damyselle : 

JL      "  Ne  wor]?e  no  wrath pe  vnto  my  Lorde, 
If  rapely  [I]  raue  spornande  in  spelle, 
My  herte  wat^  al  wytA  mysse  remorde ;  364 

As  wallande  water  got}  out  of  welle, 
I  do  me  ay  in  hys  myserecorde. 
Rebuke  me  neu^r  wjyt^  worde}  felle, 
)?a}  I  forloyne,  my  dere  endorde ;  368 

Bot  [k]ype}  me  kyndely  your  coumforde, 

Pytosly  Jjenkande  vpon  ]?ysse,— 

Of  care  &  me  }e  made  acorde, 

}?at  er  wat}  grounde  of  alle  my  blysse.         372 

PEARL.  33 


"  Doom  thou  the  Lord  !   Arraign  Him  still ! 
He  will  not  swerve  a  foot  from  the  way. 
Thy  mending  'mounteth  not  a  mite, 
though  thou,  for  grief,  be  never  blithe. 
Stint  from  thy  strife,  and  cease  to  chide, 
and  seek  His  grace  full  swift  and  sure ; 
thy  prayer  may  His  pity  touch, 
and  Mercy  may  show  forth  her  craft. 
His  solace  may  assuage  thy  grief, 
that  all  thy  losses  glance  lightly  off; 
for,  marr'd  or  made,  mourning  and  mirth, 
all  lieth  in  Him,  as  He  deem  fit." 

§  VII.  xxxi. 

THEN  deem'd  I  to  that  damosel : 
"  Let  not  my  Lord  be  wroth  with  me, 
if  wildly  I  rave,  rushing  in  speech, 
my  heart  with  mourning  all  was  torn. 
As  welling  water  goeth  from  well, 
I  yield  me  to  His  mercy  aye. 
Rebuke  me  ne'er  with  cruel  words, 
my  dear  adored,  e'en  though  I  stray ; 
but  show  me  kindly  comforting, 
piteously  thinking  upon  this,- 
of  care  and  me  thou  madest  accord, 
that  wast  of  all  my  bliss  the  ground. 

34  PERLE. 


y    "  My  blysse,  my  bale,  ^e  ban  ben  bope  ; 

Bot  much  pe  bygger  }et  wat$  my  mon  ; 

Fro  }>ou  wat$  wroken  fro  vch  a  woj>e, 

I  wyste  neufr  quere  my  perle  wat}  gon.          376 

Now  I  hit  se,  now  lepe^  my  lo]>e  ; 

&  quen  we  departed,  we  wern  at  on  ; 

God  forbede  we  be  now  wro))e ! 

We  meten  so  selden  by  stok  o]>er  ston.  38° 

J5a^  cortaysly  ^e  carp[e]  con, 
I  am  bot  mol,  &  ma[n]ere3  mysse ; 
Bot  Crystes  mersy  &  Mary  &  Jon,- 
))ise  arn  ]?e  grouwde  of  alle  my  blysse          384 


"  In  blysse  I  se  )>e  blypely  blent, 

&  I  a  man  al  mornyf  mate ; 

$e  take  ]w-on  ful  lyttel  tente, 

))a$  I  hente  ofte  harme^  hate.  388 

Bot  now  I  am  here  in  your  presente, 

I  wolde  bysech,  wyth-outen  debate, 

^e  wolde  me  say  in  sobre  asente 

What  lyf  36  lede,  erly  &  late.  39* 

For  I  am  ful  fayn  fat  yo«r  astate 

Is  worsen  to  worschyp  &  wele  iwysse  ; 

Of  alle  my  joy  ]>e  hy^e  gate, 

Hit  is  in  grou/zde  of  alle  my  blysse."          396 

PEARL.  35 


"  My  bliss,  my  bale,  hast  thou  been  both  ; 
but  much  the  more  my  moan  hath  been  ; 
since  thou  wast  banish'd  from  ev'ry  path, 
I  wist  not  where  my  Pearl  was  gone. 
Now  I  it  see,  now  less'neth  my  loss  ; 
and  when  we  parted,  at  one  we  were  ; 
God  forbid  we  be  now  wroth  ! 
We  meet  so  seldom  by  stock  or  stone. 

Though  thou  canst  speak  full  courteously, 

I  am  but  dust,  and  manners  lack ; 

the  mercy  of  Christ,  and  Mary,  and  John, 

these  are  the  ground  of  all  my  bliss. 


"  In  bliss  I  see  thee  blithely  blent, 
and  I  a  man  with  mourning  marr'd ; 
thereof  thou  takest  little  heed, 
though  baleful  harms  befall  me  oft. 
But  now,  before  thy  presence  here, 
I  would  beseech,  without  demur, 
that  thou  wouldst  tell,  with  gentle  grace, 
early  and  late  what  life  thou  lead'st. 

For  I  am  glad  that  thine  estate 

is  all  so  changed  to  worth  and  weal ; 

the  high-way  this  of  all  my  joy  ; 

it  is  the  ground  of  all  my  bliss." 

36  PERLE. 


"  Now  blysse,  burne,  mot  )>e  bytyde !  " 

pen  sayde  J?at  lufsouw  of  lyth  &  lere ;  — 

"  &  welcum  here  to  walk  &  byde, 

For  now  py  speche  is  to  me  dere.  4°° 

Mayster-ful  mod  &  hy^e  pryde, 

I  hete  J>e,  arn  heterly  hated  here  ; 

My  Lorde  ne  loue^  not  for  to  chyde, 

For  meke  arn  alle  ]>at  wone^  \\jrn  nere.          4°4 

&  when  in  hys  place  ]>ou  schal  apere, 

Be  dep  deuote  in  hoi  mekenesse ; 

My  Lorde  )?e  Lamb  loue^  ay  such  chere, 

})at  is  pe  grouwde  of  alle  my  blysse.  4°8 


"  A  blysful  lyf  Ipou  says  I  lede  ; 
])ou  wolde^  knaw  ]>er-of  tye  stage. 
)pow  wost  wel  when  )>y  Perle  con  schede, 
I  wat^  ful  ^ong  &  tender  of  age  ;  412 

Bot  my  Lorde  pe  Lombe,  )mr$  hys  God-hede, 
He  toke  my  self  to  hys  maryage, 
Corouwde  me  quene  in  blysse  to  brede, 
In  lenghf  of  daye^  )>at  euer  schal  wage.  4l6 

&  sesed  in  alle  hys  herytage 

Hys  lef  is  ;   I  am  holy  hysse  ; 

Hys  prese,  hys  prys,  &  hys  parage 

Is  rote  &  grou/zde  of  alle  my  blysse."          420 

PEARL.  37 


"  Now  bliss  betide  thee,  noble  sir," 
said  she,  so  fair  of  form  and  face, 
"  and  welcome  here  to  bide  and  walk, 
for  dear  to  me  is  now  thy  speech. 
Masterful  mood  and  mighty  pride, 
I  tell  thee,  are  bitterly  hated  here  ; 
my  Master  loveth  not  to  blame, 
for  meek  are  all  that  dwell  Him  nigh. 

And  when  in  His  place  appear  thou  must, 

in  humbleness  be  deep  devout ; 

my  Lord  the  Lamb  such  cheer  aye  loveth  ; 

He  is  the  ground  of  all  my  bliss. 


"  A  blissful  life  thou  say'st  I  lead, 
and  thou  wouldst  know  the  state  thereof : 
well  know'st  thou,  when  thy  Pearl  fared  forth, 
of  tender  age,  full  young,  was  I  ; 
but,  through  His  Godhead,  my  Lord  the  Lamb 
took  me  in  marriage  unto  Himself; 
crown'd  me  Queen,  to  revel  in  bliss, 
in  length  of  days  that  ne'er  shall  wane  ; 

and  dower'd  with  all  His  heritage 

His  Bride  is  ;   I  am  wholly  His  ; 

His  praise,  His  price,  His  peerless  rank, 

of  all  my  bliss  are  root  and  ground." 

38  PERLE. 

§VIII.  xxxvi. 

«  T)  LYSFUL,"  qwop  I,  "  may  J>ys  be  trwe  ? 

J3      Dysplese}  not  if  I  speke  errowr. 
Art  pou  pe  quene  of  heuene^  blwe, 
])at  al  pys  worlde  schal  do  honour  ?  4H 

We  leuen  on  Marye  pat  grace  of  grewe, 
)}at  her  a  barne  of  vyrgyn  flowr ; 
fte  croune  fro  hyr  quo  mo^t  remwe, 
Bot  ho  hir  passed  i«  sum  fauoz/r  ?  41 

Now,  for  synglerty  o  hyr  dousowr, 

We  calle  hyr  Fenyx  of  Arraby, 

))at  freles  fle^e  of  hyr  fasor, 

Lyk  to  ]?e  Quen  of  cortaysye."  43 2 


«  Cortayse  Quen,"  pe/me  s[a]yde  pat  gaye, 

Knelande  to  grou/zde,  folde  vp  hyr  face, 

"  Makele}  Moder  &  myryest  May, 

Blessed  Bygy/merf  of  vch  a  grace  !  "  436 

J)e«ne  ros  ho  vp  &  con  restay, 

&  speke  me  towarde  in  pat  space  : 

"  S*r,  fele  here  porchase^  &  fonge^  pray, 

Bot  supplantore^  none  wyt^-i/me  pys  place.     44° 

J^at  Empmse  al  heue«^  hat^, 

&  vrpe  &  helle  in  her  bayly  ; 

Of  erytage  $et  non  wyl  ho  chace, 

For  ho  is  Quen  of  cortaysye.  444 

PEARL.  39 

"  T}  LISSFUL,"  quoth  !,/<  may  this  be  so  ? 

JLJ     Speak  I  amiss,  be  nc  displeased. 
Art  thou  the  Queen  of  heaves  blue, 
whom  all  this  world  must  htfiour  now  ? 
We  believe  in  Mary,  from  \taom  sprang  grace,, 
who  bore  a  child  from  virg^  flower, 
and  who  can  take  from  herihe  crown, 
sv>ve  she  excel  her  in  some  (vorth  ? 

And  for  her  peerlessness  of  charm 

Phrenix  of  Araby  we  h<i'  call, 

the  bird  immaculate  of  form, 

like  to  that  £>ueen  of  Courtesy." 


"  Courteous  Queen  !  "  said  then  that  joy, 
kneeling  to  earth,  her  face  enveil'd, 
"  Matchless  Mother,  Merriest  Maid, 
Blest  Beginner  of  every  grace  !  " 
Then  rose  she  up,  and  there  she  paused, 
and  spake  toward  me  from  that  spot  :- 
"  Sir  !  folk  find  here  the  prize  they  seek, 
but  no  usurpers  bide  herein. 

That  Empress  in  her  empire  hath 
the  heavens  all  and  earth  and  hell ; 
from  heritage  yet  she  driveth  none, 
for  she  is  Queen  of  Courtesy. 

40  PERLE. 


"  The  coz/rt  of  )>i  kyndom  of  God  alyue 

Hat}  a  property  i/.hyt  self  beywg  ; 

Alle  fat  may  J)er->me  aryue 

Of  alle  ]?e  reme  is  iuen  o^er  ky/zg,  44^ 

&  neuer  otyer  ^et  depryue  ; 

Bot  vchon  fayn  of  tj^re}  hafy«g, 

&  wolde  her  corou;^  wern  wor)>e  fo  fyue, 

If  possyble  were  her  mendywg.  45  7- 

Bot  my  Lady,  of  quom  Jesu  con  spry/zg, 
Ho  halde^  fe  empyre  over  vus  ful  hy^e  ; 
&  ))at  dysplese^  noi  of  oure  gy«g, 
For  ho  is  Quene  of  cortaysye.  45 6 


*'  Of  cowrtaysye,  as  sayt^  Say«t  P[a]ule, 
Al  arn  we  mewbre^  of  I^u  Kryst ; 
As  heued  &  arme  &  legg  &  naule 
Temen  to  hys  body  ful  trwe  &  t[r]yste,  460 

Ry^t  so  is  vch  a  Krysten  saw[l]e 
A  longande  lym  to  )?e  Mayster  of  myste. 
Jpewne  loke,  what  hate  o]>er  any  gawle 
Is  tached  olper  ty^ed  )>y  lymme^  by-twyste  ?    464 

\)j  heued  hat^  naujjer  greme  ne  gryste, 

On  arme  o]>er  fynger  ^  ]?ou  ber  by^e. 

So  fare  we  alle  wyth  luf  &  lyste 

To  ky«g  &  quene  by  cortaysye."  468 

PEARL.  41 


"  The  Court  of  the  Kingdom  of  Living  God 

hath  in  itself  this  property,- 

each  one  that  may  .arrive  therein 

is  king  or  queen  of  all  the  realm, 

and  yet  shall  not  deprive  another  ; 

L'at  each  is  glad  of  others'  weal, 

and  would  their  crowns  were  worth  five  such, 

were  their  enhancing  possible. 

But  my  Lady,  from  whom  Jesu  sprang, 

She  holdeth  empire  high  o'er  all ; 

and  this  displeaseth  none  of  our  host, 

for  she  is  Queen  of  Courtesy. 


"  By  courtesy,  as  saith  Saint  Paul, 

we  all  are  members  of  Jesu  Christ  ; 

as  head  and  arm  and  leg  and  trunk, 

trusty  and  true,  their  body  serve, 

so  is  each  Christian  soul  a  limb 

that  to  the  Lord  of  Might  belongs. 

Lo  now,  what  hatred  or  ill-will 

is  fast  or  fix'd  between  thy  limbs  ? 

Thy  head  hath  neither  spleen  nor  spite, 
on  arm  or  finger  though  thou  bear  ring. 
So  fare  we  all  in  love  and  joy, 
by  courtesy,  to  King  and  Queen." 

42  PERLE. 


/.  45*  "  Cortays[y]e,"  q*/0p  I,  "  I  leue, 
&  charyte  grete  be  yow  amo«g ; 
Bot,  my  speche  pat  yow  ne  greue, 
[Me  pynk  pou  speke^  now  ful  wronge  ;J          472 
fry  self  in  heuen  over  hy$  pou  heue, 
To  make  pe  quen  pat  wafc$  so  ^onge. 
What  more  honour  mo^te  he  acheue 
J5at  hade  endured  in  worlde  stronge,  476 

&  lyued  in  penau^ce  hys  lyue^  longe, 
Wyth  bodyly  bale  hym  blysse  to  byye  ? 
What  more  worschyp  111031  h[e]  fonge, 
jjen  corouwde  be  ky«g  by  cortays[y]e  ?        480 

§  IX.  XLI. 

"  npHAT  cortays[y]e  is  to  fre  of  dede, 

JL         3yf  hyt  be  soth  pat  pou  cone^  saye  ; 
\)ou  lyfed  not  two  ^er  in  cure  pede  ; 
J^ouycowpe}  neu<?r  God  naup^r  plese  ne  pray,  484 
Ne  neiur  nawper  Pater  ne  Crede  ; 
&  quen  mad  on  pe  fyrst[e]  day  ! 
I  may  not  traw,  so  God  me  spede, 
fiat  God  wolde  wrype  so  wrange  away.  488 

Of  countes,  damysel,  par  ma  fay, 

Wer  fayr  in  heuen  to  halde  asstate, 

Op^r  elle^  a  lady  of  lasse  aray  ; 

Bot  aquene  !-hit  is  to  dere  a  date."  49* 

PEARL.  43 


"  Courtesy,"  quoth  I,  "  I  grant, 
and  charity  great  dwell  in  your  midst  ; 
but,  pardon  if  my  speech  doth  grieve, 
methinketh  now  thy  words  full  wrong  ; 
thou  hast  raised  thyself  in  heaven  too  high, 
to  make  thee  queen,  that  wast  so  young. 
What  greater  honour  might  he  win, 
who  suffered  bravely  in  this  world, 
and  lived  in  life-long  penance  here, 
with  bodily  bale  to  purchase  bliss  ? 
What  greater  glory  might  he  have 
than  king  be  crown'd  by  courtesy  ? 

§  IX.  XLI. 

"  '  I  AHIS  courtesy  is  all  too  free, 

JL        if  it  be  sooth  that  thou  hast  said  ; 
(thou  livedst  not  two  years  in  our  land,s} 

G-od  thou  couldst  not  please  or  pray, 

and  never  knewest  Pater  nor  Creed  ; 

yet  on  the  first  day  made  a  Queen  ! 

I  may  not  trow,  so  speed  me  God, 

that  He  would  work  so  all  amiss. 
As  countess,  damosel,  par  ma  fay , 
'twere  fair  in  heaven  to  hold  estate, 
or  as  a  lady  of  lower  degree  : 
but  a  Queen,-it  is  too  great  a  goal." 

44  PERLE. 


"  Jper  is  no  date  of  hys  god-nesse," 

\)en  sayde  to  me  fat  worpy  wy^te  ; 

"  For  al  is  trawpe  pat  he  con  dresse, 

&  he  may  do  no  )>ynk  hot  ry^t.  49 6 

As  Mathew  mele^  i«  your  messe, 

IH  sothfol  Gospel  of  God  Al-my^t, 

la-sample  he  can  ful  grayj>ely  gesse, 

&  lykne^  hit  to  heuen  ly^te.  500 

'  My  regne,'  he  sayt^,  « is  lyk  on  hy^t 
To  a  lorde  ]>at  hade  a  uyne,  I  wate  ; 
Of  tyme  of  ^ere  ]?e  terme  wat}  ty^t, 
To  labor  vyne  wat^  dere  pe  date.  5°4 


"  *  ))at  date  of  ^ere  wel  knawe  [h]ys  hyne  ; 
}5e  lorde  ful  erly  vp.  he  ros 
To  hyre  werkmen  to  hys  vyne, 
&  fynde^  Jw  su/wine  to  hys  porpos.  5°^ 

Into  acorde  fay  con  de-clyne 
For  a  penef  a  day,  &  forth  Jray  got}, 
Wryfen  &  worchen  &  don  gret  pyne, 
Keruen  &  caggen  &  man  hit  clos.  512 

Aboute  vnder  ]>e  lorde  to  marked  tot^, 
&  ydel  men  stande  he  fynde^  Derate  : 
« Why  stande  }e  ydel  ? '  he  sayde  to  fos  ; 
4  Ne  knawe  ^e  of  fis  day  no  date  ? '  Si6 

PEARL.  45 


"  No  goal,  no  end,  His  goodness  hath," 

then  said  to  me  that  noble  gem, 

"  for  all  is  just  where  He  doth  lead  ; 

He  can  do  nought  but  what  is  right. 

As  Matthew  telleth  in  your  mass, 

in  God  Almighty's  Gospel  true, 

a  parable  He  made  full  well  ; 

to  Heaven  bright  He  likeneth  it. 

*  My  realm  on  high/  He  saith,  *  is  like 
to  a  lord  that  had  a  vineyard  once ; 
and,  lo !   the  time  of  year  was  come 
•  when  vintage  was  the  season's  goal. 


"  *  The  season's  goal  his  household  knows  ; 
and  up  full  early  rose  the  lord 
to  hire  more  workmen  for  his  vines  ; 
and  to  his  purpose  findeth  some. 
They  enter  in  agreement  then 
for  a,  penny  a  day,  and  forth  they  go  ; 
they  strain  and  strive  and  do  great  toil, 
they  prune  and  bind  and  fasten  firm. 

About  noon  the  lord  the  market  sought, 
and  idle  men  found  standing  there. 

*  Why  stand  ye  idle  ?  '  he  said  to  them, 

*  Or  know  ye  for  this  day  no  goal  ? ' 

46  PERLE. 


"  *  <  Er  date  of  daye  hider  arn  we  wonne,' 
So  wat^  al  samen  her  answar  so^t ; 
*  We  haf  standen  her  syn  ros  pe  suwne, 
&  no  mo«  bydde^  vus  do  ry^t  no^t.'  520 

'  Gos  i«-to  my  vyne,  dot}  pat  ^e  cowne ;' 
So  sayde  pe  lorde,  &  made  hit  to$t  :- 
«  What  resnabelef  hyre  be  na3t  be  ru«ne 
I  yow  payf  in  dede  &  Jx^te.'  524 

J^ay  wente  i«-to  )>e  vyne  &  wro3te ; 
&  al  day  )>e  lorde  ]>us  ^ede  his  gate, 
&  nw[e]  men  to  hys  vyne  he  bro^te, 
Wel-ne^  wyl  day  wat^  passed  date.  528 


"  «  At  pe  [date]  of  [day]  of  euen-songe, 
On  oure  byfore  j>e  so/me  go  dou«, 
He  se$  per  yd  el  men  ful  stronge, 
&  sade  to  he[m],  wjyt/>  soore  souw  :-  532 

<  Wy  stonde  ^e  ydel  pise  daye^  longe  ? ' 
J3ay  sayden  her  hyre  wat^  nawhere  bouw. 
*  Got^  to  my  vyne,  ^emen  ^onge, 
&  wyrke^  &  dot^  p^rt  at  ^e  mouw.'  536 

Sone  pe  worlde  by-corn  wel  brou/z, 

\)e  su«ne  wat^  dou/z,  &  fhit  wex  late ; 

To  take  her  hyre  he  mad  suwouw ; 

J?e  day  wat$  al  apassed  date.  54° 

PEARL.  47 


"  *  *  Ere  dawn  of  day  we  hither  came  ; ' 
so  gave  they  answer,  one  and  all ; 

*  we  have  stood  here  since  rose  the  sun, 
and  no  man  biddeth  us  do  aught.' 

*  Enter  my  vineyard ;  do  what  ye  can,' 
said  then  the  lord,  and  made  it  sure,- 

*  What  wage  is  fair,  by  fall  of  night, 
I  will  you  pay,  in  thought  and  deed/ 

They  went  unto  his  vines,  and  work'd  ; 
and  thus  all  day  the  lord  went  forth, 
and  new  men  to  his  vineyard  brought, 
well-nigh  till  day  had  pass'd  its  goal. 


"  *  Nigh  goal  of  day,  at  evensong, 
one  hour  before  the  sun  should  set, 
strong  men  he  saw  stand  idle  there, 
and  said  to  them,  with  earnest  voice  :- 
'  Why  stand  ye  idle  the  livelong  day  ? ' 
Nowhere,  said  they,  was  hire  for  them. 
1  Go  to  my  vineyard,  yeomen  young, 
and  work  and  do  as  best  ye  can.' 

Soon  the  world  grew  burnish'd  brown  ; 

the  sun  was  down,  and  it  waxed  late  ; 

to  take  their  pay  he  summon'd  them ; 

the  day  was  done,  its  goal  was  pass'd. 

48  PERLE. 

§   X.  XLVI. 

f.  453  "  «  /  I  ^HE  date  of  pe  daye  pe  lorde  con  knaw, 
X    Called  to  pe  reue :  «  Lede,  pay  pe  menyf; 

Gyf  hem  pe  hyre  pat  I  hem  [a]we ; 

&  fyrre,  pat  non  me  may  repren[y],  544 

Set  hem  alle  vpon  a  rawe, 

&  gyf  vchon  i/z-lyche  a  peny. 

Bygyn  at  pe  laste  pat  stawde^  l[a]we, 

Tyl  to  pe  fyrste  pat  pou  atteny.'  548 

&  pe«ne  ]>e  fyrst  by-go«ne  to  pleny, 
&  sayden  pat  pay  hade  trauayled  sore  :- 
*  ftese  hot  on  oure  hem  con  streny ; 
VZAT  py«k  vus  o^e  to  take  more.  552 


"  * '  More  haf  we  serued,  vus  py«k  so, 
)pat  sufFred  han  pe  daye$  hete, 
|5e«n  pyse  pat  wro^t  not  houre^  two, 
&  pou  dot^  hem  vus  to  couwterfete.'  556 

]?e«ne  sayde  pe  lorde  to  onf  of  po  :- 
*  Frende^  no  wani[«]g  I  wyl  pe  ^ete  ; 
Take  pat  is  pyn  owne  &  go. 
&  I  hyred  pe  for  a  peny  a-grete,  56° 

Quy  bygy«ne^  pou  now  to  prete  ? 

Wat}  not  a  pene  py  couenaiwt  J?ore  ? 

Fyrre  pew  couenaunde  is  no^t  to  plete. 

Wy  schalte  pou  pe/me  ask[e]  more  ?  5^4 

PEARL.  49 

§  X.  XLVI. 

"  «  >~T~^HE  day  was  done,  the  master  knew,- 
JL        called  to  his  reeve :  *  Sir,  pay  the  men ; 

give  them  the  wage  that  I  them  owe, 

and  further,  that  none  may  me  reprove, 

set  them  all  in  one  long  line, 

and  give  a  penny  to  each  alike  ; 

begin  at  the  last  that  standeth  low, 

and  so  until  thou  reach  the  first.' 
The  first  began  then  to  complain, 
and  said  that  they  had  sorely  toil'd  :- 
'  These  but  an  hour  have  strain'd  their  strength, 
seemeth  to  us  we  should  take  more. 


"  *  *  More  have  we  deserved,  we  think, 
that  here  have  borne  the  heat  of  day, 
than  these  that  have  not  work'd  two  hours, 
and  thou  dost  make  them  equal  us.' 
Then  said  the  lord  to  one  of  them  :- 
*  Friend,  I  would  not  do  thee  wrong  ; 
take  what  is  thine  own  and  go. 
Hired  I  thee  for  a  penny  withal, 

why  beginnest  thou  now  to  chafe  ? 

Was  not  a  penny  thy  covenant  then  ? 

More  than  agreed  one  must  not  claim. 

Why  shouldest  thou  then  ask  for  more  ? 



"  * '  More,-wep£r  l[e]uyly  is  me  my  gyftc, 

To  do  wyth  myn  quat  so  me  lyke^, 

O]>cr  elle3  pyn  y^e  to  lyjw  is  lyfte, 

For  I  am  goude  &  now  by-swyke^  ? '  568 

'  ])us  schal  I,'  qH0J>  Kryste,  « hit  skyfte  ; 

J?e  laste  schal  be  pe  fyrst  pat  stryke^, 

&  pe  fyrst  pe  laste,  be  he  neu<?r  so  swyft ; 

For  mony  ben  calle[d],  pa^  fewe  be  myke^.'     $7Z 

\>us  pore  men  her  part  ay  pyke^, 

)?a^  pay  com  late  &  lyttel  wore ; 

&  pa}  her  sweng  wyth  lyttel  at-slyke^, 

\)e  merci  of  God  is  much  J?e  more.  576 


f.  47*  "  More  haf  I  of  joye  &  blysse  here-i/me, 
Of  ladyschyp  gret  &  lyue^  blom, 
J^en  alle  pe  wy^e^  in  ]>e  worlde  my^t  wy//ne, 
By  )?e  way  of  ry^t  to  aske  dome.  580 

Wheper  welnygh  now  I  con  bygy/me, 
In  euentyde  in-to  )>e  vyne  I  come, 
Fyrst  of  my  hyre  my  Lorde  con  my/me  ; 
I  wat^  payed  anon  of  al  &  sum.  584 

^et  o])er  per  werne  ~pat  toke  more  torn, 
J?at  swange  &  swat  for  long[e]  3 ore, 
)5at  ^et  of  hyre  no  pynk  pay  nom, 
Paraurcter  no^t  schal  to-^ere  more."  588 

PEARL.  5 


"  «  *  Moreover,-Is  it  my  right  to  give, 

to  do  with  mine  what  so  I  please, 

or  is  it  thine  eye  is  bent  on  ill, 

since  I  am  good,  and  none  defraud  ? ' 

«  Thus  shall  I,'  quoth  Christ,  «  ordain  : 

the  last  shall  be  the  first  to  go, 

and  the  first  the  last,  be  he  ne'er  so  swift ; 

for  many  are  called,  though  few  the  elect. ? 
Thus  do  the  poor  their  portion  take, 
though  they  come  late,  and  low  their  place ; 
though,  little  done,  their  toil  is  spent, 
the  mercy  of  God  is  much  the  more. 


<*  More  have  I  here  of  joy  and  bliss, 
of  ladyship  great  and  bloom  of  life, 
than  all  the  men  in  the  world  might  win, 
ask'd  they  award  by  way  of  right. 
Though,  well-nigh  now,  I  late  began, 
at  even  to  the  vineyard  came, 
first  of  my  hire  my  Lord  bethought  ; 
I  was  paid  anon  the  payment  full. 
Others  were  there  who  had  to  wait, 
who  sweated  long  before,  and  toil'd  ; 
yet  nothing  got  they  of  their  hire, 
nor  will  perchance  for  long  years  more." 

52  PERLE. 


Then  more  I  meled  &  sayde  apert  :- 

"  Me  pynk  J>y  tale  vnresou«-able  ; 

Godde}  ry^t  is  redy  &  eu<?r-more  rert, 

O]>er  Holy  Wryt  is  hot  a  fable.  59* 

I/z  Sauter  is  sayd  a  verce  ouerte, 

J)at  speke^  a  poy/zt  determynable  :- 

*  ])ou  quyte}  vchon  as  hys  desserte, 

})O\L  hy^e  Ky«g,  ay  p[n?]termynable.J  596 

Now  he  pat  stod  J?e  long  day  stable, 
&  }>ou  to  payment  com  hym  byfore, 
J?e//ne  Jje  lasse  i«  werke  to  take  more  able, 
&  euer  pe  lenger  J)e  lasse  fe  more."  600 

§  XI. 

more  &  lasse  in  Gode^  ryche," 
J)at  gentyl  sayde,  "  lys  no  joparde, 
For  per  is  vch  mon  payed  inlyche, 
Wheper  lyttel  olper  much  be  hys  rewarde.       604 
For  pe  gentyl  Cheuentayn  is  no  chyche, 
Quejw-so-eiUT  he  dele  nesch  op<?r  harde  ; 
He  laue^  hys  gyfte^  as  wat^r  of  dyche, 
Olper  gote^  of  golf  pat  neu^r  chaf  de.  608 

Hys  frauwchyse  is  large  Jwt  eu^r  dard 

To  hym  pat  mat}  in  sy«ne  rescogta ; 

No  blysse  befr$  fro  hem  reparde, 

For  pe  grace  of  God  is  gret  i-nogh<?.  612 

PEARL.  53 

Then  said  I  more,  and  boldly  spake'  :- 

"  Thy  tale  me  seemeth  reasonless  : 

God's  right  is  ready,  raised  eterne, 

or  Holy  Writ  is  but  a  fable. 

In  Psalter  is  said  a  verse  full  clear, 

putting,  as  point  determined,  this  :- 

1  Each  Thou  requitest  as  his  desert, 

Thou  High  King,  ever  fore-ordained  !  ' 
Now  he  who  all  day  steadfast  stood,- 
if  thou  to  payment  come  ere  he, 
then  the  less  the  work,  the  more  the  pay, 
and  ever  the  longer  the  less  the  more." 

§  XI.  LI. 

IXT    more  and  less  in  God's  own 

that  Gentle  said,  "lies  no  debate  ; 
for  there  is  each  man  paid  alike, 
whether  little  or  much  be  his  reward. 
That  gentle  Chieftain  is  no  niggard, 
whether  His  dole  be  hard  or  soft ; 
He  poureth  His  gifts  as  water  from  weir, 
or  streams  of  the  deep  that  never  turn. 

Large  is  his  freedom  who  hath  fear'd 

'fore  Him  that  rescueth  in  sin  ; 

no  bliss  shall  be  withheld  from  such  ; 

the  grace  of  God  is  great  enough. 

54  PERLE. 


f.  47-5  "  Bot  now  ]>ou  mote}  me  for  to  mate, 

pat  I  my  peny  haf  wrang  tan  herg.;, , 

pou  say}  pat  I  pat  com  to  late 

Am  not  worpy  so  gret  [h]ere.  616 

Where  wyste}  pou  euer  any  bourne  abate, 

Euer  so  holy  in  hys  prayere, 

pat  he  ne  forfeted  by  suwkyn  gate 

pe  mede  sum-tyme  of  heuene}  clere  ?  620 

&  ay  pe  ofter,  Jje  alder  pay  were, 
pay  laften  ry}t  &  wro}ten  woglv. 
Mercy  &  grace  moste  hem  pe«  stere, 
For  pe  grace  of  God  is  gret  iw-no^e.          6M 

LII  I. 

"  Bot  i«-nogh(?  of  grace  hat}  iwnocent ; 

As  sone  as  pay  am  borne,  by  lyne 

In  pe  water  of  babtem  pay  dyssente ; 

])e«  arne  pay  boro^t  i«-to  pe  vyne.  6*8 

Anon  pe  day,  wjyt£  derk  endente, 

Jpe  my^t  of  deth  dot}  to  en-clyne 

pat  wro^t  neuer  wrang  er  pewne  pay  wente. 

]pe  gentyle  Lorde  pe«ne  paye}  hys  hyne  ;        632 

pay  dyden  hys  heste,  pay  wern  pere-ine  ; 

Why  schulde  he  not  her  labour  alow, 

3ys,  &  pay  h[e]m  at  pe  fyrst[ej  fyne  ? 

For  pe  grace  of  God  is  gret  i«-nogh<?.        366 

PEARL.  55 


"  Yet  now  thou  mootest,  to  checkmate  .me, 

that  I  my  penny  have  wrongly  ta'en : 

thou  sayest  that  I,  who  came  too  late, 

am  not  worth  so  great  a  wage. 

Where  knewest  thou  any  man  abide, 

ever  so  holy  in  his  prayer, 

who  ne'er,  in  some  way,  forfeited 

the  meed,  some  time,  of  heaven  bright  ? 

And  aye  the  ofter,  the  older  they  were, 

left  they  the  right,  and  wrought  amiss  ; 

Mercy  and  Grace  must  pilot  them  ; 

The  grace  of  God  is  great  enough. 


"  But  grace  enough  have  innocents  ; 
as  soon  as  they  are  born,  by  rule 
in  the  water  of  baptism  they  descend  ; 
then  are  they  to  the  vineyard  brought. 
Anon  the  day,  with  darkness  fleck'd, 
unto  Death's  might  doth  make  them  bow 
who  ne'er  wrought  wrong  ere  thence  they  went. 
The  gentle  Lord  His  folk  then  payeth  ; 

they  did  His  will,  they  were  therein. 

Why  should  He  not  allow  their  hire, 

yea,  pay  them  at  the  first  day's  close? 

The  grace  of  God  is  great  enough. 

56  PERLE. 


,/  "  I-no^e  is  knawen  ]>at  man-kyn  grete 
Fyrste.wat^  wro^t  to  blysse  parfyt ; 
Oure  forme  fader  hit  con  forfete, 
Jpur^  an  apple  pat  he  vpon  con  byte  ;  640 

Al  wer  we  dampned  for  pat  mete 
To  dy3e  in  doel,  out  of  delyt, 
&  sypen  wende  to  helle  hete, 
\)er-inne  to  won  wjyt/^oute  respyt.  644 

Bot  per  on- com  a  bote  as  tyt ; 

Ryche  blod  ran  on  rode  so  rogh^, 

&  wy/me  water ;   pe«  at  pat  plyt 

Jpe  grace  of  God  wex  gret  i«-nogh<?.  648 

f.  48*  "  In-nogh<?  per  wax  outf  of  pat  welle, 

Blod  &  water  of  brode  wouwde  ; 

J?e  blod  vus  bo$t  fro  bale  of  helle, 

&  delyu^red  vus  of  pe  deth  secou«de  ;  652 

))e  water  is  baptem,  pe  sope  to  telle 

})at  folded  pe  glayue  so  grywzly  grou«de, 

))at  wasche^  away  pe  gylte^  felle 

J?at  Adam  wyth  inf  deth  vus  drou«de.  656 

Now  is  p£r  no^t  in  pe  worlde  rou«de 
By-twene  vus  &  blysse  bot  pat  he  wjyt 
&  pat  is  restored  in  sely  stou«de ; 
&  pe  grace  of  God  is  gret  i«-nogh. 

PEARL.  57 


"  Enough  is  known,  how  mankind  great 

first  was  wrought  for  perfect  bliss  ; 

our  fore-father  it  forfeited, 

through  an  apple  that  he  bit  upon. 

And  for  that  morsel  were  we  damn'd 

to  die  in  dolour,  afar  from  joy, 

and  thence  to  fare  to  heat  of  hell, 

there  to  abide,  with  respite  none. 
But  soon  came  there  the  antidote  ; 
on  rood  so  rough  ran  richest  blood 
and  winsome  water  ;  then,  in  that  plight, 
the  grace  of  God  wax'd  great  enough. 


"  Enough  from  out  that  well  there  flow'd, 
blood  and  water,  from  wound  so  wide  : 
from  bale  of  hell  the  blood  us  bought, 
and  ransom'd  us  from  second  death  ; 
the  water  is  baptism,  sooth  to  say, 
that  follow'd  the  glaive  so  grimly  ground, 
that  washeth  away  the  guilt  so  fell 
that  Adam  drown'd  us  with  in  death. 

Now  is  there  nought  in  this  round  world 

'twixt  us  and  bliss  but  what  He  withdrew ; 

all  is  restored  in  one  fair  hour. 

The  grace  of  God  is  great  enough. 

58  PERLE. 

§  XII.  LVI. 

RACE  i«-nogh  pe  mon  may  haue 

J)at  sy/me^  pe/me  new,  $if  hyw  repente, 
Bot  wyt/5  sor^  &  syt  he  mot  hit  craue, 
&  byde  pe  payne  per-to  is  bent ;  664 

Bot  rescue,  of  ry^t  pat  con  not  raue, 
Saue^  eu^r-more  pe  iwnossewt ; 
Hit  is  a  dom  ]>at  neuer  God  gaue, 
j?at  euer  )?e  gyltle3  schulde  be  schente.  668 

J)e  gyltyf  may  contryssyou«  hente, 

&  be  pur^  mercy  to  grace  pry^t  ; 

Bot  he  to  gyle  pat  neu<?r  glente, 

At  i»-oscen[c]e,  is  saf  [by]  ry^te.  6yz 

LVI  I. 

)«j  |  I  knaw  wel  i»  pis  cas, 
Two  men  to  saue  is  god  by  skylle ; 
jpe  ry^t-wys  man  schal  se  hys  fa[c]e, 
jpe  harmle^  hapel  schal  com  hym  tylle.  676 

)pe  Sauter  hyt  sat^  Ipuf  in  a  pace  :- 
*  Lorde,  quo  schal  klymbe  J>y  hy^[e]  hylle|, 
Otyer  rest  wyt^-i«ne  py  holy  place  ? ' 
Hymself  to  on-sware  he  is  not  dylle  :-  680 

*  Hondelywge^  harme  pat  dyt  not  ille, 
}5at  is  of  hert  bope  clene  &  ly^t, 
)per  schal  hys  step[pe]  stable  sty  lie/ 
])Q  i«nosent  is  ay  saf  by  ry^t.  684 

PEARL.  59 

§  XII.  LVI. 

RACE  enough  a  man  may  have 

that  sinneth  anew,  if  he  repent ; 
he  must  it  crave  with  sorrow  and  sighs, 
and  bide  the  pain  thereto  is  bound  ; 
but  Reason,  straying  not  from  right, 
saveth  the  innocent  evermore  ; 
for  'tis  a  doom  that  God  ne'er  gave, 
that  ever  the  guiltless  should  be  shamed. 

The  guilty  may  contrition  find, 

and  be  by  Mercy  led  to  Grace  ; 

but  into  guile  who  glided  ne'er, 

in  innocence,  is  saved  by  right. 


"  Right  well  I  know  of  this  same  thing, 
two  kinds  to  save  is  good  and  just,— 
the  righteous  man  His  face  shall  see, 
the  harmless  one  shall  come  Him  nigh. 
Thus  saith  the  Psalter  in  a  verse,- 
'  Lord,  who  shall  climb  Thy  lofty  hill, 
or  rest  within  Thy  holy  place  ? ' 
Himself  to  answer  He  is  not  slow,- 

t  Whose  hands  in  malice  ne'er  did  hurt, 
he  that  is  clean  and  pure  of  heart, 
there  shall  his  step  stand  ever  firm.' 
The  innocent  is  saved  by  right. 

60  PERLE. 


f.  48^  "  The  ry^twys  man  also  sertayn 
Aproche  he  schal  tyat  proper  pyle, 
)}at  take}  not  her  lyf  in  vayne, 
Ne  glauere^  her  [nje^bor  wyth  no  gyle.  688 

Of  pys  ry^t-wys  sa^  Salamon  playn 
How  kyntly  oure  [Koyntyse  hym]  con  aquyle  ; 
By  waye^  ful  street  he  con  hym  strayn, 
&  scheued  hym  pe  rengne  of  God  awhyle,      692 

As  quo  says  *  lo,  ^on  louely  yle  ! 

)}0u  may  hit  wy«ne  if  ]>ou  be  wy^te.' 

Bot,  hardyly,  wyt^-oute  peryle, 

J)e  i/mosent  is  ay  saue  by  ry^te.  696 


"  An-ende  ry^twys  men  ^et  sayt^  a  gome- 
Dauid  in  Sauter,  if  euer  ^e  s[y]^  hit  :- 
'  Lorde,  py  seruau«t  dra^  neuer  to  dome, 
[F]or  non  lyuyande  to  )>e  is  justyfyet !  '          700 
For-])y  to  corte  quen  ]>ou  schal  com[e], 
Jper  alle  oure  causey  schal  be  [c]ryed, 
Alegge  pe  ry^t,  pou  may  be  i«-nome, 
By  )>ys  ilke  spech  I  haue  asspyed.  704 

Bot  he  on  rode  pat  blody  dyed, 
Delfully  pur^  honde^  pry^t, 
Gyue  pe  to  passe,  when  ]>ou  arte  tryed, 
By  i«nocens,  &  not  by  ry^te  !  708 

PEARL.  61 


"  Verily,  eke  the  righteous  man 
approach  shall  he  that  noble  tower,- 
who  taketh  not  his  life  in  vain, 
his  neighbour  cheateth  not  with  guile. 
Of  such  saw  Solomon  clearly  once 
how  well  our  Wisdom  welcomed  him ; 
He  guided  him  by  ways  full  straight, 
shew'd  him  awhile  the  realm  of  God, 

as  who  should  say,  *  Lo,  yon  fair  place  ! 

thou  may'st  it  win,  if  thou  be  brave.' 

But,  without  peril,  be  thou  sure, 

the  innocent  is  saved  by  right. 

"  Anent  the  righteous  saith  another, 
David  in  Psalter.      Hast  it  seen  ?- 
«  Thy  servant,  Lord,  draw  never  to  doom  ; 
none  living  is  justified  'fore  Thee/ 
So  when  thou  comest  to  the  Court, 
where  all  our  causes  shall  be  cried, 
renounce  thy  right,  thou  mayest  come  in, 
by  these  same  words  that  I  have  cull'd. 
But  He  that  bloodily  died  on  rood, 
whose  hands  were  pierced  so  grievously, 
grant  thee  to  pass,  when  tried  thou  art, 
by  innocence  and  not  by  right  ! 

62  PERLE. 

"  Ry^twysly  quo  [so]  con  rede, 

He  loke  on  bok  &  be  awayed, 

How  Jesus  hym  welke  in  are-pede, 

&  burne^  her  barney  vnto  hym  brayde  ;  712 

For  happe  &  hele  pat  fro  hym  ^ede, 

To  tou[c]h  her  chylder  pay  fayr  hym  prayed. 

His  dessypele^  wyt^  blame  let  be  h[e]m  bede, 

&  wyth  her  resource^  ful  fele  restayed.  716 

Jesus  pe;me  hem  swetely  sayde  :— 

'  Do  way,  let  chylder  vnto  me  ty^t  ; 

To  suche  is  heuen-ryche  arayed.' 

Jpe  innocent  is  ay  saf  by  ry^t.  720 

f.  49«  «  TT  JESUS  con  calle  to  hy/rz  hys  mylde, 

X      &  sayde  hys  ryche  no  wy^  my^t  wy«ne 
Bot  he  com  J>yder  ry^t  as  a  chylde, 
Otyer  elle^  neu^r  more  com  per-i/me  ;  7Z4 

Harmle^,  trwe,  &  vnde-fylde, 
W)/t^-outen  mote  ofyer  mascle  of  sulpande  sy«ne, 
Quen  such  per  cnoken  on  pe  bylde, 
Tyt  schal  hem  men  pe  ^ate  vnpy/me.  728 

Jper  is  pe  blys  pat  con  not  bly/zne, 
jpat  pe  jueler  so^te  pur^  perre  pres, 
&  solde  alle  hys  goud,  bope  wolen  &  ly«ne, 
To  bye  hym  a  perle  wat$  mascelle^.  73Z 

PEARL.  63 

"  Who  knoweth  to  read  the  Book  aright, 
let  him  look  in,  and  learn  therefrom 
how  Jesus  walk'd  once  on  a  time, 
and  folk  their  bairns  press'd  near  to  Him ; 
to  touch  their  children  they  Him  besought, 
for  hap  and  health  that  from  Him  came. 
His  disciples  sternly  bade  them  cease  ; 
and  at  their  words  full  many  stay'd. 
Then  Jesus  sweetly  said  to  them  :— 
«  Not  so  ;  let  children  draw  to  Me  ; 
for  such  is  heaven's  realm  prepared/ 
The  innocent  is  aye  saved  by  right. 

§  XIII.  LXI. 

"  TESUS  call'd  to  Him  His  meek, 

J      and  said,  no  man  might  win  His  realm 
save  he  came  thither  as  a  child ; 
else  might  he  never  therein  come ; 
harmless,  undefiled,  and  true, 
with  ne'er  stain  nor  spot  of  sapping  sin, 
when  such  come  knocking  on  that  place, 
quickly  for  them  the  bolt  is  drawn. 
There  is  the  bliss  that  cannot  fade, 
the  jeweller  sought  'mong  precious  gems, 
and  sold  his  all,  both  linen  and  wool, 
to  purchase  him  a  spotless  pearl. 

64  PERLE. 


"  *  This  ma[s]kelle^  perle,  )>at  bo^t  is  dere, 

J)e  joueler  gef  fore*alle  hys  god, 

Is  lyke  pe  reme  of  heuenesf  [sp]ere  ; 

So  sayde  )>e  Fader  of  folde  &  flode  ;  736 

For  hit  is  wewle^,  clene,  &  clere, 

&  endele^  rouwde,  &  bly]>e  of  mode, 

&  cowmune  to  alle  pat  ry^twysj*  were. 

Lo,  euen  in  mydde^  my  breste  hit  stode  !        74° 

My  Lorde  j>e  Lombe,  jjat  schede  hys  blode, 

He  py^t  hit  pere  in  token  of  pes. 

I  rede  fe  forsake  fie  worlde  wode, 

&  porchace  J?y  perle  maskelles."  744 


"  O  maskele^  Perle,  in  perle^  pure, 
J)at  bere^,"  qwof  I,  "  ])e  perle  of  prys, 
Quo  formed  ]>e  J>y  fayre  fygure  ? 
)5at  wro^t  ]>j  wede,  he  wat^  ful  wys  ;  748 

)5y  beaute  com  neu^r  of  nature  ; 
Pymalyon  paynted  neu^r  J)y  vys  ; 
Ne  Arystotel  nawj>£r  by  hys  lettrure 
Of  carpe[d]  ]?e  kynde  pese  propertfy]^.  7Sa 

\)j  colowr  passe^  ]>e  floz/r-de-lys  ; 

)}yn  angel-hauywg  so  clene  corte^  ! 

Breue  me,  bry^t,  quat  kyn  of  tr/ys 

Bere3  j)e  perle  so  maskelle3  ?  "  7S6 

PEARL.  65 


"  *  This  spotless  pearl,  so  dearly  bought, 

the  jeweller  gave  his  all  therefor, 

is  like  the  realm  of  Heaven's  sphere  ;  ' 

so  said  the  Father  of  field  and  flood  ; 

for  it  is  flawless,  bright,  and  pure, 

endlessly  round,  of  lustre  blithe, 

and  common  to  all  that  righteous  were. 

Lo,  its  setting  amid  my  breast  ! 

My  Lord  the  Lamb,  who  shed  His  blood, 

He  set  it  there  in  token  of  peace. 

I  rede  thee  forsake  the  world  so  wild, 

and  get  for  thee  thy  spotless  pearl. " 


"  O  spotless  Pearl,  in  pearls  so  pure, 
that  bearest,"  quoth  I,  "  the  pearl  of  price, 
who  formed  for  thee  thy  figure  fair  ? 
He  was  full  wise  that  wrought  thy  robe ; 
thy  beauty  never  from  Nature  came  ; 
Pygmalion  painted  ne'er  thy  face ; 
nor  Aristotle,  with  all  his  lore, 
told  of  the  qualities  of  these  gifts  ; 

thy  colour  passeth  the  fleur-de-lis  ; 

thy  angel-bearing  so  all  debonair  ! 

Tell  me,  Brightest,  what  is  the  peace 

that  beareth  as  token  this  spotless  pearl  ?  " 

66  PERLE. 


f.  49£  "  My  ma[s]kele3  Lambe  pat  al  may  bete," 
Quo])  scho,  "  my  dere  Destyne, 
Me  ches  to  hys  make,  al-pa}  vnmete 
Sum-tyme  semed  p#t  assemble.  76° 

When  I  wente  fro  yor  worlde  wete, 
He  calde  me  to  hys  borwte  :— 
«  Cum  hyder  to  me,  my  lemman  swete, 
For  mote  ne  spot  is  non  in  pe.J  764 

He  gef  me  my^t  &  als  bewte  ; 

In  hys  blod  he  wesch  my  wede  on  dese, 

&,  coronde  clene  in  wrgynte, 

[He]  py$t  me  in  perle}  maskelle}."  768 


"  Why,  maskelle^  bryd,  pat  bry^t  con  flambe, 
))at  reiate^  hat^  so  ryche  &  ryf, 
Quat  kyn  ]>yng  may  be  pat  Lambe 
))at  pe  wolde  wedde  vnto  hys  vyf  ?  77* 

Ouer  alle  op^r  so  hy^  ]>ou  clambe, 
To  lede  v/y\.h  hym  so  ladyly  lyf. 
So  mony  a  comly  on-vu//der  cambe 
For  Kryst  han  lyued  in  much  stryf ;  776 

&  pou  con  alle  po  dere  out-dry  f, 

&  fro  pat  maryag[e]  al  op^r  depres, 

Al  only  pyself  so  stout  &  styf, 

A  makele}  may  &  maskelle^  !  "  78° 

PEARL.  67 


"  My  spotless  Lamb,  Who  can  better  all," 
quoth  she,  "  my  Destiny  so  dear, 
chose  me  His  bride,  though  all  unfit 
the  Spousal  might  a  while  well  seem. 
When  I  went  forth  from  your  wet  world, 
He  call'd  me  to  His  Goodliness  :- 
*  Come  hither  to  Me,  My  truelove  sweet, 
for  stain  or  spot  is  none  in  thee.' 

He  gave  me  strength  and  beauty  too  ; 

in  His  blood  on  the  Throne  He  wash'd  my 
weeds  ; 

and,  crowned  clean  in  maidenhood, 

with  spotless  pearls  He  me  beset." 


"  Why,  spotless  Bride,  that  shinest  bright, 

with  regal  glories  rich  and  rare, 

what,  forsooth,  may  be  the  Lamb, 

that  thee  as  wife  to  Him  would  wed  ? 

O'er  all  the  rest  hast  thou  climb' d  high, 

with  Him  to  lead  so  queenly  a  life. 

Many  a  fair,  'neath  maiden  crown, 

for  Christ  in  mickle  strife  hath  HVfed ; 
those  dear  ones  thou  hast  all  out-driven, 
and  from  that  marriage  all  hast  held, 
all  save  thyself,  so  strong  and  stiff, 
matchless  maid,  immaculate  !  " 

68  PERLE. 

§  XIV.  LXVI. 

"  T\/TASKELLES»"  wty  fat  myry  <iuene> 

J.VJL      "  Vnblemyst  I  am,  wyth-outen  blot, 

&  pat  may  I  v/yth  mensk  mewteene ; 

Bot  *  makele^  quene '  pe/me  sade  I  not.          784 

fie  Lambes  vyue$  in  blysse  we  bene, 

A  hondred  &  forty  [fowre]  powsande  flot, 

As  in  pe  Apocalyppe^  hit  is  sene ; 

Sant  John  hem  sy^  al  in  a  knot.  788 

On  pe  hyl  of  Syon,  fat  semly  clot, 
fie  apostel  hem  segh  in  gostly  drem, 
Arayed  to  pe  weddywg  in  ]>at  hyl-coppe, 
])e  nwe  cyte  o  Jerusalem.  79Z 


f.  $oa  "  Of  Jerusalem  I  in  spec  he  spelle. 
If  j)0u  wyl  knaw  what  kyn  he  be— 
My  Lombe,  my  Lorde,  my  dere  Juelle, 
My  Joy,  my  Blys,  my  Lewman  fre-  796 

fie  profete  Ysaye  of  hym  con  melle 
Pitously  of  hys  de-bonerte  :- 
<  fiat  glory ous  gy[l]tle^  ]>at  mon  con  quell e 

uten  any  sake  of  felon[e]  ;  800 

As  a  schep  to  ]>e  sla^t  ]>er  lad  wat^  he  ; 
&,  as  lombe  pat  clypper  in  lande  [n]e[m], 
So  closed  he  hys  mouth  fro  vch  quer[e], 
Quen  Jue^  hyw  jugged  in  Jerusalem  f.'        804 

PEARL.  69 

§  XIV.  LXVI. 

"TMMACULATE,"  said  that  merry  queen, 
A      "  unblemish'd  I  am,  without  a  stain  5 

and  this  may  I  with  grace  avow ; 

but  *  matchless  queen ' — that  said  I  ne'er. 

We  all  in  bliss  are  Brides  of  the  Lamb, 

a  hundred  and  forty-four  thousand  in  all, 

as  in  the  Apocalypse  it  is  clear  ; 

Saint  John  beheld  them  in  a  throng. 

On  the  Hill  of  Zion,  that  beauteous  spot, 
the  Apostle  beheld  them,  in  dream  divine, 
array'd  for  the  Bridal  on  that  hill-top,- 
the  City  New  of  Jerusalem. 

"  Of  Jerusalem  is  now  my  speech  : 

If  thou  wouldst  know  what  kind  is  He, 

my  Lamb,  my  Lord,  my  dearest  Jewel, 

my  Joy,  my  Bliss,  my  noble  Love,- 

the  prophet  Isaiah  spake  of  Him, 

in  pity  of  His  gentleness,- 

*  the  Glorious  Guiltless  whom  they  killed 

with  ne'er  a  cause  of  evil  deed. 

As  a  sheep  to  the  slaughter  He  was  led  ; 
as  lamb  the  shearer  taketh  a-field, 
He  closed  His  mouth  'gainst  questioning, 
when  Jews  Him  judg'd  in  Jerusalem.' 

7o  PERLE. 


"  In  Jerusalem  wat}  my  Lemman  slayn 

&  rent  on  rode  v/yth  boye}  bolde  ; 

Al  oure  bale}  to  bere  ful  bayn, 

He  toke  on  hym  self  oure  care}  colde  ;  808 

Wyth  bofTete}  wat}  hys  face  flayn, 

J)at  wat}  so  fayr  on  to  byholde  ; 

For  sy/me  he  set  hym  self  in  vayn, 

)}at  neu^r  hade  non  hym  self  to  wolde.  8l* 

For  vus  he  lette  hym  fly}e  &  folde 

&  brede  vpon  a  bostwys  bem ; 

As  meke  as  lom[b]  ])at  no  playnt  tolde, 

For  \us  he  swalt  in  Jerusalem.  8l6 


"  [I«]  Jerusalem,  Jordan,  &  Galalye, 
l^er-as  baptysed  ]?e  goude  Say«t  Jon, 
His  worde^  acorded  to  Ysaye. 
When  Jesus  con  to  hyw  warde  gon,  820 

He  sayde  of- hym  J?ys  professye  :- 
'  Lo,  Gode}  Lombe  as  trwe  as  ston, 
j)at  dot}  away  )>e  sy/me}  dry^e 
})at  alle  ))ys  worlde  hat}  wro}t  vpon  !  8*4 

Hym  self  ne  wro}t[e]  neu^-r  }et  non, 

Whe]?<?r  on  hym  self  he  con  al  clem. 

Hys  generacyou«  quo  recen  con, 

})at  dy}ed  for  vus  in  Jerusalem  ? '  828 

PEARL.  71 


"  In  Jerusalem  was  my  Truelove  slain 
and  rent  on  rood  by  boist'rous  churls  ; 
full  ready  all  our  bales  to  bear, 
He  took  on  Him  our  cares  so  cold. 
With  buffets  was  His  face  all  flay'd, 
that  was  so  fair  to  look  upon  ; 
for  sin  He  set  Himself  at  nought, 
that  ne'er  had  sin  to  call  His  own. 

For  us  He  let  Him  beat  and  bend 

and  bind  upon  a  rugged  rood  ; 

as'meek  as  lamb,  that  made  no  plaint, 

for  us  He  died  in  Jerusalem. 


"  In  Jerusalem,  Jordan,  and  Galilee, 
where  baptized  folk  the  good  Saint  John, 
his  words  accorded  with  Isaiah's. 
When  Jesus  was  come  a-nigh  to  him, 
he  spake  of  Him  this  prophecy  :- 
'  Behold  God's  Lamb,  as  true  as  stone, 
who  doth  away  the  endless  sins 
that  all  this  world  hath  ever  wrought. 
Yet  He  Himself  wrought  never  one, 
though  on  Himself  all  sins  He  laid. 
His  generation  who  can  tell, 
that  died  for  us  in  Jerusalem  ? ' 

72  PERLE. 

f.  50*  "  In  lerusatem  ]>us  my  Lemman  sw[e]te 

Twye^  for  lombe  wat^  taken  pare, 

By  trw  recorde  of  ay))<?r  prophete, 

For  mode  so  meke  &  al  hys  fare.  832 

))e  pryde  tyme  is  Jwr-to  ful  mete, 

In  Apokalype^  wryten  ful  }are. 

In  myde}  J»e  trone,  pere  saynte}  sete, 

]}e  apostel  lohn  hym  sa^f  as  bare,  836 

Lesande  pe  boke  with  leue^  sware, 
))ere  seuen  sy«gnette^  wern  sette  i«-seme ; 
&  at  J?«t  sy^t  vche  douth  con  dare, 
In  helle,  in  erfe,  &  Jerusalem.  840 

§  XV.  LXXI. 

"^  |  ^HYS  Jerusalem  Lombe  hadeneu<?rpechche 
JL         Of  o])/?r  huee  bot  quyt  jolyf, 

}pat  mot  ne  mask[e]lle  mo^t  on  streche, 

For  wolle  <iuyte  so  ronk  &  ryf ;  844 

For-py  vche  saule  Jiat  hade  neu^r  teche 

Is  to  J>at  Lombe  a  worthyly  wyf ; 

&  J?a^  vch  day  a  store  he  feche, 

Among  vus  cowme^  [n]oj?^r  strot  ne  stryf ;     848 
Bot  vchon  enle  we  wolde  were  fyf,— 
jpe  mo  pe  myryer,  so  God  me  blesse  ! 
I«  compayny  gret  our  luf  con  pryf, 
In  honour  more  &  neu<?r  |>e  lesse.  852 

FROM  COTTON  MS.   NERO  A.x.,  LI..  829—857. 

PEARL.  73 


"  In  Jerusalem  thus  my  Truelove  sweet 

twice  was  taken  there  as  lamb, 

by  record  true  of  prophets  twain, 

so  meek  His  mood  and  all  His  mien. 

The  third  time  well  befits  thereto, 

as  written  in  Apocalypse. 

Amidst  the  Throne,  where  sat  the  Saints, 

the  Apostle  John  Him  clearly  saw, 
opening  the  Book  with  pages  square, 
with  seven  seals  set  forth  thereon ; 
and  at  that  sight  the  doughty  quaked, 
in  Hell,  in  Earth,  and  Jerusalem. 

§  XV.  LXXI. 

"  '  I  VHIS  Lamb  of  Jerusalem  had  no  speck 

JL         of  other  hue  save  winsome  white, 
that  ne'er  a  stain  or  spot  might  touch, 
so  white  the  wool,  so  rich  and  rare ; 
wherefore  each  soul  that  hath  no  taint 
is  to  that  Lamb  a  wife  ador'd  ; 
and  though  each  day  a  many  He  bring, 
nor  strife  nor  stress  among  us  comes  ; 

but  each  one  singly  we  would  were  five,- 

the  more  the  merrier,  so  bless  me  God  !. 

Our  love  can  thrive  in  company  great ; 

our  honour  more  and  never  Jess. 

74  PERLE. 


"  Lasse  of  blysse  may  non  \us  brywg, 

jpat  beren  pys  perle  vpon  oure  bereste, 

For  pay  of  mote  coupe  neu<?r  my/zge, 

Of  spotle}  perle^  j>a[t]  beren  Jje  creste.  856 

Al-pa^  oure  corses  ln  clotte^  cly/zge, 

&  ^e  remen  for  raupe  wyth-outen  reste, 

We  pur^-outly  hauen  cnawy/zg, 

Of  [o]n  dethe  ful  oure  hope  is  drest.  86° 

\)e  lou[w]be  vus  glade^,  oure  care  is  kest  ; 

He  myrfe^  vus  alle  at  vch  a  mes  ; 

Vchone^  blysse  is  breme  &  beste, 

&  neu^r  one}  honowr  ^et  neu^rr  pe  les.          864 


"  Lest  les  fou  leue  my  talef  farande, 
In  Appocalyppece  is  wryten  in  wro  :- 
*I  seghtf,'  says  John,  *  j)e  Louwbe  hyw  stande 
On  pe  mou«t  of  Syon,  ful  jjryuen  &  }>ro,        868 
&  wyth  hym  mayde/me^  an  hu«dre)?e  )?owsande, 
&  fowre  &  forty  J>owsande  mo  ; 
On  alle  her  forhede^  wryten  I  fande 
Jpe  Lombe$  nome,  hys  Fadere^  also.  872 

A  hue  fro  heuen  I  herde  poo, 

Lyk  flode^  fele  l[e]den,  ru«ne«  on  resse, 

&  as  Jjawder  prowe^  in  torre^  bio, 

))at  lote,  I  leue,  wat$  neu<?r  pe  les.  876 

PEARL.  75 


"  Less  of  bliss  may  none  us  bring, 
this  pearl  who  bear  upon  our  breasts, 
for  ne'er  a  thought  of  sin  know  they 
the  crown  who  bear  of  spotless  pearls. 
And  though  our  corses  cling  in  clay, 
and  ye  for  ruth  cry  ceaselessly, 
we  knowledge  have  full  well  of  this,- 
from  one  death  cometh  all  our  hope* . 

Us  gladd'neth  the  Lamb ;  our  care  is  cast ; 

He  maketh  mirth  at  every  meal ; 

of  each  the  bliss  is  bravest  and  best, 

and  no  one's  honour  is  yet  the  less. 


"  But  lest  thou  deem  my  tale  less  true, 
in  Apocalypse  is  writ  a  verse  :- 
'  I  saw/  saith  John,  *  where  stood  the  Lamb, 
on  the  Mount  of  Zion,  thriven  and  strong, 
and  with  Him  maidens  a  hundred  thousand, 
and  four  and  forty  thousand  more ; 
on  all  their  foreheads  writ  I  found 
the  Lamb's  own  name,  His  Father's  eke. 

A  voice  from  heaven  heard  I  then, 

like  many  floods'  roar,  a-rushing  on  ; 

as  thunder  hurtles  in  lowring  skies  ; 

that  sound,  I  trow,  was  none  the  less. 

76  PERLE. 


"  «  Naupeles,  pa^  hit  schowted  scharpe, 

&  ledden  loude  al-pa$  hit  were, 

A  note  fill  nwe  I  herde  hem  warpe  ; 

To  lysten  fat  wat$  ful  lufly  dere.  8  80 

As  harpore^  harpen  in  her  harpe, 

pat  nwe  songe  pay  sowgen  ful  cler,- 

In  souwande  note}  a  gentyl  carpe  ; 

Ful  fayre  pe  mode}  pay  fonge  in  fere.  884 

Ry^t  byfore  Gode}  chayere, 
&  pe  fowre  beste}  pat  hyw  obes, 
&  pe  alder-men  so  sadde  of  chere, 
Her  songe  pay  songen  neu^r  pe  les. 


«'  *  Nowpe-lese  non  wat^  neuer  so  quoy«t, 
For  alle  pe  crafte^  pat  ever  pay  knewe, 
pat  of  pat  songe  my^t  sy«ge  a  poywt, 
Bot  pat  meyny  pe  Lombe  pa[t]  swe  ;  %9Z 

For  pay  arn  bo^t,  fro  pe  vrpe  aloynte, 
As  newe  fryt  to  God  ful  due, 
&  to  pe  gentyl  Lombe  hit  arn  anioywt, 
As  lyk  to  hym  self  of  lote  &  hwe  ;  896 

For  neu^r  lesy«g  ne  tale  vn-trwe 
Ne  towched  her  tonge  for  no  dysstresse. 
pat  motel es  meyny  may  neu^r  remwe 
Fro  patmaskele^  Mayster  neuer  peles.'  "  900 

PEARL.  77 


"  *  Nevertheless,  though  sharp  the  shout, 

though  loud  the  voice  that  echoed  there, 

a  note  full  new  I  heard  them  raise  ; 

to  list  thereto  was  blissful  joy. 

As  harpers  harp  upon  their  harps, 

that  new  song  sang  they  tunefully,- 

a  noble  theme  in  clearest  notes  ; 

sweetly  in  chorus  they  caught  the  strain. 
And  e'en  before  the  Throne  of  God, 
and  the  four  beasts  that  bow  to  Him, 
and  the  Elders  all,  so  grave  of  mien, 
their  song  they  sang  there  never  the  less. 


"  *  Nevertheless  was  none  so  skilFd, 
for  all  the  crafts  that  e'er  he  knew, 
that  of  that  song  might  sing  a  note, 
save  all  the  host  that  follow  the  Lamb. 
They  are  redeem'd,  removed  from  earth, 
as  first-fruits  wholly  due  to  God, 
and  to  that  gentle  Lamb  enjoin'd, 
as  like  to  Him  in  hue  and  look  ; 
for  never  a  lie  nor  tale  untrue 
had  touched  their  tongues,  for  any  pain. 
To  spotless  Lord  the  spotless  host 
shall  nearest  be,  and  never  less.'  " 

78  PERLE. 


f.  51  a  "  Neuer  Jje  les  let  be  my  ]x>nc," 
Qwof  I,  "my  Perle,  fia^  I  appose  ; 
I  schulde  not  tempte  Jjy  wyt  so  wlonc, 
To  Kryste^  chambre  fat  art  ichose.  904 

I  am  bot  mokke  &  mul  amo«[c], 
&  J?ou  so  ryche  a  reken  rose, 
&  byde^  here  by  ]>ys  blysful  bone 
Jper  lyue^  lyste  may  neu^r  lose.  908 

Now,  hynde,  Jjat  sympelnesse  cowe^  enclose, 

I  wolde  Jje  aske  a  J>y«ge  expresse  ; 

&  ]>a^  I  be  bustwys  as  a  [^wjose,  . 

Let  my  bone  vayl[e]  neu^r-jje-lese.  912 


EUER-)?E-LESE  cler  I  yowby-calle, 

If  ^e  con  se  hyt  be  to  done  ; 
As  ]>ou  art  gloryowj  wyt^-outen  galle, 
WytA-nay  pou  neiur  my  ruful  bone.  9l6 

Haf  ^e  no  wone^  in  castel-walle, 
Ne  man<?r  fer  ^e  may  mete  &  won[e]  ? 
])ou  telle^  me  of  Jerusalem^  ]>e  ryche  ryalle, 
)?er  Dauid  dere  wat^  dy^t  on  trone ;  920 

Bot  by  f>yse  holte^  hit  con  not  hone ; 

Bot  in  Judee  hit  is,  \al  noble  note  ; 

As  $e  ar  maskele^  vnder  mone, 

Your  wone^  schulde  be  wyth-outen  mote.  9M 

PEARL.  79 

**  And  none  the  less  my  thanks  have  thou," 
quoth  I,  "  my  Pearl,  though  yet  I  ask  ; 
I  should  not  try  thy  noble  mind, 
who  chosen  to  Christ's  chamber  art. 
I  am  but  earth  and  dust  a-while, 
and  thou  so  rich  a  royal  rose, 
and  bidest  by  this  blissful  bank, 
where  life's  delight  may  ne'er  be  lost. 

Now,  Lady, — simple  wast  thou  once, — 
I  fain  would  ask  thee  but  one  thing  ; 
and  though  I  be  wild  as  man  of  the  woods, 
let,  nevertheless,  my  prayer  avail ! 


"  T   NONE  the  less  beseech  thee  fair, 

A      if  thou  canst  see  it  may  be  done, 
as  thou  art  glorious,  free  from  fault, 
my  rueful  prayer  deny  not  thou. 
Have  ye  no  homes  in  castle-walls  ? 
No  manor  where  ye  may  meet  and  bide  ? 
Thou  namest  Jerusalem,  rich  and  royal, 
where  David  dear  was  dight  on  throne ; 

but  by  these  holts  it  cannot  be ; 

'tis  in  Judaea,  that  noble  place ; 

as  ye  are  spotless  'neath  the  moon, 

all  spotless  so  should  be  your  homes. 

8o  PERLE. 


"  J3ys  motele^  meyny  pou  cone}  of  mele, 
Of  pousande^  pry$t  so  gret  a  route  ; 
A  gret  cete,  for  36  arn  fele, 
Yow  by-hod  haue  wyt/6-outen  doute.  928 

So  cuwly  a  pakke  of  joly  juele 
Wer  euel  don  schulde  ly$  p<?/--oute ; 
&  by  pyse  bonke^  per  I  con  gele, 
1  fl  se  no  bygywg  nawhere  aboute.  932 

I  trowe  al-one  ^e  lenge  &  loute, 

To  loke  on  pe  glory  of  pys  gr^c^oz/j  gote  ; 

If  ]}0u  hat^  o}>er  lygy«ge^  stoute, 

Now  tech  me  to  fat  myry  mote."  936 


<«  That  mote  Jwu  mene^  in  Judy  londe," 
}?at  specyal  spyce  J>en  to  me  spakk, 
"  jpat  is  pe  cyte  pat  ]>e  Lombe  con  fonde, 
To  sofrer  i/zne  sor  for  mane^  sake,—  94° 

J^e  olde  J^rwW^m  to  vnder-stonde, 
For  pere  pe  olde  gulte  wat^  don  to  slake ; 
Bot  pe  nwe,  pat  ly^t  of  Gode^  sonde, 
Jpe  apostel  in  Apocalyppce  in  theme  con  take.  944 

Jpe  Lom[b]e  ]>er,  wyt^-outen  spotte^  blake, 

Hat^  feryed  pyder  hys  fay  re  flote ; 

&  as  hys  flok  is  wjt>6-outen  flake, 

So  is  hys  mote  wyt/6-outen  moote.  948 

PEARL.  81 


"  This  spotless  band  thou  speakest  of, 
this  throng  of  thousands,  such  a  host ; 
a  city  vast,  so  many  ye  are, 
without  a  doubt,  ye  needs  must  have. 
So  comely  a  pack  of  joyous  jewels 
'twere  perilous  to  lodge  without ; 
but,  where  I  tarry  by  these  banks, 
I  see  no  dwelling  anywhere. 

I  trow  ye  but  linger  here  and  walk, 

to  look  on  the  glory  of  this  fair  stream  ; 

if  elsewhere  thou  hast  dwellings  firm, 

now  lead  me  to  that  merry  spot." 


"  The  spot  thou  meanest,  in  Jewry  land," 
that  wonder  rare  then  said  to  me, 
"  the  city  it  is  the  Lamb  did  seek, 
to  suffer  there  sore,  for  sake  of  man,- 
the  Old  Jerusalem,  to  wit, 
for  there  the  old  guilt  was  assoil'd  ; 
but  the  New,  come  down  by  God's  own  word,- 
the  Apostle's  theme  in  Apocalypse,- 

'tis  there  the  Lamb,  with  no  black  stain, 
thither  hath  borne  His  beauteous  throng  ; 
and  as  His  flock  is  without  fold, 
moatless  His  mansion  in  that  spot. 

82  PERLE. 


"  Of  motes  two  to  carpe  clene, 

&  Jerusalem  hy^t  bope  nawpeles,— 

j^at  nys  to  yow  no  more  to  mene 

Bot  cete  of  God  olper  sy^t  of  pes,—  952 

\ji  pat  on  oure  pes  wat}  mad  at  ene ; 

Wyt£  payne  to  suffer  pe  Lombe  hit  chese  ; 

In  pat  op<?r  is  no^t  hot  pes  to  glene, 

J)at  ay  schal  laste  wjyt^-outen  reles.  95  6 

fcat  is  pe  bor^  pat  we  to  pres 
Fro  p0t  oure  f[l]esch  be  layd  to  rote ; 
})er  glory  &  blysse  schal  eu<?r  encres 
To  pe  meyny  p^t  is  wjyt^-outen  mote."       96° 


"  Motele^  may  so  meke  &  mylde," 

Jjen  sayde  I  to  pat  lufly  flor, 

"  Brywg  me  to  pat  bygly  bylde, 

&  let  me  se  py  blysful  bor."  964 

))at  schene  sayde :-"  Jpat  God  wyl  schylde; 

JOou  may  not  enter  wjt£-i«ne  hys  tor  ; 

Bot  of  pe  Lombe  I  haue  pe  aquylde 

For  a  sy^t  per-of  pur^  gret  fauor.  968 

Vt-wyth  to  se  pat  clene  cloystor 
Jjou  may,  bot  i«-wyth  not  a  fote 
To  strech  in  pe  strete  pou  hat^  no  vygowr, 
Bot  pou  wer  clene  wyt/6-outen  mote.  97 2 

PEARL.  83 

LXXX.         t^" 

"  Of  these  twain  spots  to  speak  aright, 
and  yet  hight  both  Jerusalem,— 
which,  know  thou,  meaneth  nothing  else 
but  City  of  God,  or  Sight  of  Peace,- 
in  the  one,  our  peace  one  time  was  made  ; 
the  Lamb  chose  there  to  suffer  pain  ; 
in  the  other  is  nought  but  peace  to  glean, 
that  aye  shall  last  unceasingly. 

This  is  the  bourne  whereto  we  press, 

soon  as  our  flesh  is  laid  to  waste  ; 

there  glory  and  bliss  shall  e'er  increase 

unto  the  host  without  a  spot." 


"Spotless  maid,  so  meek  and  mild," 
then  said  I  to  that  flower  full  fair, 
"  bring  me  to  that  blest  abode, 
and  let  me  see  thy  blissful  bower." 
That  glory  said  :   "  God  this  forbiddeth  ; 
within  His  tower  thou  may'st  not  come ; 
but  from  the  Lamb  I  welcome  thee 
to  a  sight  thereof,  by  His  great  grace. 
That  cloister  clean  may'st  see  without  ; 
within — thy  vigour  availeth  not 
to  enter  in  its  street  one  foot, 
save  thou  wert  clean  in  spotlessness. 

84  PERLE. 


f.  52-5  «  y  p  I  pis  mote  Jje  schal  vn-hyde, 

A      Bow  vp  to-warde  pys  borne^  heued, 

&  I  an-ende^  pe  on  pis  syde 

Schal  sve,  tyl  pou  to  a  hil  be  veued."  976 

fien  wolde  [I  p^r]  no  lenger  byde, 

Bot  lurked  by  lavwce^  so  lufly  leued, 

Tyl  on  a  hyl  pat  I  asspyed 

£  blusched  on  pe  burgh*?,  as  I  forth  dreued.    98° 
By-^onde  pe  brok  fro  me  warde  keued, 
Jpat  schyrrer  pen  su«ne  wyt^  schafte}  schon  ; 
I«  pe  Apokalypce  is  pe  fasou«  preued, 
As  deuyse^  hit  pe  apostel  Jhon.  984 


As  John  pe  apostel  hit  sy^  vfyth  sy^t, 

I  sy^e  pat  cyty  of  gret  renou/z, 

Jerusalem  so  nwe  &  ryally  dy^t, 

As  hit  wat}  ly^t  fro  pe  heuen  adou«.  988 

))e  bor^  wat^  al  of  brende  golde  bry^t, 

As  glemande  glas  burnist  brou/z, 

WytA  gentyl  gemme^  an-vnder  py3t, 

Wyth  bantele^  twelue  on  basy/zg  bouw  ;  99Z 

}5e  fouwdemente^  twelue  of  riche  tenouw  ; 

Vch  tabelment  wat^  a  serlype^  ston  ; 

As  derely  deuyse^  pis  ilk  tou« 

In  Apocalyppe^  ]?e  apostel  John.  996 

PEARL.  85 


"  OH  ALL  I  to  thee  this  spot  reveal, 
O      bend  thou  toward  this  river's  head,— 

I,  opposite,  upon  this  bank, 

shall  follow,  till  thou  come  to  a  hill." 

No  longer  would  I  tarry  then, 

but  stole  'neath  boughs,  'neath  lovely  leaves, 

till,  from  a  hill,  as  on  I  went, 

I  espied  and  gazed  upon  the  Burgh. 
Deep  set  from  me,  beyond  the  brook, 
with  rays  it  shone,  than  sun  more  bright. 
In  Apocalypse  is  found  its  form, 
as  pictureth  the  Apostle  John. 

As  John  the  Apostle  saw  it  then\ 
saw  I  that  City  of  noble  fame,—  J 
Jerusalem,  new  and  royally  dight, 
as  it  was  come  from  Heaven  adown. 
The  Burgh  was  all  of  burning  gold, 
burnish'd  bright  as  gleaming  glass, 
with  glorious  gems  beneath  it  set, 
with^4wel£fe  steps  rising  from  the  base, 
foundations  twelve,  with  tenons  rich, 
and  every  slab  a  special  stone  ; 
as  in  Apocalypse  this  same  Burgh 
John  the  Apostle  pictureth  well. 




As  [John]  pise  stone^  in  writ  con  nemme, 

I  knew  fe  name[j]  after  his  tale. 

Jasper  hy^t  j>e  fyrst[e]  gewme, 

J)at  I  on  )>e  fyrst[e]  basse  con  wale  ; 

He  glente  grene  in  J>e  lowest  hewme ; 

Saffer  helde  pe  secou/zde  stale ; 

))e  calsydoyne  )>e/me  wjt^-outen  wemme 

In  ]?e  pryd[de]  table  con  purly  pale ; 

J?e  emerade  ])e  furpe  so  grene  of  scale  ; 

))e  sardonyse  fe  fyfpe  ston ; 

Jpe  sexte  )>e  [sardej  ;  he  con  hit  wale, 

\n  )>e  Apocalyppce,  )>e  apostel  John. 




r.  53«  ^et  joyned  John  pe  crysolyt, 

)5e  seuenpe  gemme  in  fundament  ; 
))t  a^tjie  pe  beryl  cler  &  quyt  ; 
\)e  topasye  twy«ne-how  ]?e  newte  endent  ; 
jpe  crysopase  )?e  tenjje  is  ty^t  ; 
))e  jacywgh  [tj  ]?e  enleuenfe  gent  ; 
)pe  twelfpe,  fe  [tryjeste  iw  vch  a  plyt, 
])Q  amatyst  purpre  wjt/>  ynde  blente. 
Jje  wal  abof  J)e  bantels  b[[r]]ent, 

0  jasporye  as  glas  jjat  glysnande  schon,— 

1  knew  hit  by  his  deuysement 

In  ])e  Apocalyppe^,  }>e  apostel  J[o]hn. 


PEARL.  87 

As  John  these  stones  named  in  his  book, 
I  knew  the  names,  as  he  doth  tell. 
Jasper  hight  the  first  gem  there, 
that  on  the  first  base  I  discern'd ; 
on  lowest  course  it  glisten'd  green ; 
sapphire  held  the  second  step  ; 
the  chalcedony  then,  without  a  spot, 
on  tier  the  third  shone  pale  and  pure  ; 

the  emerald  fourth,  so  green  of  scale  ; 

the  fifth  stone  was  the  sardonyx  ; 

the  sardius  sixth  ;  in  Apocalypse 

John  the  Apostle  discern' d  it  then. 


To  these  join'd  John  the  chrysolite, 

foundation-stone  the  seventh  there; 

the  eighth  the  beryl,  white  and  clear ; 

the  twin-hued  topaz  ninth  was  set ; 

the  chrysoprase  came  next,  the  tenth  ; 

the  gentle  jacinth  then,  eleventh  ; 

the  twelfth,  the  surest  in  every  plight, 

the  purple  amethyst,  blent  with  blue. 
The  wall  rose  sheer  above  the  steps, 
of  jasper  as  glass  that  gleaming  shone  ; 
I  knew  it,  as  he  pictured  it 
in  Apocalypse,  the  Apostle  John. 

88  PERLE. 


As  John  deuysed  ^et  sa^  I  pare,- 

J^ise  twelue  de-gres  wern  brode  &  stayre  ; 

]5e  cyte  stod  abof  fill  sware, 

As  longe  as  brode  as  hy^e  ful  fayre  ;  1024 

jpe  strete^  of  golde  as  glasse  al  bare ; 

))e  wal  of  jasper  pat  glent  as  glayre ; 

J?e  wone^  wjyt^-iwne  enurned  ware 

Wyth  alle  ky/me}  perre  pat  mo^t  repayre.      1028 
))e/me  helde  vch  sware  of  pis  manayre 
Twelue  [powsande]  forlongef  er  ewr  hit  fon, 
Of  he^t,  of  brede,  of  lenpe,  to  cayre  ; 
For  meten  hit  sy$  pe  apostel  John.  1032 


AS  John  hyw  wryte^  ^et  more  I  sy^e  : 
Vch  pane  of  pat  place  had  pre  ^ate^  ; 
So  twelue  in  powrsent  I  con  asspye ; 
)2e  portale^  pyked  of  rych[e]  plate^  ;  1036 

&  vch  $ate  of  a  margyrye, 
A  parfyt  perle  pat  neu<?r  fate^. 
Vchon  in  scrypture  a  name  con  plye 
Of  Isr^l  barney,  folewande  her  date},  1040 

J?at  is  to  say,  as  her  byrp[e]-whate^  ; 

J)e  aldest  ay  fyrst  p^r-on  wat^  done. 

Such  ly^t  per  lemed  in  alle  pe  strate^, 

Hem  nedde  nawp^r  su«ne  ne  mone.  1044 

PEARL.  89 


As  John  there  pictured,  saw  I  too,— 

broad  and  steep  were  these  twelve  steps  ; 

the  City  stood  above  full  square, 

in  length  as  great  as  breadth  and  height ; 

the  streets  of  gold,  as  clear  as  glass  ; 

the  wall  of  jasper  ;  as  glair  it  gleam'd. 

The  mansions  were  adorn'd  within 

with  every  kind  of  gem  e'er  found. 
And  held  each  side  of  that  domain 
twelve  thousand  furlongs,  ere  ended  then, 
in  height,  in  breadth,  in  length,  its  course  ; 
for  measured  saw  it  the  Apostle  John. 


AS  writeth  John,  yet  saw  I  more,- 
three  gates  had  each  side  of  that  place, 
yea,  twelve  in  compass  I  espied, 
the  portals  deck'd  with  plates  full  rich  ; 
each  gate  was  of  one  margery  pearl,- 
a  perfect  pearl  that  fadeth  ne'er. 
Each  bore  thereon  a  name  inscribed 
of  Israel's  children,  in  order  of  time, 

that  is  to  say,  as  their  fortunes  of  birth  ; 

ever  the  elder  first  was  writ. 

Such  light  there  gleam' d  in  all  the  streets, 

they  needed  neither  sun  nor  moon. 

9o  PERLE. 


f.  53*  Of  su/me  ne  mone  had  fay  no  nede ; 
))e  self  [e]  God  wat}  her  lom[p]e-ly^t, 
\)e  Lombe  her  lantyrne  wyt^-outen  drede  ; 

hjm  blysned  fe  bor^  al  bry^t.  1048 

wo^e  &  won  my  loky/zg  3ede, 
For  sotyle  cler  no^t  lette  no  [sjy^t ; 
))e  hy^e  trone  f  er  mo^t  36  hede 
Wyth  alle  ]>e  apparaylmente  vmbe-py^te,       1051 
As  John  ]?e  appostel  in  terme^  ty^te ; 
J)e  hy^e  Gode^  self  hit  set  vpone ; 
A  reu<?r  of  )>e  trone  per  ran  out-ry^te 

bry^ter  fen  bo]?e  fe  suwne  &  mone.  1056 


Su/me  ne  mone  schon  neiur  so  swete, 
A[s]  J?at  foysouw  flode  out  of  fat  flet  ; 
Swyfe  hit  swange  fur}  vch  a  strete, 
Wyt/»-outen  fylfe  of^r  galle  o]>er  glet.  1060 

Kyrk  f er-i«ne  wat^  non  ^ete, 
Chapel  ne  temple  fat  ever  wat^  set ; 
Jje  Al-my^ty  wat^  her  mynyster  mete  ; 
\)e  Lombe  fe  saker-fyse  fer  to  reget.  1064 

J^e  ^ate^  stoken  \vat^  neu^r  ^et, 

Bot  eu<rr-more  vpen  at  vche  a  lone  ; 

)}er  entre^  non  to  take  reset, 

))at  bere^  any  spot  an-vnde[r]  mone.          1068 

PEARL.  91 


Of  sun  or  moon  had  they  no  need  ; 
their  lamp-light  was  the  very  God ; 
the  Lamb  their  lantern  that  never  fail'd  ; 
through  Him  the  City  brightly  gleam'd. 
Through  wall  and  mansion  pierced  my  gaze ; 
all  was  so  clear,  nought  hinder'd  sight. 
The  High  Throne  might  ye  there  behold, 
engirt  with  all  its  fair  array, 

as  John  the  Apostle  drew  in  words  ; 

and  thereon  sat  High  God  Himself. 

A  river  from  the  Throne  ran  out ; 

'twas  brighter  than  both  sun  and  moon. 


Nor  sun  nor  moon  so  sweetly  shone 
as  that  rich  flood  from  out  that  floor  ; 
through  every  street  it  swiftly  surged, 
free  from  filth  and  mud  and  mire. 
Church  therein  was  none  to  see, 
chapel  nor  temple  that  ever  was  set ; 
the  Almighty  was  their  minster  meet, 
the  Lamb  their  sacrifice,  there  to  atone. 
The  portals  never  yet  were  barr'd, 
but  evermore  open  at  ev'ry  lane  ; 
none  entereth  there  to  take  abode, 
that  beareth  spot  beneath  the  moon. 

92  PERLE. 


The  mone  may  per-of  acroche  no  my^te ; 

To  spotty  ho  is,  of  body  to  grym  ; 

&  al-so  ]>er  ne  is  neu^r  ny^t. 

What  schulde  pe  mone  per  compas  clym,      i°7z 

&  to  euen  wyth  pat  worply  Iy3t, 

fiat  schyne^  vpon  pe  broke}  brym  ? 

fie  planete^  arn  in  to  pou^r  a  ply^t, 

&  pe  self[e]  su«ne  ful  fer  to  dym.  i°76 

Aboute  pat  watfr  arn  tres  ful  schym, 
})at  twelue  fryte^  of  lyf  con  bere  ful  sonc  ; 
Twelue  sype^  on  }er  pay  beren  ful  frym, 
&  re-nowle^  nwe  in  vche  a  mone.  1080 


f.  54«  An-vnder  mone  so  gret  rmrwayle 
No  fleschly  hert  ne  my^t  endeure, 
As  quen  I  blusched  vpon  pat  ba[yjl[e], 
So  ferly  pfr-of  wat^  pe  fasure.  1084 

II  stod  as  stylle  as  dased  quayle, 
For  ferly  of  pat  freuch  fygure, 
fiat  felde  I  nawp^r  reste  ne  tr^uayle, 
So  wat}  I  rauyste  wyth  glymme  pure.  i°88 

For  I  dar  say  wyth  conciens  sure, 
Hade  bodyly  burne  abiden  pat  bone, 
fiaj  alle  clerke^  hyw  hade  in  cure, 
His  lyf  wer  loste  an-vnder  mone.  1092 

PEARL.  93 

The  moon  no  might  may  there  acquire ; 

too  spotty  is  she,  too  grim  her  form  ; 

and  night  is  never  in  that  place. 

Why  should  the  moon  climb  there  her  course, 

as  'twere  with  that  rich  light  to  vie, 

that  shineth  upon  the  river's  bank  ? 

The  planets'  plight  is  all  too  poor ; 

the  very  sun  is  far  too  dim. 

About  that  stream  are  trees  full  bright, 

that  bear  full  soon  twelve  fruits  of  life ; 

twelve  times  each  year  they  bravely  bear, 

their  fruit  renewing  every  moon. 


Beneath  the  moon  no  heart  pf  flesh 
so  great  a  marvel  might  sustain, 
as  I,  a-gazing  on  that  Burgh, 
so  wondrous  was  the  form  thereof. 
I  stood  as  still  as  dazed  quail, 
in  wonder  of  that  gladsome  sight  ; 
nor  rest  nor  travail  felt  I  then, 
so  ravish' d  by  that  radiance  rare. 

For  I,  with  knowledge  sure,  dare  say, 
had  mortal  bodily  borne  that  bliss, 
though  all  our  clerks  had  him  in  cure, 
his  life  were  lost  beneath  the  moon. 

94  PERLE. 

§  XIX.  xcn. 

RY^T  as  f  e  maynful  mone  con  rys, 
Er  fewne  f  e  day-glem  dryue  al  dou«, 

So  sodanly  on  a  wonder  wyse, 

I  wat$  war  of  a  prosessyou«.  1096 

J^is  noble  cite  of  ryche  enpr[y]se 

Wat$  sodanly  ful,  wyt^-outen  sowniou«, 

Of  such  v*rgyne$  in  f  e  same  gyse 

fat  wat^  my  blysful  an-vnder  crou/z ;  IIO° 

&  coronde  wern  alle  of  f  e  same  fasoun, 
Depaynt  in  perle^  &  wede^  qwyte  ; 
In  vchone^  breste  wat$  bou/zden  bou« 
)5e  blysful  perle  wjt£  [gret]  delyt.  II04 


Wyth  gret  delyt  fay  glod  in  fere 

On  golden  gate3  f>at  glent  as  glasse  ; 

Huwdreth  ]?owsande3  I  wot  per  were, 

&  alle  in  sute  her  liuref  wasse ;  "°8 

Tor  to  knaw  pe  gladdest  chere. 

foe  Lombe  by  fore  con  proudly  passe, 

Wyth  home}  seuen  of  red  g[ol]de  cler  ; 

As  praysed  perle$  his  wedej"  wasse.  "12 

Towarde  )>e  throne  fay  trone  a  tras ; 

))a$  fay  wern  fele,  no  pres  in  plyt ; 

Bot  mylde  as  maydene^  seme  at  mas, 

So  dro;  fay  forth  wjyt£  gret  delyt.  i"6 

PEARL.  95 

§  XIX.  xcn. 

AS  when  the  mighty  moon  doth  rise, 
ere  thence  the  gleam  of  day  may  set, 
so,  suddenly,  in  wondrous  way, 
I  was  'ware  of  a  procession  there. 
This  noble  city  of  rich  renown 
was  suddenly,  without  summons,  full 
of  maidens,  all  in  self-same  garb 
as  was  my  Blissful  beneath  her  crow: 
and  crowned  were  they  all  alike, 
array'd  in  pearls  and  raiment  white ; 
on  each  one's  breast  was  fasten'd  firm, 
with  great  delight,  the  blissful  pearl. 


With  great  delight  they  fared  together 
on  golden  streets  that  gleam'd  as  glass  ; 
hundreds  of  thousands  I  wot  there  were, 
as  of  one  Order  was  their  guise  ; 
'twere  hard  to  choose  the  gladdest  mien. 
Before  them  proudly  pass'd  the  Lamb, 
with  seven  horns  of  clear  red  gold  ; 
His  robe  most  like  to  praised  pearls. 

Toward  the  Throne  they  took  their  track  ; 

though  they  were  many,  none  did  press; 

but  mild  as  modest  maids  at  mass, 

so  drew  they  on,  with  great  delight. 

96  PERLE. 


f.  54*  Delyt  ptft  [Jw]  hys  come  encroched, 
To  much  hit  were  of  for  to  melle ; 
)?ise  alder-men,  quen  he  aproched, 
Grouelywg  to  his  fete  pay  felle  ;  IIZO 

Legyouwes  of  auwgele^  togeder  uoched 
j^er  kesten  ensens  of  swete  smelle  ; 
J3en  glory  &  gle  wat^  nwe  abroched  ; 
Al  songe  to  loue  pat  gay  Juelle.  II24 

])e  steuen  mo^t  stryke  pur$  pe  vrpe  to  helle, 

Jjat  pe  Virtues  of  heuen  of  joye  endyte  ; 

To  loue  pe  Lombe,  his  meyny  in  melle, 

I-wysse  I  la^t  a  gret  delyt. 


Delit  pe  Lombe  for  to  deuise 
Wyth  much  meruayle  in  mynde  went  ; 
Best  wat}  he,  blypest,  &  moste  to  pryse, 
Jpat  euer  I  herde  of  speche  spent.  "3* 

So  worply  whyt  wern  wede^  hys[e], 
His  loke^  symple,  hym  self  so  gent ; 
Bot  a  wou«de  ful  wyde  &  weete  con  wyse 
An-ende  hys  hert,  Jmr}  hyde  to-rente,  ^S6 

Of  his  quyte  syde  his  blod  out-sprent. 

A-las  !  po3t  I,  who  did  pat  spyt  ? 

Ani  breste  for  bale  a}t  haf  for-brent 

Er  he  per-to  hade  had  delyt.  IJ4° 

PEARL.  97 


Delight  that  there  His  coming  brought, 

too  much  it  were  to  tell  thereof; 

those  Elders  all,  when  He  approached, 

prostrate  they  fell  before  His  feet  ; 

legions  of  angels,  call'd  together, 

scatter'd  there  incense  of  sweetest  smell ; 

then  glory  and  glee  pour'd  forth  anew ; 

all  sang  to  laud  that  gladsome  Jewel. 

Through  earth  to  hell  the  strain  might  strike, 
that  the  Virtues  of  Heaven  attune  in  joy  ; 
to  laud  the  Lamb,  His  host  amid, 
in  sooth  possessed  me  great  delight. 


Delight,  much  marvel,  held  my  mind 
aright  to  picture  forth  the  Lamb; 
best  was  He,  blithest,  and  most  to  prize, 
that  e'er  I  heard  in  speech  set  forth. 
So  wondrous  white  was  His  array, 
simple  His  looks,  Himself  so  calm  ; 
but  a  wound  full  wide  and  wet  was  seen, 
against  His  heart,  through  sunder'd  skin  ; 

from  His  white  side  His  blood  streamed  out. 

Alas  !   thought  I,  who  did  that  hurt  ? 

Any  breast  should  all  have  burnt  in  bale, 

ere  it  thereto  had  had  delight. 

98  PERLE. 


The  Lombe  delyt  non  lyste  to  wene  ; 

faj  he  were  hurt  &  woiwde  hade, 

In  his  sembelauwt  wat^  neiurr  sene, 

So  wern  his  glente}  gloryowj-  glade.  "44 

I  loked  amo«g  his  meyny  schene, 

How  pay  wyth  lyf  wern  laste  &  lade  ; 

pen  sa}  I  per  my  lyttel  quene, 

jpat  I  wende  had  standen  by  me  in  sclade.     1148 

Lorde,  much  of  mirpe  wat}  pat  ho  made, 

Among  her  fere}  pat  wat^  so  quyt ! 

j?at  sy^t  me  gart  to  penk  to  wade, 

For  luf-longy«g  in  gret  delyt. 

§  XX.  xcvn. 

f-  ss«.  T^VELYT  me  drof  in  y^e  &  ere  ; 

JL^/      My  mane^  mynde  to  maddywg  make  ; 

Quen  I  se^  my  frely,  I  wolde  be  pere, 

By^onde  pe  water  pa^  ho  were  wake. 

I  po^t  pat  no  pywg  my^t  me  dere 

To  fech  me  bur  &  take  me  hake  ; 

&  to  start  in  pe  strem  schulde  non  me  stere, 

To  swymme  pe  remnau/zt  pa^  I  per  swalte.    I1[6o 

Bot  of  pat  muflt  I  wat^  bi-talt ; 

When  I  schulde  start  in  pe  strem  astraye, 

Out  of  pat  caste  I  wat^  by-calt ; 

Hit  wat}  not  at  my  Prynce^  paye.  "64 

PEARL.  99 


But  none  would  doubt  the  Lamb's  delight ; 
though  He  were  hurt  and  wounded  sore, 
none  could  it  in  His  semblance  see, 
His  glance  so  glorious  was  and  glad. 
I  look'd  among  His  radiant  host, 
how  they  with  life  were  fill'd  and  fraught ; 
then  saw  I  there  my  little  queen, 
I  thought  was  nigh  me  in  the  glen. 

Lord,  much  of  mirth  was  it  she  made ! 

Among  her  peers  she  was  so  fair. 

That  sight  there  made  me  think  to  cross, 

for  love-longing  and  great  delight. 

§  XX.  xcvn. 

DELIGHT  so  drove  me,  eye  and  ear ; 
melted  to  madness  my  mortal  mind  ; 
when  I  saw  my  Precious,  I  would  be  there, 
beyond  the  stream  though  she  were  held. 
Nothing,  meth  ought,  might  hinder  me 
from  fetching  birr  and  taking-off; 
and  nought  should  keep  me  from  the  start, 
though  I  there  perish' d  swimming  the  rest. 

But  I  was  shaken  from  that  thought ; 

as  I  wildly  will'd  to  start  a-stream, 

I  was  recall'd  from  out  that  mood ; 

it  was  not  pleasing  to  my  Prince. 

ioo  PERLE. 


Hit  payed  hym  not  pat  I  so  flonc 

Oucr  meruelowj-  mere^,  so  mad  arayde , 

Of  raas  pa$  I  were  rasch  &  ronk, 

3et  rapely  per-i«ne  I  wat^  restayed.  n68 

For  ry^t  as  I  sparred  vn-to  pe  bone, 

)pat  bfat[h]e  out  of  my  drem  me  brayde. 

)}en  wakned  I  in  pat  erber  wlonk ; 

My  hede  vpon  pat  hylle  wat$  layde,  n?2 

)2er-as  my  perle  to  grou«de  strayd. 

I  raxled,  &  fel  in  gret  affray, 

&  sykywg  to  myself  I  sayd, 

"Now  al  be  to  pat  Prynce^  paye."  1176 


Me  payed  ful  ille  to  be  out-fleme 
So  sodenly  of  pat  fayre  regiou//, 
Fro  alle  po  sy^te^  so  quykef  &  queme. 
A  longeywg  heuy  me  strok  in  swone,  1180 

&  rewfully  pe«ne  I  con  to  reme  :- 
"  O  Perle,"  qz/op  I,  "of  rych  renou«, 
So  wat^  hit  me  dere  pat  pou  con  deme 
In  pys  v<ray  avysyou«  !  1184 

Iff  hit  be  ueray  &  soth  sermou«, 
jDat  pou  so  st[r]yke^  in  garlande  gay, 
So  wel  is  me  in  pys  doel-dou«gouw, 
)?at  pou  art  to  pat  Prynse^  paye."  "88 

PEARL.  101 


It  pleased  Him  not  I  flung  me  thus, 
so  madly,  o'er  those  wondrous  meres  ; 
though  on  I  rush'd,  full  rash  and  rude, 
yet  quickly  was  my  running  stay'd  ; 
for  as  I  sped  me  to  the  brink, 
the  strain  me  startled  from  my  dream. 
Then  woke  I  in  that  garden  green ; 
my  head  upon  that  mound  was  laid, 

e'en  where  my  Pearl  had  strayed  below. 

I  roused  me,  and  fell  in  great  dismay, 

and,  sighing,  to  myself  I  said, 

"  Now,  all  be  as  that  Prince  may  please  !  " 


Me  pleased  it  ill  to  be  out  cast 
so  suddenly  from  that  fair  realm, 
from  all  those  sights  so  blithe  and  brave. 
Sore  longing  struck  me,  and  I  swoon'd, 
and  ruefully  then  I  cried  aloud  :- 
«  O  Pearl,"  quoth  I,  «  of  rich  renown, 
how  dear  to  me  was  all  that  thou 
in  this  true  vision  didst  declare ! 
And  if  the  tale  be  verily  true, 
that  thou  thus  farest,  in  garland  gay, 
so  well  is  me  in  this  dungeon  dire, 
that  thou  art  pleasing  to  that  Prince  !  " 

102  PERLE. 


f.  55<5.  To  pat  Prynce^  paye  hade  I  ay  bente, 
&  Denied  no  more  pen  wat^  me  g[y]uen, 
&  halden  me  per  in  trwe  entent, 
As  pe  Perle  me  prayed  pat  wat}  so  pryuen, 
As  helde  drawen  to  Godde^  present, 
To  mo  of  his  mysterys  I  hade  ben  dryuen. 
Bot  ay  wolde  man  of  happe  more  hente 
))en  mo^tef  by  ry^t  vpon  hem  clyuen. 
]?er-fore  my  ioye  wat^  sone  to-riuen, 
&  I  kaste  of  kythe^  pat  laste}  aye. 
Lorde,  mad  hit  arn  pat  agayn  pe  stryuen 
Op^r  proferen  pe  o^t  agayn  py  paye  ! 


To  pay  pe  Pr/nce,  o]>er  sete  sa$te, 

Hit  is  ful  epe  to  pe  god  Krystyin  ; 

For  I  haf  fouwden  hym,  bope  day  &  na^te, 

A  God,  a  Lorde,  a  Frende  ful  fyin.  I204 

Ouer  pis  hyul  pis  lote  I  la^te, 

For  pyty  of  my  Perle  enclyin  ; 

&  sypen  to  God  I  hit  by-ta^te, 

in  Kryste}  dere  blessy/zg  &  myn, 
]?at,  in  pe  forme  of  bred  &  wyn, 
j)e  preste  \us  schewe^  vch  a  daye  ; 
He  gef  \us  to  be  his  homly  hyne, 
Ande  preciowj  perle^  vnto  his  pay  ! 

Amen.     Amen. 

PEARL.  10  J. 

That  Prince  to  please  had  I  still  bow'd, 
nor  yearn'd  for  more  than  was  me  given, 
and  held  me  there  with  true  intent, 
as  the  Pearl  me  pray'd,  that  was  so  wise, 
belike,  unto  God's  presence  drawn, 
to  more  of  His  mysteries  had  I  been  led. 
But  aye  will  man  seize  more  of  bliss 
than  may  abide  with  him  by  right. 

Wherefore  my  joy  was  sunder' d  soon, 
and  I  cast  forth  from  realms  eterne. 
Lord,  mad  are  they  that  'gainst  Thee  strive, 
or  'gainst  Thy  pleasure  proffer  aught ! 


To  please  the  Prince,  to  be  at  peace, 

good  Christian  hath  it  easy  here ; 

for  I  have  found  Him,  day  and  night, 

a  God,  a  Lord,  a  Friend  full  firm. 

Over  yon  mound  had  I  this  hap, 

prone  there  for  pity  of  my  Pearl ; 

to  God  I  then  committed  it, 

in  Christ's  dear  blessing  and  mine  own,— 
Christ  that  in  form  of  bread  and  wine 
the  priest  each  day  to  us  doth  shew ; 
He  grant  we  be  His  servants  leal,— 
yea,  precious  Pearls  to  please  Him  aye ! 

Amen.     Amen. 




M.  refers  to  Dr.  Richard  Morris's  revised  Alliterative  Poems, 
E.E.T.S.,  Original  Series,  i,  1869.  H.  =  article  by  Professor  Holt- 
hausen,  Archiv  fur  das  Studium  der  Neueren  Sprachen  u.  Liferaturen, 
Vol.  90.  O.  =  Dr.  C.  G.  Osgood's  edition,  Belles-Lettres  Series 
(Boston),  1906. 

The  hyphens  in  the  text,  with  the  exception  of  saker-fyse,  1.  1064, 
are  editorial,  and  indicate  that  the  component  parts  of  the  word  are 
separated  in  the  MS. 

i  and  j  are,  as  far  as  possible,  differentiated  in  accordance  with 
the  MS. 

Italic  letters  indicate  expansions  of  MS.  contractions  ;  f  =  excision 
of  letters  j  square  brackets  are  used  to  mark  all  other  emendations. 


MS.  Readings. 

Emendation  in  Text. 

8.  synglure 


II.   for  dolked 


17.  hert 


23.  \\jit\e  (mark  on  thei) 


25.  t  (blot  on  preceding 



26.  rimnen 


35.  sprygande 


49.  spewnd 


51.  hert 


53.  spenwed 

pewned.     H. 

54.  fyrte 

fyr[c]e.     H. 

60.  precos 


68.  rych 


72.  adubmente 


81.  J>at  on 

l>at  [I]  on.     H. 

89.  flowen  (vf  due  to 

correction  ofy$) 

95.  graces 
103.   feier 


106.  b  nkes(second  stroke 


of  Q  omitted} 

115.  a 


122.  wlonk 
134.  I  torn 

wlonk  [e]. 
[torn  I],     H. 

138.  otyr 

o[u]«r.    O. 

140.  by  twene   myrJ)C3 

by-twene       mere3 

by  mere}  made 

Myr>e   made. 

142.  hope 


144.  a 


154.  wo 


179.  atouwt 


185.  hope 


192.  precos 


200.  y3en 






MS.  Readings. 

210.  lere  leke  (1  in  each 
case  has  probably 
resulted  from 
the  omission  of 
the  tail  of  h) 

225.  tong 

229.  pyse 

235.  pfered  .  .  .  spyce 

262.  nu  {altered  to  ne) 
.  .  .  here 

286.  bro$  .  .      blys 

302.  Ioue3 

303.  vn  cortoyse 

304.  1   ue3   {the  letter 

between  1  and  u 
is  possibly  y, 
now  very  faint) 
with  a  stroke 
through  the  ttp- 
perpart,to  indi 
cate  e) 

308.  Ioue3 

309.  ins 
312.  dem 
319.  couwsayl 
331.  gare3 
335.  perle? 
342.  &  wele 
353.  sty»st 
358  & 

359.  marre 
363.  rapely  raue 
369.  Iyfe3 

381.  carp 

382.  marere3 
433.  syde 

436.  bygyner  {the  con 
traction  mark 
on  the  first  y 
instead  of  the 

Emendation  in  Text. 
[h]ere  [hjeke. 



p[r0]fered  .  .   .  sp[e]ce. 

ne  .  .  .    [n]ere. 

bro3[t]  .  .  .  blys[se], 







[in]  wele. 


[pat  alle]. 

marre  [d]. 

rapely  [I]  raue. 

[k]y]je3.      H. 






MS.  Readings. 


457.    poule 
458.  Ihu      (otherwise 


Jh5,    711,   717, 

820  ;  Ihc,  721  ; 

Jesu,  453) 

460.  tyste 


461.  sawhe 


469.  cortayse 


479.  ho 


480.  cortayse 
481.  cortayse 


486.  fyrst 

fyrst  [e]. 

505-  J>ys 


510.   pene  on  a  day 

pene  a  day. 

523.  resonabele 


524.  pray 


527.  nw 


529.  >e  day  of  date  of 

f>e  [date]  of  [day]  of. 

532.  sade  (with  stroke 

at  foot  ofd,  be 

longing   to    an 

original  y) 



533.  longe        (altered 

from  3ong) 

538.  &  £  hit 


542.  meyny 


543.  owe 

[a]  we. 

544.  reprene 


547.  lowe 


557.  on      (MS.      om, 


changed  by   the 

scribe      to    on, 

though  the  third 

stroke  still  clear) 

558,  Via.v\\g(withmark 

on  i) 


564.  ask 


565.  louyly 


572.  calle 




MS.  Readings. 

Emendation  in  Text. 

581.  welnygh  (the  link 

between  g  and  h 

resembles  a) 

586.  long 
596.  p<?rtermynable 
616.  lere 


635.  $ys  (the  s,  though 

nearly    obliter 

ated,    can    still 

be  read) 

hym  .  .  .  fyrst 

h[e]m   .  .  .  fyrst[e]. 

649.  out  out  of 

out  of. 

656.  wythiwne 

wyth  in. 

672.  m-oscente  ;  saf  & 

i»-oscen[c]e  ;     saf    [by] 



673.  ]>us  ]>us  I 


675.  fate 


678.  hy3  hylle3 

hy3[e]  hylle. 

683.  step 
688.  me3bor 


690.  cure  con 

oure[Koyntyse  hym]  con. 

698.  se$ 
700.  sor 


701.  com 


702.  tryed 


709.  quo  con 

quo  [so]  con. 

714.  touth 


715.  hyw 


733.  makelle3 


735.  heuenesse  clere 

heuenes  s[p]ere. 

739-  ry^tywys 


752.  carpe  .    .    .  pr<?- 

carpe  [d]  .  .  .  p^pertfy]}. 


757.  makele3 


768.  &  py3t 

[He]  py3t. 

778.  maryag 


786.  forty  ]>owsande 

forty  [fowre]  >ovvsande. 

788.  }v\&  (so  all  except 

383,  818,  Jon; 

984,Jhon;  1020, 




MS.  Readings. 

791.  hyl     (1    corrected 

from  some  other 

792.  o  (t_MS.  u) 

792.  Jlrm  (and  so 
throughout  ex 
cept  804,  Jhrfn  ; 
816,  Jrlin;829, 
Ilrfn.  This  form 
of  spelling  may 
be  due  to  a  mis- 
readingof]  hr  m , 
due  perhaps  to 
analogy  with 
Jhs  =  Jesus) 

799-  gystle3  (s  faintly 
changed  to  1) 

800.  felonye 

802.  men 

803.  query 

804.  Jhrm 
815.  lomp 
817.  Jerusalem 
825.  wro3t 

829.  swatte 

830.  j)are    (a     altered 

from  e) 
836.  sayt3 
843.  masklle 
848.  non  o]>er 
856.  >a 

860.  n    (blot    on  pre 

ceding  letter} 

86 1.  loube 

865.  talle  (but  on  the 
bottom  of  the 
previous  page 
the  catchwords 
are  given  as  fol 
lows  :  Leste  les 

Emendation  in  Text. 






[I«]  Jerusalem. 








MS.  Readings. 

Emendation  in  Text. 

yow    leue     my 

tale  fara[de]) 

874.  laden 


892.  >ay 


905.  among 


911.  blose 


912.  vayl 


918.  won 


932.  &  I 


934.  gracons 


945.  lompe 


958.  fresch 


961.  By  an  error,  this 

verse    begins    a 

new  section   in 

the  MS. 

977.  wolde  no 

wolde  [I  }>er]  no. 

985.  John  (the  o  has 

been  added  after 

wards,  cp.  1020) 

997.  As  >ise 

As  [John]  jnse. 

998.  name 

name  [3], 

999.  fyrst 


1000.  fyrst 


1004.  >ryd 


1007.  rybe 


1014.  jacywgh. 


1015.  gentyleste 


1017.  bent. 


1018.  o    jasporye     (be 

tween  o   and  j 

there  are  traces 

of  what  may  be 

an      added     f, 

rather  above  the 

line,  in  a  differ 

ent,      probably 

later  hand) 

1020.  Jhn  (cp.  985) 
1030.  Twelue   forlonge 

Twelue   [J>owsande]  for 

space  er 

longe  er 


MS.  Readings. 

Emendation  in  Text. 

1036.  rych 


1041.  byr]>  whatej 
1046.  self  .  .   .    lombe 

selfje]  .  .  .  Iom[p]e-ly3t 


1050    lyjt 


1058.  a 


1064.  saker-fyse  (hyph 

en  indicated  by  : 

in  MS.} 

1068.  an  vnde3 


1076.  self 


1083.  baly 


1084.  fasure  (s    altered 

from  1) 

1097.  enpresse 
1  104.  w^/t^outen  delyt 

\vyih  [gret]  delyt. 

1108.  liurej 


1  1  10.  lombe  (a  dot  on 

third  stroke  of 


ii  1  1.  glode 


1  1  12.  wedej 


1117.  >athys 

}>#t  [per]  hys. 

1133.  hys 


1170.  brathe  (the  h  ap 


pears  to  be  due 

to  the  correction 

of]),  resembling 

y,  to  h) 

1179.  quykej 
1185.  i«f 


1186.  stykej 
1190.  geuen 


1196.  mo3ten 



1-2.  The  opening  lines  of  the  poem  have  been  variously 
interpreted,  the  main  difficulty  being  the  words  '  to  clanly 
clos.5  '  Clos'  seems  to  be  the  O.F.  clos,  i.  e.  enclosed,  set. 
Such  an  interpretation  must  necessitate  taking  *  to'  as  '  too.' 
The  underlying  thought  may  be  illustrated  by  Cromek's 
Nithsdale  Song  : 

'  She's  gane  to  dwall  in  heaven,  my  lassie, 

She's  gane  to  dwall  in  heaven ; 
Ye're  owre  pure,  quo'  the  voice  of  God, 

For  dwalling  out  o'  heaven.' 

Grammatically  there  is  nothing  against  the  possibility 
that  '  clos  '  =  close,  i.  e.  to  enclose,  and  that  the  phrase 
'  to  clanly  clos '  is  gerundive,  t.  e.  for  setting  nobly.  The 
lines  would  then  mean  :  '  Pearl  so  pleasant  as  to  please 
the  Prince  for  setting  radiantly  in  the  glorious  gold  (i.e. 
heaven) ' ;  cp. 

*  He  [t.  e.  the  gemstone]  is  idon  in  heouene  golde,' 

('A  Luue  Ron/  1.  181,  '  Old  English  Miscellany,' 

E.E.T.S.  1872). 

The  strangest  of  all  comments  is  that  of  O.,  who  suggests 
a  possible  *  secondary  allusion  to  the  maiden's  tomb,'  adding 
that  'the  poet  may  have  provided  costly  sepulture  for  the 
child,'  though  he  aptly  quotes  from  '  Ipotis' : — 
'  The  feorj?e  heuene  is  gold  iliche, 
Ful  of  precious  stones  riche ; 
To  Innocens  ]?at  place  is  diht ; ' 
cp.  also  '  The  Boke  of  Brome,'  p.  27,  11.  69-71. 

As  regards  the  phrase  '  to  prynces  paye,'  cp.  the  refrains 
of  the  last  five  stanzas,  and  especially  the  last  line  of  the 
poem  ;  here  probably  =  'fit  for  a  prince'  (with  anticipatory 



The  construction  with  the  split  infinitive  ('to  clanly  clos  ') 
need  cause  no  difficulty,  cp.  e.g.  to  lelly  layne,  '  Gawain  ' 
1863  ;  but  '  clos '  as  adj.  gives,  I  think,  the  poet's  meaning. 

3.  Oute  of  Oryent ;  the  best  pearls  came  from  the  Orient, 
i.  e.,    the   Indian   seas ;    cp.    Chaucer,    '  Legend    of    Good 
Women,'  Prologue  221  : 

1  Of  oo  perle,  fyne,  oriental, 
Hire  white  coroune  was  ymaked  al.' 

hardyly  :  cp.  'hardyly,'  695. 

4.  her.     I  have  carefully  avoided  using  the  feminine  pro 
noun  in  my  rendering  of  the  opening  of  the   poem  ;   the 
allegory  should  reveal  itself  gradually  ;  hence  '  her  precios 
pere'  =  'a  gem  its  peer5;    'I   sette   hyr  sengeley  in   syn- 
g[u]l[e]re,'  1.  8  =  '  I  placed  my  pearl  apart,'  etc.    It  must  be 
borne  in  mind,  however,  that  the  feminine  pronoun  would 
not  strike  a  medieval  reader  as  in  modern  English.     At  the 
same  time  it  is  noteworthy  that  the  poet  frequently  uses  the 
indefinite  'hit,'  e.g.  11.  10,  41,  etc. 

6.  smal.  Here  we  have  probably  no  suggestion  of  the 
sense  of  l  slender '  as  applied  to  a  woman,  but  rather  the  use 
of  the  word  with  special  reference  to  the  pearl,  which  is 
described  as  little  and  round,  as  though  the  epithet  '  smal ' 
was  expressive  of  the  special  characteristic  of  the  pearl,  as 
compared  with  other  stones.  From  this  sense  it  is  trans 
ferred  in  1.  90  to  the  transfigured  child.  Indeed,  the  poet 
emphasises  in  '  Cleanness,'  11.  1117-18,  that  the  charm  of  the 
pearl  is  quite  independent  of  its  material  value,  ')?a^  hym 
not  derrest  be  demed  to  dele  for  penies.' 

8.  sengeley,  *'.  e.   seng(e)le  +  y  =  sengel-y ;    cp.  sengel, 
'Gawain,'  1531. 

syng[u]l[e]re ;  MS.  synglure.  The  reading  proposed  in 
the  text  explains  the  scribal  error,  and  restores  the  right 
rhythmical  movement  of  the  line ;  cp.  '  synglerty,'  429 
(prob.  =  syngulerte'). 

9.  erbere:  not  an  arbour,  in  the  ordinary  modern  sense, 
but  garden,  literally  '  herb-garden ' ;  O.F.  herbier.    The  poet 
is  thinking  of  the  grave-yard  as  a  garden. 

ii6  PEARL. 

11.  'I  dewyne,  Sor-do[k  jked  of  luf-daungere 
Of  ]?at  pryuy  perle  wyth-outen  spot ; ' 

it  has  been  objected  (Athenaeum,  1891,  No.  3328)  that  my 
change  of  MS.  'fordolked'  into  '  fordokked  '  is  of  question 
able  propriety ;  on  the  other  hand,  Prof.  Kolbing  ('  Englische 
Studien,'  1891,  p.  269)  approved  of  it,  quoting  from  Wyclif, 
'Select  Works,'  III.  180,  'J>ei  docken  goddis  word.'  Many 
instances  might  be  adduced  illustrative  of  the  scribal  Ik  for 
kk,  and  /  for  k  (cp.  '  lyj^e^ '  =  '  kyj^e^,'  369),  but  more  import 
ance  is  to  be  attached  to  the  syntax  of  the  passage,  which 
favours  '  fordokked '  as  against  '  fordolked,'  or  '  fordolled ' ; 
the  first  'of '  (indicating  the  agent)  =  'by' ;  the  second  intro 
duces  the  indirect  object  dependent  on  'fordokked.'  'Luf- 
daungere  '  =  '  Love's  domination,'  /.  e.  'l  God's  Will.'  The 
lines  have  evidently  this  force  : 

'  I  pine,  robbed  by  Love's  severing  power 
Of  that  privy  pearl  without  a  spot.' 

'  Daunger '  personifies  the  power  that  keeps  the  lover  from 
the  beloved. 

Some  such  passages  as  the  following  from  the  '  Romaunt 
of  the  Rose '  were  doubtless  in  the  poet's  mind  ;  I  quote 
from  the  Chaucerian  version  : 

'  Thus  day  by  day  Daunger  is  wers, 
More  wonderful  &  more  divers, 
And  feller  eke  than  ever  he  was  ; 
For  him  full  oft  I  sing,  alas  ! 
For  I  ne  may  not  through  his  ire 
Recover  that  I  most  desire.' 

1  For  want  of  it  I  grone  &  grete 
But  Love  consent  another  tide 
That  ones  I  touche  may  &  kisse, 
I  trow  my  paine  shal  never  lisse.' 

'  And  Daunger  bere  erly  and  late 
The  keyes  of  the  utter  gate'  (11,  4101-208). 


To  my  mind,  all  question  on  the  matter  is  settled  by  the 
fact  that  the  poet  himself  interprets  the  meaning  of  these 
words  in  1.  273,  '  &  Ipou  hat^  called  J?y  wyrde  a  ]?ef.'  '  For- 
dokked '  implies  the  idea  of  '  robbed,  despoiled  by  a  thief.' 
Nowhere  else  has  the  poet  called  his  fate  a  thief.  N.E.D. 
suggests  '  for-dolled.' 

12.  pryuy:  O.F.  prive,  '  intime '  (cp.  privy  seal,  etc.), 
hence  'one's  own.' 

17.  dot}  :  finite  verb,  not  auxiliary  =  '  serue}' ;  cp.  331. 

)?rych :  infinitives  of  verbs  ending  in  ch  do  not  take  e ; 
cp.  'bysech'  390,  'rech'  333,  'fech'  1158,  etc. 

grange  has  here  almost  the  sense  of '  thick  and  fast,'  the 
idea  being  that  of  closeness. 

19.  sange :  cp.  -songe,  529. 

20.  stylle  stounde  :  literally,  the  still  time,  the  silent  hour. 

21.  f ele  I  I  still  hold  that  here  we  have  a  pregnant  use  of 
the  word,  though  it  is  difficult  to  find  an  exact  parallel ;  it 
is   not  necessary  to  understand  'sanges,'  nor  (with   Prof. 
Kolbing)  to   add  'thoughtes'  before  'fele';  the   common 
personal  use  of  'fele,'  without  substantive,  is  here   simply 
transferred  to  the  non-personal  use. 

22.  To  ]?enke  hir  color  so  clad  in  clot :  syntactically  the 
meaning  of  the  line  is  '  In  thinking,'  etc.,  z.  e.  as  I  thought. 
For  this  use  of  '  to '  with  the  inf.,  cp.  1.  1 1 58. 

23.  In  spite  of  the  unusual  mark  on  the  first  stroke,  that 
seems  to  make  the  reading  'iuele,'  I  believe  that  the  poet 
wrote  '  myry  mele,'  /.  e.  a  merry  theme  (namely,  my  spotless 
Pearl).     The  phrase  'a  merry  meal'  is  not  uncommon  in 
Middle   English,   as   also   'a  sorry  meal.'     N.E.D.  refers 
these  phrases  to  the  ordinary  sense  of  *  meal,'  repast  ;    I 
much   doubt   the  correctness   of   this.     In   O.E.   we  have 
mael  =  talk,  speech,  and  maelan,  to  speak.     The  latter,  in 
the  form  'mele,'  is  very  common  in  M.E.     In  O.N.  mal  is 
a  well-known  word  for  talk,  tale,  narrative.     I  do  not  think 
we  shall  go  far  wrong  in  identifying  '  mele '  in  the  phrases 
under  discussion  as  referable  to  O.E.  mSBl. 

25.  spyse3 :  cp.  sp[e]ce  (MS.  spyce),  235. 

ii8  PEARL. 

25-36.  Cp.  'And  from  her  fair  and  unpolluted  flesh 
May  violets  spring  ; '  ('  Hamlet,'  V.  ii.) 

'  And  from  his  ashes  may  be  made 
The  violets  of  his  native  land.' 

('In  Memoriam/XVIII.) 

26.  rot,  to  be  distinguished  from  'rote'  (O.E.  rotian),  958; 
cp.  '  Cleanness  '  1079  : 

'  Ther  wat}  rose  reflayr  where  rote  hat}  ben  euer.' 
27-8.  Cp.  'Romaunt  of  the  Rose,'  11.  1577-8  : 

'  Agayn  the  sonne  an  hundred  hewes, 
Blewe,  yelowe,  and  rede.' 

29.  fryte:  cp.  fryte},  87  ;  dystryed,  124. 

fede  I  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  this  important  word  has 
not  received  attention  at  the  hands  of  the  lexicographers  ; 
it  is  obviously  distinct  from  'fade'  (cp.  fate},  1038),  and  is 
still  used  in  parts  of  Lancashire  for  'blighted,'  'putrid,' 
especially  of  fruit  and  flowers  ;  it  certainly  corresponds  to 
the  past  part,  of  O.N.  feyja,  to  let  decay  (e  =  O.N.  ey ;  cp. 
stremande,  115);  cp.  fuinn,  rotten;  fui,  rottenness  (cp.  y 
pu,  to  stink). 

I  have  suggested  that  the  famous  refrain, 

'  The  flowers  of  the  forest  are  a'  wede  awa' ' 

(cp.  Scott's  '  Minstrelsie ') 
was  originally  an  alliterative  line  : 

'  The  flowers  of  the  forest  are  a'  fede  awa'.' 

The  word  can  be  traced  elsewhere  in  Middle  English 

31-2.   i  Cor.  xv.  34-8:  cp.  also  John  xii.  24. 

34.  fayly :  cp.  bayly,  fayle,  315  ;  vayl[e]  or  vayl[y],  912  ; 
cp.  stanza  xci. 

38.  erber  is  not  in  apposition  with  '  spot,'  as  O.  suggests, 
the  'erber'  being  the  garden,  and  the  'spot'  the  particular 
place  where  the  child  is  buried. 

39-40.  The  high  season  in  August  when  corn  is  cut  with 
keen-edged  hooks  is  evidently  a  reference  to  Lammastide, 


the  harvest  festival  on  August  i,  at  which  loaves  were 
consecrated  made  from  the  first  ripe  corn.  In  fact,  the  poet 
seems  to  state  that  it  was  the  festival  of  the  cutting  of  the 
corn  for  this  very  purpose.  I  do  not  see  anything  in  favour 
of  O.'s  theory  that  the  festival  referred  to  is  that  of  the 
Assumption  of  the  Virgin  on  August  15.  The  spiritual 
significance  of  this  reference  to  the  festival  of  the  harvest 
connects  itself  with  the  earlier  references  to  wheat  and  all  its 

41.  I  owe  to  Dr.  Craigie  the  suggestion  that  'huyle'  here, 
'hylle'  1172,  and  'hyul,'  1.  1205,  which  phonologically  must 
be  differentiated  from  the  ordinary  word  '  hill,'  represent  the 
Lancashire  '  hile,'  a  clump  or  cluster  of  plants.  *  Rush-hile,' 
written  '  rysche-hylle,'  is  given  in  the  *  Catholicon  Angl/ 
In  the  nineteenth  century  it  appears  as  '  rush-aisle.'  See 
also  'hile'  in  Cunliffe's  'Rochdale  Glossary,'  1886.  No 
etymology  for  this  word  has  been  proposed.  It  seems  to 
me  possibly  the  M.E.  representative  of  an  O.E.  word  corre 
sponding  to  German  hiigel,  a  mound,  Goth,  hugils  ;  cp. 
O.N.  haug,  a  cairn  ;  English  how.  The  root  idea  of  all 
these  words  is  that  of  '  high.'  The  cognates  of  the  English 
'hill'  are  Lat.  collis,  celsus,  Eng.  holm. 

43.  This  is  evidently  a  direct  reminiscence  of  '  Romaunt 
of  the  Rose,'  11.  1367-77  : 

'  Ther  was  eek  wexing  many  a  spyce, 
As  clow-gelofre,  and  licoryce, 
Gingere,  and  greyn  de  paradys, 
Canelle,  and  setewale  of  prys, 
To  eten  whan  men  ryse  fro  table,' 

where  the  French  has  : 

'  Ou  vergier  mainte  bone  espice, 
Cloz  de  girofle  et  requelice, 
Graine  de  paradis  novele, 
Citoal,  anis,  et  canele, 
Et  mainte  espice  delitable, 
Que  bon  mengier  fait  apres  table'  (11.  1349-54). 

120  PEARL. 

gromylyoun  :  O.F.  gremillon  (?  gromillon),  a  diminutive  of 
'  gremil/  whence  '  gromwell/  lithospermum.  It  is  note 
worthy  that  in  the  Middle  Ages  it  was  believed  that  the  seec 
of  the  gromwell  resembled  a  pearl  in  form. 

The  derivation  of  the  word  is  unknown,  but  O.F.  fifteenth- 
century  forms  such  as  'grenil/  as  N.E.D.  points  out,  per 
haps  exhibit  some  popular  etymologising  approximation  to 
'  grain.'  Chaucer's  '  graine  de  paradis '  may  well  have 
suggested  this  spice. 

44.  pyonys  :  again  a  flower  the  seed  of  which  was  a  spice ; 
it  was  evidently  suggested  by  the  list  of  spices  in  the 
'  Romaunt/  The  point  is  not  that  the  peonies  were  ranked 
in  beauty  with  roses  and  lilies,  as  O.  notes,  but  that  we 
are  dealing  here  with  a  list  of  medieval  herbs  growing 
on  the  mound,  all  these  herb-spices  being  of  medicinal 
effect.  That  the  sight  was  beauteous  to  behold  follows  as 
a  matter  of  course. 

46.  Cp.  '  Cleanness/  1079,  quoted  in  Note  on  1.  26. 

3Ct:  in  addition  ;  cp.  1.  215. 

51.  deuely :  we  have  evidently  here  a  special  use  of  the 
dialect  word  '  deavely/  usually  applied  to  a  lonely  and 
unfrequented  road,  used  in  its  literal  sense  of  *  deaf-like '  ; 
cp.  the  use  of  '  deave '  in  the  sense  of  *  to  stupefy  '  ;  cp. 
Latin  surdus  :  The  grief  that  dinned  in  his  heart  was  deaf 
to  reason.  There  is  no  need  to  change  the  text  and  read 
either  '  de[r]nely '  or  '  de[r]uely/ 

dele  :  rare  in  the  sense  of  the  clamour  of  grief ;  cp.  1.  339, 
'  dyne  of  doel.' 

53,  4.  penned:  MS.  spe«ned  ; 

fyr[c]e :  MS.  fyrte.  I  accept  these  two  emendations  of 
Dr.  Holthausen  (Herrig's  'Archiv/  90). 

56.  wra3te :  cp.  'wro3te/  525. 

59.  slepyng-sla3te :  cp.  'Patience/  192  : 

'  In  such  sla3tes  of  so^e  to  slepe  so  faste.' 

61.  The  stanza  reminds  one  strikingly  of  '  In  Memoriam,' 

'  Lo,  as  a  dove,  when  up  she  springs.' 


71.  webbe}  :  probably  a  reference  to  the  wall  tapestries  of 
the  Middle  Ages. 

79.  glode}  :  probably  the  bright  shining  clouds  ;  cp.  Nor 
wegian  glott,  an  opening,  a  clear  spot  among  clouds.  In 
Jakobsen's  work  on  the  Norse  element  in  Shetland-speech 
r  Det  Norrone  Sprog  paa  Shetland,'  Copenhagen,  1897) 
I  find  the  following  illustrative  usages  : — 

'  gloderek  (Fetlar)  ;  a  large  dark  cloud  with  whitish  top, 
through  which  the  sun  shines  :  gloderet,  glodere,  adj.  (of 
the  air),  filled  with  whitish  clouds,  the  sun  shining  through, 
formed  from  gloder  (also  glod),  hot  and  sudden  sunshine 
between  showers  ("the  sun  was  out  in  a  gloder").' 

The  word  'glod'  is  connected  with  O.N.  glaftr,  bright, 
shining  (applied  to  the  sky,  weather,  etc.).  In  the  present 
passage  'glode^'  must  mean  bright  shining  clouds,  and  spaces 
(cp.  sunne-beme^,  with  which  they  are  contrasted,  1.  83). 

'  Glade,' an  open  space  in  a  wood  (cp.  Skeat,  under  '  glade'), 
is  a  variant  form,  but  it  is  noteworthy  that  Beaumont  and 
Fletcher  (' Wildgoose  Chase,'  V.  iv.)  use  the  provincial  form 
'glode'  (unnecessarily  changed  by  editors  to  'glade')  for 
the  open  track  in  a  wood,  particularly  made  for  placing  nets 
for  woodcocks  (cp.  Halliwell) : 

'  Bless  me,  what  thing  is  this  ?  two  pinnacles 
Upon  her  pate  !    Is't  not  a  glade  to  catch  woodcocks  ? ' 

In  the  old  dictionaries  '  to  make  a  glade ;  is  generally 
glossed  'colluco,'  which  the  Latin  lexicographers  explain  : 
'  succisis  arboribus  locum  luce  implere.' 

The  Middle-English  instances  and  uses  of  the  word  'glode,' 
peculiar  to  the  alliterative  poems,  have  not  yet  been  in 
vestigated.  I  have  noted  the  following  four  examples  : 

(i)  '  As  it  com  glydande  adoun  on  glode  hym  to  schende.' 

('  Gawain,'  2266.) 

(ii)  '  Hit  hade  a  hole  on  J?e  ende,  &  on  ayj?er  syde, 
&  ouer-growen  with  gresse  in  glodes  ay  where.' 

('Gawain,' 218 1.) 



(iii)  f  Than  bowes  he  to  j?e  baistall '  &  brymly  it  semblis, 
Gedirs  of  ilk  glode  grettir  &  smallire.' 

(' Wars  of  Alexander,'  1334.) 

(iv)  '  So  was  ]?e  glode  with-in  gay,  al  with  golde  payntyde.' 

(Erkenwald,  75.] 

(i)  =  the  bright  turf;  (ii)  bright  patches  ;  (iii)  open  forest- 
spaces  ;  (iv)  the  bright  space  (within  the  coffin  in  '  Erken 
wald  '). 

Radically  connected  with  'glod3  is  M.E.  gladene.  In  the 
'Wars  of  Alexander'  ('a  gladen  he  waytes,'  131)  gladen 
seems  to  be  used  in  the  secondary  sense  of  '  a  lucky  moment ' 
(z.  e.  a  bright  sky,  an  auspicious  time) ;  cp.  Skeat,  '  Wars  of 

80.  sehynde :   cp.  schyned,  'Cleanness,'   1532;  similarly, 
rysed,  '  Gawain,'  1313,  '  Cleanness,'  971,  etc. 

81.  grauayl:    cp.    vessayl,    'Cleanness,'    1791;    metayl, 
chapayl,  '  Gawain,'  169,  1070;   [I];  I  have  accepted  Holt- 
hausen's  suggestion,  the  insertion  of  [I]  before  'on'  improves 
both  the  rhythm  and  the  syntax  of  the  line  ;  cp.  363,  977. 

83.  bio  &  blynde :  literally  'pale  and  blind';  note  the 
omission  of  the  auxiliary  before  'bot.'  I  eel.  blindr  is  simi 
larly  used  in  the  sense  of  '  dark.' 

86.  garten:  for  the  pi.  after  '  adubbemente,'  cp.  fordidden, 
124 ;  the  collective  idea  of  the  word,  or  the  plural  words 
intervening,  may  easily  account  for  the  usage. 

89-96.  Evidently  a  reminiscence  of  the  'sweet  song'  of 
the  birds  in  the  garden  of  the  '  Romaunt  of  the  Rose 
cp.  the  Chaucerian  'Romaunt,'  11.  482-508,  655-694. 

97.  dubbet  =  dubbed  ;  t  =  d, passim;  cp.  stanza  LIX,  etc. 

103.  £ei[r]er  I  usually  fayr  ;  cp.  11.  46,  88,  1024. 

105.  reuere^  :  i,  e.  river-banks,  to  be  distinguished  from 
'  reuer,'  1055. 

107.  '  I  came  to  a  water  that  cut  along  the  shore/  /.  e.  that 
divided  the  strand.  Schore,  '  the  boundary  or  edge  cut 
off' ;  cp.  scor-en,  p.p.  of  sceran,  to  cut.  See  Note  on 
'schorne,'  213. 


109.  The  dubbemente :  possibly  the  poet  wrote  'thadub- 
bemente,'  i.e.  'the  adubbemente '  (cp.  J?acces,  'Patience,' 
325  =  ]?e  access),  but  the  aphetic  form  is  found  in  Old 

no.  bene  :  cp.  bene,  rhyming  with  sene,  by-dene,  [ej^hen, 
198  ;  to  be  distinguished  from  bayn,  807  ;  cp.  N.E.D.  'been.5 

in.  swangeande :  cp.  longeyng,  244 ;  longyng,  1 1 52.  The 
noun  'swonghe,'  in  'Allit.  Troy  Book,3  342,  adduced  by  O., 
is  an  error,  duly  corrected  by  the  editors  in  their  Glossary, 
for  '  swoughe.' 

113.  Cp.  Chaucerian  '  Romaunt  of  the  Rose,'  11.  125-7  : 

'  Tho  saugh  I  wel 
The  botme  paved  everydel 
With  gravel,  ful  of  stones  shene,' 

where  the  French  version  has 

'  Le  fons  de  1'iaue  de  gravele'  (1.  121). 

115.  stroke-men:  much  ingenuity  has  been  misspent  on 
'strode';  it  is  probably  identical  with  the  Scottish  strath, 
'a  valley  through  which  a  river  runs'  (cp.  Lang-stroth-dale, 
in  Yorkshire);  cp.  stro]?e-rand,  '  Gawain,'  1710.  StroJ?e- 
men  =  dalesmen.  The  vowel  indicates  a  district  south  of 
the  Tweed,  and  the  Yorkshire  place-name  is  very  signifi 
cant.  The  earliest  date  quoted  for  'strath'  in  N.E.D.  is 

124.  for-didden:  cp.  garten,  86. 

126.  bred-foil:  cp.  brurdful,  'Cleanness,'  383. 

131.  wayne3  :  cp.  vayned,  1.  249. 

136.  J?o  Gladne}  glade  :  the  poet,  with  his  mind  full  of  the 
garden  of  the  '  Romaunt  of  the  Rose,'  is  here  thinking  of 
Dame  Gladness,  and  personifying  the  joyous  scene  as  Joy. 
Hence  it  is  that  '  ]?o '  must  be  taken  as  the  fem.  ace.  sing. 
The  incongruity  of  '  gladness '  and  '  glad '  is  thus  reduced  ; 
cp.  '  Romaunt/  11.  745-58,  and  847-78.  Gladness  (French 
Leesce)  is  the  wife  of  Sir  Mirth  (De"duit). 

I24  PEARL. 

137.  Paradyse :  cp.  '  Romaunt  of  the  Rose/  11.  647-8  : 

'  For  wel  wende  I  ful  sikerly 
Have  been  in  paradys  erth[e]ly.' 

139.  I  hoped:  I  thought;  'hope'  is  frequently  used  thus 
in  Early  English  ;  so  also  1.  142. 

140.  'By-twene  [mere}]  by  [Myrjpe]  made':   MS.   'By- 
twene  myrj^e^  by  mere}  made' ;  the  scribe  had,  I  feel  sure, 
transposed    'mere}'    and   'myr]?e'    (cp.    529),   and  having 
transposed   them,   naturally   wrote   'myrjpe^'   for   'myr]?e.' 
The  poet  was  thinking  of  Deduit,  the  Lord  of  the  Garden  in 
the  '  Romaunt  of  the  Rose,'  whose  name  is  '  Mirth '  in  the 
English  version.     The  following  passage  was  in  his  mind — 
he  had  possibly  the  Chaucerian  rendering  before  him: 

'  In  places  saw  I  WELLES1  there 
In  whiche  ther  no  frogges  were, 
And  fair  in  shadwe  was  every  welle  ; 
But  I  ne  can  the  nombre  telle 
Of  stremys  smale,  that  by  devys2 
MIRTHE  had  don  come  through  condys, 
Of  which  the  water,3  in  renning, 
Gan  make  a  noyse  ful  lyking'  (11.  1409-1416). 

1  cp.  mere3,  140.         2  cp.  deuyse,  139.         3  cp.  water,  139. 

142.  wore:  cp.  154,  232;  ware,  151,  1027;  were,  739; 
wern,  278. 

145.  more  .  .  .  mare:  cp.  wore,  ware,  151,154;  wate,  502; 
wot,  47  ;  abate,  617  ;  bod,  62. 

153-4.  I  schulde  not  wonde  for  wo[]?e]  t  MS.  wo;  cp. 
'Cleanness,'  855,  'Gawain,'  488;  ']?e'  omitted,  owing  to 
'J?er'  immediately  following. 

154.  wore:  see  Note  on  142. 

163.  Blysnande  whyt  wat}  hyr  bleaunt:  'bleauwt,'  after 
O.K.  bliant,  M.  Lat.  blialdus,  is  in  M.E.  a  kind  of  tunic  or 
upper  garment,  or  a  rich  stuff  or  fabric  used  for  this  garment. 
Our  poet  in  'Gawain3  uses  it,  in  1.  879,  with  reference  to  the 


stuff  of  a  mantle  'of  a  brou«  bleeauwt,'  and  again  in  1.  1928, 
with  reference  to  a  long  garment,  '  He  were  a  bleau^t  of 
blwe,  }?at  bradde  to  ]?e  er]?e.'  What  has  the  poet  in  mind 
in  the  present  line  ?  He  is  obviously  thinking  of  Rev.  xix.  8, 
'  Et  datum  est  illi  ut  cooperiat  se  byssino  splendent!  et  can- 
dido.'  The  earlier  Wycliffite  version  renders  '  And  it  is 
aouun  to  hir,  that  she  couere  hir  with  whijte  bijce  shijnynge.' 
Pearl  appears  clad  as  a  bride,  and  *  bleauwt '  is  used  here  for 
her  attire  or  covering  of  white,  the  white  byssus  of  the  verse 
just  quoted,  and  might  even  be  used  for  the  fabric  of  this 
garment.  Byssus  was  vaguely  understood  by  early  English 
writers,  and  was  used  for  fine  and  valuable  substance,  linen, 
cotton  and  silk,  later  translated  in  the  English  Bible  as 
'fine  linen.'  The  earlier  Wycliffite  version,  in  Luke  xvi. 
19,  glosses  'biys'  as  'white  silk.'  The  point  of  the  verse 
in  Rev.  xix.  8  is  that  the  '  byssus '  is  white  and  shining, 
and  this  our  poet  brings  out  well,  'bleauTzt'  suggesting 
the  richness  of  the  material  of  her  array.  See  Note  on 
1.  197. 

165.  schere  :  the  word  here  must  be  taken  in  close  connec 
tion  with  'schorne,'  1.  213,  and  at  first  sight  would  seem  to 
be  from  Ci.E.  'sceran,'  to  cut.  N.E.D.  differentiates  the  two 
words,  referring  the  former  to  'sheer,'  to  make  bright  or 
pure,  the  latter  to  the  p.p.  of  '  shear,'  in  the  sense  of '  newly 
cut,  so  as  to  have  a  bright  surface.'  It  is  hardly  likely  that  we 
have  here  two  distinct  words.  If  they  are  from  '  sceran,'  to 
cut,  i.e.  to  cut  into  threads  or  some  such  necessary  idea, 
the  sense  seems  forced.  But  'shorn'  is  nowhere  else  found 
applied  to  gold.  Accordingly,  I  hold  that  we  have  here  the 
Scand.  verb  (cp.  O.  Swed.  skaera,  to  purify;  O.N.  skeerr, 
bright,  pure)  with  sk  modified  to  sch  by  the  influence  of 
O.E.  sclr,  M.E.  schire,  pure  ;  hence  M.E.  scheren  (side  by 
side  with  M.E.  skeren)  in  the  sense  of  'to  purify,'  attracted 
to  M.E.  sceren,  to  cut,  with  its  p.p.  schorn. 

N.E.D.  refers  to  this  verb  also  'schere^,'  107,  but  this  I 
take  to  mean  '  cuts,'  and  not  '  runs  bright  and  clear.' 
Knigge's  view,  adopted  by  O.,  that  the  meaning  '  purify '  is 

iz6  PEARL. 

impossible,  since  initial  Scand.  sk  is  in  all  cases  preserved 
in  these  poems,  is  not  decisive,  because  it  is  quite  possible 
that  a  verb  *scseran,  adj.  *sc£ere,  existed  in  O.E. 

To  sum  up,  the  underlying  idea  of  the  word  seems  to  be 
the  refining  of  gold  by  fire. 

167.  ]?ere:  cp.  }?ore,  562,  ]?are,  1021. 

1 70.  f onte  :  the  rhyme  indicates  that  this  is  a  u  word,  and 
cannot  therefore  be,  as  has  been  generally  assumed,  from 
O.E.  fandian  ;  cp.  1.  327. 

177.  vere^  (O.F.  virer) ;  evidently  a  Northern  form;  cp. 
enveron,  Barbour's  '  Bruce,3  '  Wars  of  Alexander,3  etc.  (z/. 
environ,  N.E.D.) ;  cp.  dyscreuen  :  leuen  :  weuen,  68  ;  N.E.D. 
describes  it  as  '  of  obscure  origin.3 

178.  vysayge:  (?)  cp.  'grauayl,' 81. 

179.  a[s]tount :  i.e.  astoned;  MS.  atou;zt;  the  alliterative 
strength  of  the  line  perhaps  warrants  the  emendation ;  cp. 
stowned,     *  Gawain,3    242,    301  ;    '  Patience,3    73  ;    stonyed, 
'Gawain,3  1291. 

185.  'I  trowed  that  that  sight  was  spiritual.3 
porpose  :  not,  as  is  usually  taken,  in  the  sense  of  '  intended 
meaning  or  purpose,3  but  '  that   which  is  set  before  one, 
vision.3     Cp.   proposition,  in   the    sense  of  'presentation'  ; 
looves  of  proposicioun  =  shew-bread. 

187-8.  Cp.  Juliana  Barnes3s  *  Treatise 3 : '  And  now  take  hed 
if  your  hawke  nymme  the  foule  at  the  ferre  syde  of  the 
ryver,3  etc.  Morris  misses  the  metaphor,  rendering  '  chos 3 
'was  following,  was  seeking,3  and  'at  steuen,3  'within  reach 
of  discourse ';  the  phrase  means,  I  think,  'at  a  fixed  spot,3 
'  within  reach,3  a  hawking  term,  corresponding  to  the  hunter3s 
'  at  bay ' ;  '  Steven '  in  Early  English  denotes  not  only  *  voice,3 
but  also  'appointed  place,3  cp.  O.E.  gestefnian;  for  'stalle,3 
to  fix,  in  the  sense  of  'to  hold  secure,3  preceded  as  here  by 
'  chose,'  cp. : 

'  Whenas  thine  eye  hath  chose  the  dame, 
And  stalled  the  deer  that  thou  would3st  strike.3 

('The  Passionate  Pilgrim,3  XIX.) 


O.  erroneously,  it  seems  to  me,  glosses  'at  steuen'  as  'by 
speaking,  calling.' 

189.  Cp.  Note  on  1.  463. 

190.  seme   sly^t :    seme   corresponds    to  the    I  eel.    form 
'ssemi,'    used    in    composition,    cp.    saemiligr,  ,sasmileikr, 
derived  from  the  adj.  saemr,  becoming,  fit.      Cp.  1.  6. 

196-  by-dene  :  no  new  light  has  been  thrown  on  the  origin 
of  the  word  (cp.  Curtis,  '  Clariodus,'  1894,  §  239)  ;  the  rhymes 
in  this  stanza,  contrasted  with  xxv,  LXXX,  seem  rather  to 
favour  Prof.  Skeat's  suggestion,  dene  (  =  dcen),  Northern 
pp.  of '  do,'  as  against  Dr.  Murray's,  ene  (  =  O.E.  3!ne). 

197.  beau  mys  :  Morris  read  'uiys,'  but  later  accepted  my 
rendering, '  Academy,'  Vol.  xxxix.  p.  602.  '  Mys '  =  'amys.' 
It  is  just  possible  that  the  poet  wrote  'beu  amys.'  'Mys' 
(or  'amys')  I  take  to  be  ultimately  derived  through  O.F. 
and  Low  Lat.  (probably  some  such  form  as  Low  Lat.  amicia) 
from  Lat.  amictus,  an  upper  garment,  in  contradistinction 
to  an  under-dress.  This  is  borne  out  by  the  Wycliffite  use 
of 'amice/  Is.  xxii.  17,  where  'quasi  amictum'  is  translated 
4  as  an  amyse.'  The  ordinary  usage  of  the  word  is  for  the 
ecclesiastical  garment  of  white  linen  folded  diagonally, 
worn  by  celebrant  priests,  formerly  on  the  head.  A  like 
word,  derived  from  a  different  origin,  O.F.  aumusse,  aumuce, 
of  doubtful  source,  probably  German,  with  the  Arabic  article 
'al'  prefixed,  was  also  applied  to  'an  article  of  costume  of 
the  religious  orders  made  of,  or  lined  with,  grey  fur.'  This 
word,  as  far  as  form  is  concerned,  may  have  reacted  on 
the  former  word. 

In  the  later  Wycliffite  version  '  amyt '  rendering  '  capitium,' 
Ex.  xxxix.  21,  is  in  form  directly  due  to  O.F.  amit. 

Accordingly,  'mys'  or  'amys'  in  the  present  passage  is 
used  by  our  poet  in  the  sense  of  'upper  garment.'  The 
line  is  not  a  repetition  of  1.  163,  where  the  reference  is 
to  the  general  array  ;  here  the  poet  is  coming  to  details. 
The  outer  garment  to  which  he  refers  is  not  only  gleam 
ing  white,  but  is  also  richly  adorned  with  pearls,  is 
open  at  the  sides,  and  has  long  hanging  laps.  It  came 



over   the  kirtle,  and   was   worn  especially  as   a   mark 

One  cannot  resist  a  reference  to  Milton's  lines, — 

'  Morning  fair 
Came  forth  with  pilgrim  steps  in  amice  gray.' 

('Par.  Reg.' IV.  427.) 

O.  actually  changes  'beau  mys'  in  his  text  to  'bfleaunt 
of  biys],'  making  the  poet  repeat  1.  163.  It  is  hardly  neces 
sary  to  detail  all  the  objections  to  this  unfortunate  tampering 
with  the  text  and  with  the  poet's  thought.  See  Note  on  1.  163. 

201.  lapp 63  large :  as  I  pointed  out,  'lappe^'  must  mean 
here  'sleeves,'  not,  as  Morris  interpreted,  borders.  The 
reference  is  to  the  long  hanging  sleeves  falling  from  the 
surcoat,  a  mark  of  fashion  at  this  period.  '  Large,'  /.  e, 
ample,  suggests  not  only  fulness,  but  also  length,  and  is 
used  much  as  the  more  common  word  '  side,'  with  reference 
to  drapery  which  extends  far  down  ;  cp. '  Winner  and  Waster,' 
dated  1352,  11.  410-12,  where  the  long  flowing  sleeves  are 
spoken  of  disparagingly,  as  the  new  fashion  : 

'  Now  are  ]?ay  nysottes  of  }?e  new  gett,  so  nysely  attyred 
With  [sijde  slabbande  sleues,  sleght  to  ]?e  grouwde 
Ourlede  all  vmbto#>ne  vritfr  ermyn  aboute.' 

But  even  at  an  earlier  date  sleeves  were  the  object  of 
disparagement,  cp.  Wright's  'Political  Songs'  (c.  1311), 

P-  255  : 

'For  Pride  hath  sieve,  the  lond  is  almusles.' 

Our  poet  deems  it  fitting  that  this  mark  of  high  rank  should 
be  associated  with  Pearl  transfigured.  She  is  now  of  the 
Court  of  Heaven,  and  leads  a  'ladyly  lyf,'  774.  Similarly 
in  '  Morte  Darthur,'  Fortune  as  a  duchess  has  a  surcoat  of 
silk  '  with  ladily  lappes  the  lenghe  of  a  3erde,'  3254.  In  the 
illustrations  of  the  MS.  these  long  hanging  sleeves  appear. 

203.  cortel :  i.  e.  the  under-dress ;  its  hem,  which  is 
bordered  with  pearls,  is  lower  than  the  surcoat ;  see 
Note  on  1.  217.  '  Cortel '  =  '  curtel.'  O.K.  cyrtel,  kirtle. 


205-8.  Cp.  Note  on  1.  1186. 

207.  hi^e  pynakled:  the  poet  is  evidently  alluding  to  a 
regal  crown,  suggestive  of  the  crown  borne  by  the  Virgin 
and  by  the  virgin  brides.  Thus  in  the  '  Trentalle  Sancti 
Gregorii '  we  have  : 

*  He  sawe  a  fulle  swete  syght<? : 
A  comely  lady  dressed  &  dyghte, 
That  all*  ]?e  worlde  was  not  so  bry^t, 
Comely  crowned  as  a  qwene,' 

and  the  lady  is  taken  to  be  Mary,  Queen  of  Heaven.  The 
'corowne'  in  'Pearl'  anticipates  1.  415;  cp.  11.  450—6. 
In  Revelation  it  is  the  elders  who  have  the  crowns,  but 
early  in  literature  and  art  the  crown  is  one  of  the  symbols 
of  the  Virgin  (cp.  Mrs.  Jameson's  '  Sacred  and  Legendary 
Art').  Our  poet,  while,  no  doubt,  having  this  in  his  mind, 
is  yet  all  the  same  influenced,  it  seems  to  me,  by  the 
description  of  Reason  in  the  *  Romaunt  of  the  Rose '  : 

'  And  on  hir  heed  she  hadde  a  crown, 
Hir  semede  wel  an  high  persoun  ; 
For  rounde  environ,  hir  crownet 
Was  ful  of  riche  stonis  fret.' 

(Chaucerian  Version,  11.  3201-4.) 

209.  werle  :  this  word,  so  far  as  I  know,  occurs  nowhere 
else,  and  its  history  is  doubtful.  It  is  possible,  as  Prof. 
(Holthausen  has  suggested  (Archiv,  90)  that  it  may  repre- 
jsent  an  O.E.  *werels  =  O.N.  vesl,  attire.  The  meaning  of 
jthe  word  is  difficult,  but  the  idea  is  probably  'covering, 
bead-dress,'  and  the  reference  is  to  the  kerchief  usually  worn 
path  the  crown;  cp.  'Wars  of  Alexander,'  1.  5249,  where 
','ueen  Candace  wears 

'  A  crowne  &  a  corecheffe  clustert  vrtih  gewmes.' 

jFhe  line  really  means  '  She  wore  no  other  covering  upon  her 
Head' ;  and  'werle'  seems  to  catch  up  the  first  line  of  the 
'tanza.  The  absence  of  the  kerchief  betokens  maidenhood. 

1 3o 


It  is  not  necessary  to  change  the  text.  O.'s  '  herl 
which  occurs  in  '  Gawain,'  1.  190,  in  the  sense  of  '  filamer 
of  hair,'  will  not  improve  the  line  nor  make  any  sens 
even  though  explained  as  an  '  embraided  fillet.' 

210.  [h]ere  [h]eke :  MS.  lere  leke,  /  resulting  from  the 
fading  of  the  downward  stroke  of  h,  or  from  a  scribe's 
omission  to  add  the  downward  stroke,  cp.  616  ;  heke  =  eke, 
a  common  spelling  in  M.E.  The  finite  verb  is  omitted. 
The  line  means  :  '  Her  hair,  too,  all  about  her,'  ;.  e.  *  hanging 
loose.'  The  point  of  the  line  is  that  the  hair  was  not  held  in 
by  a  kell  or  hair-net ;  but  that  it  was  free,  as  became  a  bride. 
The  bride's  hair  was  generally  loose,  and  artists  depicting 
the  Marriage  of  the  Virgin  indicate  this.  Cp.  Spenser's 
description  in  his  '  Epithalamium  ' : — 

*  Her  long  loose  yellow  locks.' 

hyr  vmbe-gon  :  (was)  gone  about  her  ;  z*.  e.  hung  about  her 
neck.  'Vmbe-gon'  is  little  more  than  'vmbe/  and  is  a 
parallel  use  to  the  more  idiomatic  '  vmbtourne,'  which 
probably  suggested  the  use ;  see  my  Note,  *  Winner  & 
Waster,'  1.  412.  'Vmbe-gon'  is  certainly  not,  as  O.  takes  it, 
a  pres.  pi.,  reading  *  [h]ere-leke/  in  the  sense  of  Mocks  of 
hair  (?),'  for  which  there  is  no  authority. 

212.  whalle3  bon  :  cp. '  Winner  &  Waster,'  1.  181 : 

*  Whitte  als  the  whalles  bone.' 

It  was  trisyllabic  even  in  Shakespeare,  cp.  '  L.L.L.'  V.  ii. 

*  To  show  his  teeth  as  white  as  whales  bone,' 

so  F.  i  :  whale  his  bone,  Fs.  2,  3,  4. 

213.  schorne  :  see  Note  on  1.  165. 

215-16.  The  force  of  these  words  must  be  taken  in  con 
nection  with  the  sun-like  radiance  of  her  whole  figure  ;  cp. 
11.  165-6.  'Depe'  has  reference  to  her  intense  glowing 
beauty,  used  very  much  as  Milton's  'glowing  violet,'; 
'  Lycidas,'  1,  145.  'Colour'  is  used  here  in  the  sense  of 


'beauty,'  as  in  other  passages  in  the  poem,  cp.  11.  22,  753  ; 
it  cannot  imply,  as  O.  maintains,  a  ruddy  hue,  for  her 
'ble'  has  been  described  as  whiter  than  whalebone,  1.  212. 
The  lines  mean  :  '  Moreover,  her  glowing  beauty  had  no 
lack  of  (*.  e.  was  richly  bedecked  with)  precious  pearls  on 
all  the  borders  of  her  robe,'  anticipating,  however,  the  one 
great  pearl  that  adorned  her  person. 

217.  poyned:  the  MS.  is  correct,  and  there  is  no  reason 
for  tampering  with  the  text.  Dr.  Craigie  has  kindly  sug 
gested  to  me  that  'poyned'  is  the  O.F.  poignet,  wrist-band, 
see  N.E.D.  under  '  poignet.'  Pinson's  edition  of  the 
'  Promptorium  Parvulorum  '  gives  the  spelling  *  ponyed.' 

The  reference  is  evidently  to  the  wrist-bands  of  the  long 
narrow  sleeves  of  the  kirtle,  as  opposed  to  the  hanging 
lappets  of  the  surcoat. 

220.  uesture  :  no  mere  repetition  of  the  fact  that  the  dress 
was  white.  Here  'uesture'  takes  in  the  whole  array, 
including  the  pearls.  Then  comes  the  mention  of  the 
chief  ornament  of  the  '  uesture,'  namely  the  '  wonder  perle.' 

224.  malte  (inf.),  cp.  malte,  1154:  'J>y  mersy  may   malte 

Ipy  meke  to  spare,'  'Cleanness/  776,  'make  }?e  mater  to  malt 

my  mynde  wyth-imie,  1566;    'to  malte  so  out  of  memorie,' 

'  Erkenwald,'  158;    the  form   of  the  inf.  'malte'  seems  to 

be  a  dialected  variant  of  O.E.  meltan,  mealt,  due  perhaps 

!  to  confusion  of  the  strong  verb    'melten'  with  the   weak 

!  'malten.3 

229.  py[ec]e:  MS.  pyse  ;  Morris,  p[r]yse,  but  the  rhymes 

I  'grece,'  'nece,'  require  'pyece';  similarly  MS.  'spyce'  in 

1.  235  is  emended  by  me  into  '  sp[e]ce,'  the  correct  form  of 

i  the  word  (O.F.  espece).     Cp.  Shakespeare's  use  of  'piece' : 

'Thy  mother  was  a  piece  of  virtue'  ('Tempest,'  I.  ii.  56). 

231.  he]?en   in-to  Grece:    cp.    ']?e    gayest  iw-to    Grece,' 

1  '  Gawain,'  2023. 

236-7.  Compare  '  Awntyrs  of  Arthur,'  1.  626  : 

'  Scho  caughte  of  hir  eoronalle,  and  knelyd  hym  till*.' 



243.  by  myn  one  :  by  me  alone,  by  me  so  lone.    There  was 
in    M.E.   an   idiom   of  'one,'   preceded   by   the  possessh 
pronoun  in  the  sense  of  lone,  solitary,  alone,'  thus  : 

'to  kayre  al  his  one'  (Gawain,'  1048). 

'  we  bot  oure  one'  ('  Gawain,'  1230  ;  cp.  2245). 

'  Onely  '  is  still  used  in  the  sense  of  'lonely'  in  Lancashire, 

'  Mon,  aw'm  onely  when  theaw  art'nt  theer.' 

(Waugh's  *  Lancashire  Songs.') 

cp.    na3te,'  1203. 

245.  agly3te,  i.  e.  a  (pref.)  =  away,  +  glla,  to  shine  (cp. 
of  ...  leme,  358);  cp.  gly3t,  114;  used  in  the  sense  of 
'  blinked,'  '  Gawain,'  842,  970  ;  '  Patience,5  453  ;  also 
'squinted,'  gliet,  gleyit,  '  Dest.  of  Troy,'  3772,  3943,  3995  ; 
the  spelling  with  '  y^  '  conforms  to  the  rhyme  of  the  stanza  ; 
cp.  sorquydry^e,  309. 

249.  vayned,   cp.   wayne^,    131  (for  v,   iv,  cp.  vyf,  772, 
veued,  976)  ;  the  rhyme  attests  the  existence  of  the  word, 
though  in  other  passages  '  wayne  '  may  be  an  editorial  error 
for     'wayue'     (cp.    Gawain,'    'Allit.    Poems,'    'Wars    of 
Alexander,'  passim)  ;    it   is    probably   a    parallel    English 
formation   to    O.N.   vegna  (O.E.    *wegnian),    to   cause    to 

250.  del:  cp.  pref,  272. 

252.  juelere  :  the  'merchant-man,  seeking  goodly  pearls  ' 
of  the  Parable  is  indicated,  Matt.  xiii.  45. 

254-  y^en  graye  :  gray  was  the  favourite  colour  in  the 
Middle  Ages,  and  is  often  referred  to  in  the  '  Romauntofthe 
Rose,'  the  romances,  Chaucer,  etc.  See  N.E.D.  under 
'gray,'  and  Skeat's  note  on  Chaucer's  Prologue,  152. 

255.  set  on  hyr  coroun  :  the  implication  is  that  she  is  now 
re-assuming  her  royal  rank,  and  is  about  to  speak  with  serious 

259.  cofer:  cp.  'Cleanness,'  310,  339. 


clente  :  i.  e.  clenched,  referring  to  the  iron  bars  riveted  on 
the  coffers  of  the  Middle  Ages,  so  as  to  make  them  strong 
boxes  for  the  keeping  of  treasure. 

269.  rose:  the  word  calls  up  all  the  associations  of  the 
*  Romaunt  of  the  Rose '  ;  there  was  something  even  more 
glorious  than  the  Rose  of  the  Earthly  Paradise,  namely,  the 
proved  Pearl  of  Heaven  ! 

273.  Evidently  referring  to  11.  11-12. 

274.  o^t    of    no^t :     something    of    nothing ;    evidently 

282.  don  out  of  daw  63  :  /.  e.  deprived  of  days,  that  is,  of 
life.     'A-dawe,'  as  an  adv.,  =  'of  dawe.'     The  full  phrase 
'  of  Hues  dawe '  is  also  found. 

283.  ma  feste  :  not  '  make  a  feast,'  but  in  the  sense  of  the 
French  'faire  fete,'  to  make  merry,  to  rejoice. 

299.  to  passe  :  in  respect  of  passing,  /.  e.  as  to  passing  ; 
cp.  'to  ]?enke,'  1.  22  ;  '  to  fech,'  1.  1158. 

305.  hy3te:  due  to  O.E.  heht,  treated  as  weak  verb  ;  cp. 
402;    cp.   'hyjt,'  'Gawain,'    1970;    pres.   'hete,'  402;    p.p. 
*hy3t,'  'Cleanness/  714;  *  hette,'  'Gawain,'  540. 

306.  dy3C  :  cp.  'dyed,'  705  ;  '  de^e,"  Gawain,'  996;  'de^en,' 

307.  westernays :    this  word  cannot  be  another  form  of 
'western  ways,'  as  Morris  suggested,  deriving  it  from  O.E. 
'weste,' barren,  empty  ;   '  western,' a  desert  place.     Had  he 
suggested  the  ordinary  word  '  western  '  as  its  first  component, 
the  suggestion  would  have  been  plausible,  but  the  ending  of 
the  word   cannot  be  connected  with    'ways,'  although  the 
word  is  used  as  an  adverbial  ending  in  M.E.  ;  here,  however, 
the  rhyme  requires  a  different  sound,  viz.,  the  French  ais, 
ays,  eist  or  e's.    Now  there  existed  in  O.F.  the  word  '  bestorner, 
besturner,'  'to  turn  awry,'  with  its  p.p.  'bestorne,  bestornes, 
bestorneis,'  'turned  awry';   its  component  parts  are  'bes/ 

•  a  prefix  with  the  force  of  '  ill,  badly,'  and  '  tourner/  to  turn  ; 

I  the  p.p.  'bestornez'  was  used  in  a  very  special  sense  for  a 
thing  turned  wrongly  towards  the  west,  instead  of  towards 
the  east ;  thus,  a  church  of  St.  Benet  in  Paris  was  called 

134  PEARL. 

'saint  Beneois  li  bestornez,' and  its  name  is  thus  accounted 
for  by  a  fourteenth-century  writer,  '  quod  ejus  majus  altare 
tune  temporis  spectaret  Occidentem,  cum  ex  ecclesiastica 
consuetudine  Orientem  spectare  debuisset.  Nunc  contraria 
ratione  dicitur  S.  Benoit  le  Bien  tournee,  quod  ad  Orientem 
translatum  sit  majus  altare,  cum  instaurata  est  ecclesia.' 

From  the  use  of  the  word  in  the  *  Romaunt  of  the  Rose,'  it  is 
clear,  too,  that  popularly  the  word  was  used  with  the  idea  of 
'turned  towards  the  west.'  It  is  an  interesting  fact  that,  in 
Teutonic  languages,  the  equivalent  for  '  bestornez,'  viz., 
1  wider-sinnes,'  i.e.  'in  a  contrary  direction '  (cp.  Icel.  sinni, 
a  way,  O.K.  slip,  O.H.G.  sin),  was  used  in  exactly  the  same 
way  for  'contrary  to  the  course  of  the  sun,'  and  in  Northern 
English  it  is  this  word  which  appears  in  the  strange  guise  of 
'  widishins '  (as  in  the  tale  of '  Childe  Rowland ').  My  opinion 
is  that  the  poet  of  '  Pearl '  tried  to  naturalise  '  bestornez '  in 
English  by  changing  it  to  an  understandable  form,  viz., 
'  westornays '  or  '  westernays '  ;  it  is  to  be  noted  that  he 
required  a  w  word  for  alliteration,  and  the  sound  of  French 
e2  for  rhyme;  'widishins'  would  have  satisfied  the  allitera 
tion,  but  not  the  rhyme ;  it  is  doubtful,  however,  if  this  word 
was  known  to  our  poet.  The  line  may  be  compared  with  a 
parallel  from  Middle  High  German, 

'  Den  namen  er  widersinnes  las,' 

/.  e.  he  read  the  name  backwards,  perversely. 

One  thing  is  quite  certain,  that  the  poet  has  transformed 
the  O.F.  bestorneis  to  suggest  to  English  readers  'west,' 
and  all  its  connotations  in  popular  lore.  In  recent  times, 
'  to  go  west '  has  been  revived  among  the  soldiery,  and  has 
gained  new  pathos.  O.,  without  any  explanation,  substitutes 
\b~\  for  w,  in  spite  of  the  MS.  reading,  which  is  still  further 
strengthened  by  the  alliteration  of  the  line. 

309.  sorquydry^e :  cp.  surquidre,  'Gawain,'  2457.  This 
indicates  that  the  spirant  is  merely  used  for  the  purpose  of 
an  eye-rhyme. 

313.  dayly  :    the  etymology  of  'dayly'   is  probably  O.F. 


*  dallier,'  to  sport ;  further,  I  would  suggest  O.F.  '  dalle,'  a 
tablet ;  the  earlier  use  of  the  word  was,  I  think,  '  to  play 
dice,'  hence,  *  to  hazard  words.3  My  note  on  '  bayly,'  1.  442, 
explains  that  here  'dayly'  represents  the  pronunciation  of 
1  mouille,  rhyming  with  '  bayle,'  *  fayle,'  and  '  consayl.'  This 
is  what  one  would  expect  from  '  dallier/  which  should  give 
two  forms  in  M.E.,  'dayle'  and  'dalye';  the  scribe  has 
blended  the  two  in  his  spelling  *  dayly.' 

320.  keue  =  O.N.  kefja :  see  'sete,'  1201.  I  see  no  difficulty 
in  deriving  'keue'  from  O.N.  kefja.  This  source  is  not  only 
clear  in  respect  of  this  passage,  but  also,  in  my  opinion,  in 

I.  981,  the  idea  being  'sunk  down.'     In  O.N.  the  word  is 
often  applied   to  a  horse  sinking  belly-deep   in  the  snow. 
N.E.D.  considers  that  the  sense  is  not  satisfactory  for  1.  981, 

i  but  the  meaning  there  is  parallel  to  the  present  use  ;  see  Note 
I  on  the  line.     The  literal  meaning  is  :  '  Thy  corse  must  sink 
more  coldly  in  clay.' 

323.  drwry,  i.e.  drury,  O.E.  drdorig:  cp.  lude  (O.E.  leod), 
'Gawain,'  232,  449  ;  ludych,  'Cleanness,'  73  ;  ludisch,  1375  ; 
leude  (=  lede  :  3ede),  '  Gawain,'  1 124. 

331.  gare:    MS.   gare^ ;   cp.    perle^  =  perle,  1.    335,   also 

II.  1108,    1 1 12.     It    is    possible,  though  unlikely,   that   the 
MS.  reading  is  correct,  'bot'  being  taken  as  conjunction  ; 
the  inf.  after  'serue^  bot'  is  probably  correct  ;  cp.  'dot3  bot,' 
17,  18. 

337.  doel :  used  here  attributively  as  in  the  phrase  '  dule 
habit';  see  N.E.D.  under  'dole.'  The  phrase  is  probably 
slightly  different  from  the  compound  'doel-doungoun,'  1187, 
i.e.  the  dungeon  of  grief.  Cp.  Dunbar,  'The  Tua  Mariit 
Wemen  and  the  Wedo,'  1.  420  : 

'  I  droup  with  ane  deid  luik,  in  my  dule  habite/ 
compared  with  1.  422  : 

'  Quhen  that  I  go  to  the  kirk,  cled  in  cairweidis.' 
339-40.  That  is,  on  account  of  lamentation  for  compara- 

136  PEARL. 

tively  small  losses,  oft  many  a  man  loses  more  (than  the 
things  he  laments) 

341.  ]?y  seluen  blesse  :  to  cross  oneself ;  cp.  'Aryse  be  tyme 
oute  of  thi  bedde,  And  blysse  ]?i  brest  &  thi  forhede,'  '  Meals 
&  Manners,'  p.  266,  E.E.T.S.,  1904.  This  seems  to  be  the 
only  possible  meaning  in  this  passage,  and  the  word  cannot 
be  glossed  as  'confer  well-being  upon,'  as  O.  interprets, 
from  one  of  the  definitions  of  the  word  in  N.E.D. 

349.  adyte:  cp.  endyte,  1126,  '  Gawain,'  1600;  pref. 
a-  =  F.  en,  perhaps  partly  due  to  O.E.  adihtan  ;  but  in  many 
cases  M.E.  a-  =  A.F.  an  =  O.F.  en  ;  note  also  doublets  with 
a-,  en-,  e.g.  acroche,  encroche  (1069,  1117);  cp.  'endorde,' 

353.  stynt:  MS.  sty^st  ;  it  is  remarkable  that  in  'Clean 
ness,'  359,  the  scribe   has  written  'styste^'  (3  s.  pr.   ind.) 
evidently  for  '  styte^,'  /.  e.  stywte^,  and  it  looks  as  though  in 
both  these  cases  he  wrote  'stynst'  instead  of  'stynt.'     If, 
as  it  would  seem,  this  is  an  error,   the  repetition  is   very 

354.  sech  :  cp.  rech,  333  ;  bysech,  390  ('seke'  is  not  found 
in  the  poems). 

358.  Oat   alle]  ]?y  Iure3  :   MS.  &  )?y  lure 3.     The  line  is 
obviously  imperfect.     I  suggest  that  the  scribe  misread  the 
abbreviated  '  Ipat '  and  wrote  '  &  '  instead,  and  further  omitted 
'alle.'     In  corroboration  of  my  emendation  I  adduce  1.  119, 
parallel  in  movement,  alliteration  and  phraseology.    Further, 
the  thought  of  the  passage  is  brought  out,  the  gliding  off  of 
the   losses   resulting  from  the  comfort's  assuaging  power. 
There  is  no  reason  therefore  for  taking  'lure^'  in  any  other 
sense   than   '  deprivations,   losses.'     The   word   catches   up 
1-  337-     There  is  nothing  to  my  mind  to  favour  O.'s  rendering 
of  the  word  as '  frowns,'  nor  his  further  suggestion  that '  leme  ' 
means    'to   beat   or    drive   away  with   blows.'     'Leme   of 
=  '  to  glance  off,'  and  is  used  very  effectively. 

359.  marre[d]  o]?er    madde;    I   adhere  to  my  proposed 
emendation  of  marre[d]  for  MS.  marre.     The  phrase   'to 
make  or  mar,'  or  'make  and  mar,'  is  early,  though  N.E.D. 


quotes  as  earliest  instance  c.  1420,  Lydgate,  Assembly  of 
Gods,' 5  56: 

'  Neptunus,  that  dothe  bothe  make  and  marre.' 

Prof.  Holthausen  (Archiv,  90)  proposed  'marre  o]?er  mende.' 
my]?e:  all  the  recorded  senses  of  the  word  indicate  the 
concealing  or  dissembling  of  feelings  ;  cp.  N.E.D.  under 
*  mithe ' ;  but  here  the  poet  seems  to  be  using  the  word 
in  the  sense  of  'to  avoid,'  hence  to  escape  (mourning). 
Perhaps  here,  in  view  of  the  rhyme,  it  means  the  opposite 
of  '  to  mourn,'  i.  e.  to  be  happy.  The  line  appears  to  be 
the  poet's  rendering  of  I  Sam.  ii.  6  (or  one  of  the  parallel 
passages  noted  in  marginal  references):  'The  Lord  killeth 
and  maketh  alive,  he  bringeth  down  to  the  grave  and 
bringeth  up.'  O.  wrongly  translates  'grief  remembered  or 

362.  ne  wor]?e  no  wrath]?e  vnto  my  Lorde :  MS.  wrath  ]?e 
probably  due  to  wra]?]?e  (O.E.  wrse&fo)  ;  'let  there  not  be 
wrath  unto  my  lord,'  /'. e,  'let  not  my  lord  be  wroth  with  me.' 
Prof.  Kolbing  (Eng.  Stud.,  1891,  p.  270)  finds  great  difficulty 
in  this  rendering  of  the  words.     The  poet  is  probably  think 
ing  of  Abraham's  supplication  to  God  on  behalf  of  Sodom 
(Gen.   xviii.  32):  'Obsecro,  inquit,   ne  irascaris  Domine  si 
loquar  adhuc  semel'  ;  cp.  '  Cleanness,'  11.  689-780. 

363.  [I] :  omitted  by  scribe  ;  cp.  81,  977. 

364.  wyth  mysse  remorde :  i.  e.  torn  by  loss ;  not  '  sin  or 
failure,'  as  O.  interprets  the  word. 

365.  I  take  this  now  with  the  next  line,  not  the  preceding 
one,  and  the  meaning  to  be  '  like  water  pouring  from  a 
well,  I  readily  resign  myself  to  God's  gracious  will.'     The 
poet  has  in  mind  such  Biblical  phrases  as  Lam.  ii.  19  :  '  Pour 
out  thine  heart  like  water  before  the   face  of  the  Lord'; 
Ps.  Ixii.  8  :  '  Trust  in  him  at  all  times  ;  ye  people,  pour  out 
your  heart  before  him.' 

368.  forloyne:  O.F.  forlonger,  to  go  astray,  err;  cp.  '  Jif 
I  for-loyne  as  a  fol,'  '  Cleanness,'  750  ;  cp.  Note  on  1.  362. 

369.  [k]y>>e3  :  MS.  Iyj>e3,  cp.  1  =  k,  fordo[k]ked,  10  ;  the 

138  PEARL. 

proposed  emendation  certainly  strengthens  the  alliteration 
of  the  line,  and  simplifies  its  construction  ;  cp.  357,  and 
*  William  of  Palerne,'  603  : 

'A  !  curteyse  cosyne  .  crist  mot  )?e  it  selde 
of  ]?i  kynde  cumfort  .  ]?at  ]?ow  me  kupest  nowj?e.' 

O.,  keeping  'ly^e^,'  inserts  'wyth'  after  'kyndely.' 

375.  wo]?e:  here  =  'path,'  and  is  a  different  word  from 
'wo)?e3'  in  1.  151.  The  word  here  is  O.E.  wa]?,  hunting- 
ground  ;  hence,  generically,  place  ;  as  opposed  to  O.N.  va$i, 
peril,  danger.  The  sense  is  confused  if  the  word  is  rendered 
'danger,'  as  O.  glosses  it. 

382.  ma[n]ere3  :  MS.  marere^  ;  the  emendation  in  the  text 
was  first  proposed  in  Athenseum,  1891,  No.  3328 ;  cp. 
man^rly  =  with  due  courtesy,  '  Cleanness,'  91. 

386.  mornyf  :  cp.  '  gyltyf, '  669. 

390.  bysech  :  cp.  '  sech/  354. 

415.  in  blysse  to  brede:  i.e.  to  flourish  in  bliss;  O.E. 
brsedan,  to  broaden,  extend,  is  used  with  reference  to  leaves 
and  trees  flourishing.     In  this  phrase  it  is  not  O.E.  bredan, 
to  breed,  even  though  it  were  possible,  as  O.  interprets,  to 
take  the  word  in  the  sense  of '  to  dwell.' 

416.  wage:    this  can    hardly  be  anything    else  than  the 
French  '  wager,'  here  evidently  used  in  the  sense  of  '  to  be 
assured,'  hence  '  endure,'  though  no  parallel  of  the  verb  in 
this  sense  can  be  adduced.     In  'Gawain,'  1.  532-3, 

'  Til  me^el-mas  mone 
Wat}  ciuften  wyth  wynter  wage,' 

the  sense  appears  to  be  '  with  the  assurance  of  winter,'  /.  e. 
the  certainty  that  winter  was  coming. 

417.  sesed :   O.F.  saisir  ;  cp.  'Gawain'  822,  O.F.  at  >^ 
before  s  ;  e.g.  reles,  956  ;  corte},  754,  etc. 

419.  parage:  cp.  'Cleanness,'  167  : 

'  Aproch  \>o\i  to  ]?at  prynce  of  parage  noble.' 
429.  synglerty :  cp.  syng[u]l[e]re,  8. 


430.  Fenyx  of  Arraby  :  cp.  Chaucer, '  Book  of  the  Duchess,' 

11.  980-1  : 

'  Trewly  she  was  to  myn  ye 
The  Soleyn  Fenix  of  Arabye.' 

The  poet  means  that  in  the  uniqueness  of  her  '  douceur,'  she 
is  comparable  only  to  the  Phoenix,  of  which  there  was  only 
one,  and  which  was  also  immaculate  of  form.  As  regards 
the  beauty  of  the  Phoenix,  the  Anglo-Saxon  poem  ('  Exeter 
Book,'  E.E.T.S.,  1895,  pp.  200-241)  is  perhaps  the  best 

431.  ]?at  freles  fle^e:  that  was  wont  to  fly  immaculate  of 
form  ;  '  fle^e '  used  as  aorist ;  '  J?at  fle^e '  is  little  more  than 
a  periphrasis  for  '  bird.' 

434.   folde:  not  pt.  3  s.  ind.,  but  p.p.,   'her  face  being 
covered  up '  in  the  hanging  folds  of  her  garment. 

439.  '  Many  seek  to  obtain,  and  actually  obtain  a  prize.' 
The  line  is  purposely  rhetorical.     The   point  of  the  word 
'porchase^'  is  that  it  is  used  in  its  literal  sense  of  hunting 
after,  seeking  to  obtain,  and  not  of  acquiring  with  effort. 
p.,  who  interprets  the  word  in  this  way,  finds  that  the  figure 
is  not  expressive.     The  whole  line  is  an  idiomatic  way  of 
saying,  'many  find  here  the  prey  they  seek.' 

440.  supplantore3  :  cp.  with  reference  to  the  interpretation 
of   Jacob's    name,    *  supplanter   als    of    heritage,'   '  Cursor 
Mundi,'  3744. 

441-4.  Cp.  'Cursor  Mundi/  11.  20799-21801  : 

'  Bot  wel  we  wat,  wit-outen  wene, 
Of  heuen  and  erth  )?at  scho  es  queue, 
Bath  imperice  and  heind  leuedi.' 

•  442.  bayly :  literally,  'jurisdiction';  observe  that  the 
word  is  accented  on  the  second  syllable,  and  rhymes  with 
'cortaysye';  'bayly/  from  O.F.  baillie,  is  to  be  carefully 
distinguished  from  '  bayly/  a  fortress,  which  represents  O.K. 
bail,  baile,  bailie.  This  latter  word  appears  as  'bayly,' 
1.  315,  and  'baly/  instead  of  '  bayle/  1.  1083. 

140  PEARL. 

446.  property :  cp.  1.  752. 

451.  ]?o  fyue:  this  seems  to  mean  'those  five,3  i. e.  five 
such.  But  the  phrase  is  difficult.  The  poet  wishes  to  say 
'  were  five  times  their  value.'  *  Five  '  is  often  used  idio 
matically,  cp.  1.  849. 

459.  naule:  i.e.  navel,  a  very  common  form  in  the  four 
teenth  century,  from  O.K.  nafela,  still  found  in  the  dialects  ; 
see   N.E.D.   and   E.D.D.     Cp.    I    Cor.   xii.  12-27.     O.,  in 
commenting  on  my  rendering  of  the  word,  condemns  it,  as 
being  'regardless  of  phonology,  sense,  or  poetic  delicacy.' 
As  regards  phonology,  it  is  very  difficult  to  know  exactly 
what   phonological   laws    he   applies.     Every    known    law 
would  corroborate  the  form,  and  indeed,  in  Old  Frisian,  the 
forms  are  both  'navla '  and  'naula.'     In  respect  of  O.'s  own 
rendering   'nail,'   from    O.N.    nagli,    in   the   first   instance 
'  nagli '  does  not  mean  '  the  nail  of  the  hand  '  (which  in 
O.N.  is  'nagl'),  but  'a  nail  or  spike.'     Anyhow,  the  modern 
English   '  nail '   is    from    O.E.    nasgl,   giving    the    normal 
M.E.  nail.     No   possible  form   such  as   'naule'  is  found, 
or  could  be  expected,  from  either  the  O.E.  or  O.N.  forms. 
The   sense  and  poetic   delicacy,   of  which    I    am    alleged 
to  be  unappreciative,  need  no  defence.    It  may  be,  however, 
pointed  out  that  St.  Paul  himself  refers  to  members  of  the 
body  which    we   think  to    be   less   honourable,   and   even 
Shakespeare  in  the  play  of  '  Coriolanus,'  where  the  parable 
of  the  body's  members   rebelling  against  the  belly  figures 
strikingly,  actually  uses  the  phrase  'the  navel  of  the  State' 
(III.  i.  123),  though  in  a  later  part  of  the  play. 

460.  temen :  belong  to,   in  the  sense  of  ministering  to, 
subserving  ;  cp.  '  Cleanness,'  9,  temew  to  hy m  seluen,  i.  e. 
are  attached  to  His  service. 

t[r]yste:  for  scribal  omission  of  r  cp.  stjYjyke},  1186. 
The  omission  may  be  an  r  superscript ;  cp.  tr/ys,  1.  755. 
The  phrase  'true  and  trist'  occurs  in  M.E.,  cp.  '  trist  and 
trewe,'  N.E.D.  under  '  trist.'  There  can  be  little  doubt  that 
this  is  the  correct  reading.  O.  explains  'tyste'  as  from 
O.N.  J?ettr,  i.e.  tight.  But  the  idea  underlying  'temen,' 


and  therefore  this  qualifying  phrase,  is  the  loyalty  of  service, 
and  the  fidelity  and  faithfulness  is  well  brought  out  by  the 
phrase  'trwe  and  t[r]yste,'  though  it  would  be  possible  to 
explain  the  form  '  tyste '  as  parallel  phonologically  to  '  myste.' 

462.  myste:   for  the  general  'my3t';  cp.  'my^te,'    1069, 
rhyming  with  '  ny^t,'  etc.     '  st '  for  '  31 '  is  a  very  common 
writing  in  MSS.  of  the  thirteenth  century  and  earlier.     It  is 
also  found  in  the  fourteenth  century.    Editors  have  frequently 
taken  the  spelling  to  be  erroneous,  and  have  corrected  it 
accordingly.     There  can  be  little  doubt  that  the  symbol  was 
intentional.    Dr.  Hall,  in  his  edition  of '  King  Horn'  (Oxford, 
1901),  discussing  the  form  'doster'  in  one  of  the  MSS.,  deals 
with  'st'  as  a  mere  graphic  variation  of  'ht'and  '31.'     It 
would  seem,  however,  from  the  present  passage,  that  the 
'  st '  became  in  some  dialects  a  phonological  variant  of  a 
sound   which   was  originally   difficult   for    French    palates. 
It  is  not  merely,  in  this  passage,  a  question  of  spelling  for 
the  sake  of  rhyme  ;  it  is  a  most  valuable  piece  of  evidence 
as  regards  pronunciation. 

463.  gawle:  /.^.bitterness;  O.E.  gealla,  bile.    The  word 
must,  I  think,  be  differentiated  from  'galle,'  11.    189,  915, 
1060.     The  phrase  '  without  gall '  in  the  first  two  passages 
seems  to  represent  O.N.  galla-lauss,  faultless,  from  'galli,' 
a  fault,  and  in  the  third  place,  '  scum ' ;  cp.  glass-gall.     In 
'Patience,'  285,  however,   we  have  the  phrase   'gaule   of 
propheter,'  so  it  looks  as  though  in  this  latter  sense,  'gaule ' 
were  a  variant  of  'galle.' 

463-4.  These  lines  form  a  question,  which  is  answered  in 
the  next  couplet. 

469-70.  'I  allow  that  courtesy  and  great  charity  are 
among  you.'  O.  annotates  that  the  line  =  'I  leue  cortayse 
and  chary te  be  grete  amowg  yow.' 

480.  '  than  to  be  crowned  king,'  hence  the  necessary 
change  of  the  MS.  'ho'  to  'he'  in  the  previous  line. 

485.  naw)?er  Pater  ne  Crede  :  according  to  the  •  Boke  of 
Curtasye,'  when  the  young  child  first  went  to  school,  it 
learned  the  Pater  and  Creed  : 

142  PEARL. 

*  Yf  that  Ipou.  be  a  3ong  enfaunt, 
And  thenke  ]?o  scoles  for  to  haunt, 
This  lessouw  schalk  ]?y  maistwr  ]?e  merke, 
Croscrist  ]?e  spede  in  alle  ]?i  werke  ; 
Sytthen  Ipy  pater  nostey  he  wille  ]?e  teche, 
As  cristes  owne  postles  con  preche  ; 
Aftwr  ]?y  Aue  mam?  and  )?i  crede, 
]?at  shall<?  ]?e  saue  at  dome  of  drede.' 

('  Early  English  Meals  and  Manners,'  p.  181.) 
488.    away  :  cp.  350. 

492.  date:  'goal3;  it  is  difficult  to  find  any  other  word 
that  will  express  its  various  meanings  of  time  and  place  in 
this  section. 

497.  your  messe  :   Matt.  xx.  1-16  ;  the  pronoun  indicat 
the  detachment  of  the  speaker  from  even  earthly  worship 
cp.  11.  1 06 1 -2. 

499.  In-sample  :   I  still  prefer  to  read  this  as  one  word, 
the  direct  object  of  'gesse.'     The  '  \n  '  of  the  scribe  may  be 
in   place  of  the   author's   'en,'   owing  to   the  'm'   of  the 
previous  lines. 

he  :  I  take  the  word  to  stand  for  Christ,  and  not,  as  O. 
attributes  it,  to  St.  Matthew.  This  misunderstanding,  to 
my  mind,  is  due  to  reading  the  lines  erroneously,  with  a 
comma  at  the  end  of  1.  496,  and  a  semi-colon  at  1.  498. 

500.  lykne}  hit :  /.  e.  the  parable  ;  cp.  501. 

502.  I  wate :  cp.  wot,  47;  but  'abate,'  1.  617,  also  used 
for  the  sake  of  rhyme. 

503.  terme  :  /.  e.  season  ;  cp.  *  Gawain,'  1671, 

'  Hit  wat^  ne^  at  ]?e  terme  ]?at  he  to  schulde.' 

I  do  not  agree  with  O.  that  'terme'  here  means  'end/  and 
that  "  '^ere'  is  evidently  thought  of  as  ending  immediately 
after  the  grape-harvest,  in  mid-autumn."  This  seems  to 
ignore  'of  tyme,'  but  anyhow,  the  sense  of  the  line  seems 
simple  and  straightforward. 

505.  [h]ys  :  MS.  ]?ys.  I  still  keep  my  proposed  emenda 
tion,  though  I  now  understand,  as  I  think  the  real 





significance  of  the  line  thus  emended.  It  has  hitherto  been 
argued  that '  hyne,'  as  the  hirelings,  had  not  previously  been 
referred  to;  and  O.,  keeping  the  MS.  reading,  interprets  the 
line  as  a  general  observation  addressed  to  the  reader, 
meaning,  '  These  hirelings  as  a  class  well  know  that  season 
of  year  (vintage),  and  went  to  present  themselves  for  hire.' 
But  'hyne,'  as  I  take  the  word,  is  just  the  opposite  of 
hirelings,  and  the  word  implies  '  those  of  his  own  house 
hold.'  His  household,  i.  e.  his  trusty  ones,  they  well  know 
the  season  and  what  is  expected  of  them  ;  it  is  to  supple 
ment  their  dutiful  service  that  workmen  are  hired,  who 
afterwards  haggle  about  their  pay.  The  whole  idea  has 
been  evolved  from  the  use  of  the  word  '  paterfamilias'  in  the 
parable  ;  the  'hyne'  are  the  'familia.'  Cp.  the  last  line  but 
one  of  the  poem,  '  He  gef  vus  to  be  his  homly  hyne.'  The 
word  also  occurs  in  1.  632,  not  as  designating  the  labourers, 
as  O.  states,  but  the  innocent,  who  having  been  but  an  hour 
in  the  vineyard,  are  by  grace  God's  *  hyne,'  i.  e.  of  the 
Divine  household.  In  11.  585-8  it  is  clearly  pointed  out  that 
those  who  have  toiled  longer  may  have  to  wait  for  their 
wage.  Further,  some  of  the  workmen  who  are  satisfied 
receive  their  hire,  and  are  dismissed,  *  Take  that  is  thine 
own,  and  go.'  In  1.  572,  *  For  mony  ben  calle[d],  Tpa.$  fewe 
be  myke^,'  the  '  myke^ '  are  the  '  elect! '  and  the  '  hyne.' 
An  interesting  corroboration  of  my  theory  is  to  be  found  in 
the  O.E.  renderings  of  '  paterfamilias '  in  this  very  passage  ; 
the  Rushworth  Gloss  gives  '  hina  faeder,'  the  Lindisfarne 
'  higna  faeder.' 

513.  Aboute  vnder:  cp.  circa  horam  tertiam,  Matt.  xx.  3. 

523.  resnabelef:  MS.  resonabele.  From  metrical  stand 
points,  evidently  a  scribal  alteration  of  the  poet's  'resnabele' 
or  'renable.'  So  'Piers  Plowman'  B.,  Prologue,  158,  'A 
raton  of  renon  most  renable  of  tonge,'  where  the  C.  text 
reads  '  resonable,'  and  also  '  resnable.'  The  line  means 
'  what  reasonable  hire  shall  be  due  by  night.' 

528.  wyl  day :  I  now  reject  my  original  proposal  of 
reading  the  two  words  as  one, 

144  PEARL. 

529.  MS.  at  ]?e  day  of  date.     The  scribe  has  evidently 
transposed  '  day '  and  '  date,'  the  meaning  being  that  '  at  the 
time  of  day  of  evensong.' 

530.  go :  to  be  taken  as  subjunctive  ;  '  one  hour  before 
the  sun  should  sink.' 

536.  J?at  at:  'fvzt'  antecedent  of  the  Northern  relative 
pronoun  '  at.' 

542.  menyf :  MS.  meyny,  rhyming  with  *  repren[y],'  MS. 
reprene,  peny,  etc.,  cp.  Note  on  313. 

553.  serued:  i.e.  deserved,  not  as  O.  glosses,  'served,' 
as  is  clear  from  the  words  '  vus  pynk  so.' 

558.  wani[n]g  :  the  ordinary  contraction  indicating  '  n  '  is 
omitted  in  the  MS.,  but  there  is  a  little  mark  over  the  'i'  of 
an  unusual  character.  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  the  mark 
indicated  the  intention  of  the  scribe  to  correct  the  word  to 
'  wrang.'  The  poet  may  well  have  written  this  word, 
translating  the  Vulgate  '  amice  non  facio  tibi  injuriam.' 

565.  More, — we]?er  l[e]uyly  :  MS.  more  we]?<?r  louyly. 
This  line  has  hitherto  proved  a  crux.  In  the  first  place, 
'more '  has  been  misunderstood.  Its  force  is  simply  'more 
over,'  and  it  is  not  merely  a  mark  of  interrogation,  or  a 
comparative  modifying  the  adjective  of  the  sentence. 
'Louyly'  I  take  to  be  a  scribal  error  for  l[e]uyly  =  O.N. 
leyfiligr,  i.  e.  permitted  or  allowed.  The  words  translate 
*  Aut  non  licet.'  M.E.  leflich  is  a  different  word,  from  O.E. 
leofllc,  loveable.  The  M.E.  word  corresponding  to  the 
present  word  is  'leueful,'  cp.  'leesome,'  i.e.  M.E.  lefsum, 
from  O.E.  lef,  leaf,  permission.  So  far  as  I  know,  'l[e]uyly ' 
is  not  recorded  elsewhere  in  English,  and  has  not  been 
identified  before.  O.'s  '  l[awe]ly  '  cannot  stand. 

Further,  the  first  four  lines  of  this  stanza  are  the  poet's 
translation  of  the  Vulgate,  '  Aut  non  licet  mihi  quod  volo 
facere,  an  oculus  tuus  nequam  est,  quia  ego  bonus  sum,' 
Matt.  xx.  1 5.  The  third  and  fourth  lines  give  the  alternative 
section  of  the  question  ;  the  second  Wycliffite  version 
reading  :  '  Whether  it  is  not  leueful  to  me  to  do  that  that  Y 
wole  ?  Whether  thin  i^e  is  wicked,  for  Y  am  good  ? '  The 


idiom  of  1.  567  is  due  to  the  interrogative  'we]?<?r'  being 
understood.  The  two  couplets  are  therefore  parallel,  as  in 
the  Vulgate,  and  the  second  is  not  a  mere  affirmative 
statement,  as  O.  punctuates. 

568.  by-swyke^  :  ist  pr.  ind.,  an  exceptional  (Northern) 
inflexion,  necessitated  by  the  rhyme. 

572.  myke$  :  I  am  now  inclined  to  doubt  my  original 
suggestion,  which  seemed  plausible,  and  has  been  accepted, 
that  'myke}'  represented  O.N.  'mikill'  and  meant  'great 
ones.'  It  is  true  'mike,'  as  I  pointed  out,  is  found  in 
'  Havelok '  as  an  adjective  for  '  mikel,'  but  no  instance  occurs 
of  the  word  as  a  noun.  '  Myke} '  translates  '  electi,'  and  it 
would  appear  that  'mik'  in  the  sense  of  'a  near  friend,' 
existed  in  Northern  English.  It  occurs  in  '  Cursor  Mundi,' 
2807,  in  the  phrase  '  sun  or  doghter,  mik  or  mau,'  and  in 
Harding's  'Chronicle*  (Harding  was  a  Northerner)  'the 
i  Dukes  preuy  myke '  occurs.  N.E.D.  quotes  both  these 
j  passages  as  illustrating  the  present  word.  It  would  appear, 
therefore,  that  'myke'  means  'someone  very  near,'  even 
j  more  than  a  kinsman.  The  sense  of  the  word  in  the  present 
passage  must  mean,  '  chosen  as  special  friend,  a  privy 
friend.'  It  suggests  the  phrase '  homly  hyne,' 1.  1211;  see  Note 
on  1.  505.  The  word  seems  to  be  of  Scandinavian  origin. 

588.  to-^ere :  the  ordinary  meaning  of  this  is  '  this  year,' 
but  here  this  accepted  sense  does  not  bring  out  the  force  of 
the  line,  which  suggests  long  years  to  come,  rather  than  this 
year.  Now  in  North  Lancashire  the  word  is  used  in  this 
jidiomatic  sense.  Cp.  '  I  have  not  seen  it  te-ere'  =  yet,  for 
la  long  time,  never,  E.D.D. 

We  get  something  of  the  same  idiomatic  use  in  Chaucer, 
'Cant.  Tales,'  D.  166-8,  the  humour  of  the  line  being  lost 
r.hrough  the  line  not  being  understood  : 

'  I  was  aboute  to  wedde  a  wyf,  alias  ! 
What  sholde  I  bye  it  on  my  flesh  so  dere  ? 
Yet  hadde  I  lever  wedde  no  wyf  to-yere.' 

I    593.  Vulgate,  Ps.  Ixi.  12,  13  (Authorised  Version,  Ps.  Ixii. 

146  PEARL. 

12) :  *  Semel  locutus  est  Deus,  duo  haac  audivi,  quia 
potestas  Dei  est,  et  tibi  Domine  misericordia  :  quia  tu 
reddes  unicuique  juxta  opera  sua.'  This  passage  of  the 
Psalms  lent  itself  to  many  exegetical  interpretations,  and  the 
words  and  the  thought,  especially  the  rendering  to  each  man 
according  to  his  work,  are  often  found  in  both  Old  and  New 
Testaments,  as  may  be  seen  from  the  marginal  references  to 
the  passage.  But  in  the  present  passage  I  venture  to 
propose  that  we  have  a  distinct  reference  to  i  Peter  i.  17-20, 
as  evidenced  by  my  suggested  interpretation  of  1.  596. 

596.  ay  p[re]termynable :  this  word  is  not  recorded  else 
where,  nor  is  it  found  in  late  Latin,  though  N.E.D.  suggests 
that  it  may  represent  a  scholastic  Latin  '  preterminabilis.' 
There  is  no  evidence  in  support  of  this,  nor  of  the  apparent 
meaning,  in  an  active  sense,  *  predetermining,  pre-ordaining.' 
'  PjV/jtermynable '     is     evidently     for     '  predetermynable,' 
for   the  purpose   of  euphony  and  rhyme.     We  know  the 
meaning  of  '  determynable,'  i.  e.  fixed,  determined  ;  there 
fore    '  pjV^jtermynable '    should    mean    '  fixed    beforehand,  j 
pre-ordained,3  and  this,  !  think,  is  the  meaning  of  the  word  I 
here.     '  Thou  high  King,  i.  e.  Christ,  pre-ordained  from  the  | 
beginning,3  with  a  reference  to  i   Peter-  i.  20,  '  praecogniti  j 
quidem  ante  mundi  constitutionem.3     Accordingly,  I  do  not  ! 
agree  with  Professor  Carleton  Brown,  that  the  word  here  • 
suggests  a  definite  acquaintance  with  the  '  predeterminatio  ' 
of  the  Schoolmen,  nor  with  O.3s  comments  on  the  passage, 
amplifying  the  idea  of  '  fore-ordaining 3  with  reference  to  the 

605.  chyche  :  Professor  Carleton  Brown  appositely  quotes 
from  Richard  Rolle,  '  De  Gracia,3  cp.  Horstmann,  '  Richard 
Rolle  of  Hampole,'  I.  133,  '  God  is  na  chynche  of  his  grace  ;  j  - 
for  he  haues  ynogh  Iperofe — for  Ipofe  he  dele  it  neuer  so 
ferre  /  ne  to  so  mony  :  he  haues  neuer  ]?e  lesse  ;  for  hiw  i 
vvantes  noght  bot  clene  vessels  :  til  do  his  grace  inne.' 
'  Chyche  3  is  the  older  form,  coexisting  with  '  chynche,'  seei 
N.E.D.  under  '  chinch.' 

609.  Misunderstanding  of  this  passage  has  generally  been 


due  to  assuming  that  '  hys '  repeated  in  sense  the  previous 
occurrences  of  the  word  in  the  lines  preceding,  and  referred 
to  God.  But  the  thought  has  changed,  and  the  reference  is 
here  to  man.  The  freedom  or  liberty  of  that  man  is  ample, 
who  has  ever  stood  in  fear  towards  Him  Who  makes  rescue 
in  sin,  t.  e.  there  is  freedom  in  heaven  where  there  has  been 
fear  on  earth.  The  thought  is  evidently  derived  from  Ps. 
cxviii.  45  (English  version,  Ps.  cxix.)  :  *  Et  ambulabam  in 
latitudine  :  quia  mandata  tua  exquisivi.'  Cp.  Newman's 
'  Dream  of  Gerontius '  : 


I  feel  in  me 

An  inexpressive  lightness,  and  a  sense 
Of  freedom,  as  I  were  at  length  myself, 
And  ne'er  had  been  before.  .  .  . 


It  is  because 
Then  thou  didst  fear,  that  now  thou  dost  not  fear.' 

As  further  parallel  to  this  passage,  I  may  quote  from  the 
same  poem  : 

O  loving  wisdom  of  our  God  ! 

When  all  was  sin  and  shame 
A  second  Adam  to  the  fight 
And  to  the  rescue  came.' 

dard  :  in  the  sense  of  '  lurked  in  dread,'  i.  e.  feared,  would 
under  ordinary  conditions  be  followed  by  'from,'  and  not 
'  to,'  but  the  thought  is  not  of  fear  that  recoils,  but  the 
attitude  of  fear  towards  God.  Accordingly  the  poet  uses 
'  to '  instead  of  '  from.'  O.'s  suggestion  that  '  dard '  may  be 
an  error  for  '  fard,'  /'.  e.  fared,  seems  to  me  altogether 
untenable,  as  destructive  of  the  poet's  meaning. 

610.  rescoghe :  in  retaining  the  MS.  reading  in  place  of 
'[no]  scoghe,'  suggested  by  Morris,  I  pointed  out  in 

148  PEARL. 

'Academy,'  July  n,  1891,  that  the  line  is  a  poetical  peri 
phrasis  for  '  the  Rescuer,  the  Saviour.'     The  technical  sense 
of  '  rescue '  applies  in  a  special  way  to  Christ  as  the  rescue 
of  souls  from  Limbo  (cp.  O.F.  rescousse,  *  1'action  de  delivi 
un  prisonnier  qui  1'ennemi  emmene'). 

616.  [hjere:  MS.  lere;  for  /written  for  >&,  cp.  210.  Thepoet 
regular  form  is  '  hyre,'  and  it  is  possible  that  '  here  '  =  '  en 
=  O.N.  eyri(r),  originally  an  ounce  of  silver,  but  used  in  tl 
more  general  sense  of  '  sum  of  money  for  payment.'     For 
unessential    h,    cp.    '  [hjeke,'   210.     Were    this   suggestion 
correct,  we  should  get  over  the  difficulty  of  two  words  of 
identical  form   rhyming.     Cp.    O.E.    ora,  one-eighth   of  a 
mark,  from  O.N.^/.  aurar. 

617.  abate:  see  Note  on  1.  502. 

627.  babtem  :  cp.  baptem,  653. 

628.  boro^t :  cp.  bereste,  854. 

629-32.  The  meaning  of  these  lines  seems  to  be  clear, 
though  the  order  of  the  words  requires  careful  consideration. 
The  sense  is  *  that  day,  flecked  with  darkness,  makes  incline 
to  the  might  of  death  those  who  had  never  wrought  wrong 
ere  they  went  thence.'  The  thought  of  the  passage  is 
missed  by  taking  it,  as  O.  interprets,  'Anon  the  day,  in 
dented  with  darkness,  doth  yield  to  the  power  of  death.' 
In  consequence  of  this  erroneous  rendering,  the  two  lines 
that  follow  are  taken  together  by  him,  with  awkward  effect. 

632.  hyne :  see  Note  on  1.  505. 

^SS-  }ys :  the  last  letter  is  well-nigh  faded.  Morris 
suggested  '  $y[rd] '  ;  I  originally  proposed  '  3y[ld] '  ;  O.  was 
at  a  loss  to  read  the  letter  or  letters  after  '  y.' 

647.  plyt:  see  Note  on  'ply^t,'  1075. 

652.  Ipe  deth  secounde :  see  Rev.  xx.  14,  xxi.  S. 

654.  glayue :  /.  e.  the  spear  of  Longeus,  from  John  xix.  34. 
The  story  is  amplified  in  the  Gospel  of  Nicodemus,  whence 
came  the  name  Longinus  (or  Longeus),  probably  from  Gk. 
A<*7Xf,  a  spear. 

656.  wyth  in:   MS.  wythi«ne.     But   the   MS.  reading  is  j 
clearly  due  to  a  scribal  error  which  has  destroyed  not  only 


the  sense,  but  also  the  right  rhythm  of  the  line.  The 
meaning  is  simply,  '  By  means  of  which  Adam  drowned 
us  in  death.3  O.  keeps  '  wythimie '  and  considers  the  line 
as  a  case  of  the  poet's  '  asyntactic  style ' ;  he  renders  as 
follows: — 'the  offence  which  Adam  [by  bringing  upon  us] 
drowned  us  in  death.' 

659.  &  ]?at,  i.e.  &  bot  ]?at,  continuing  the  previous  sentence. 

672.  at  in-oscen[c]e :  MS.  i»-oscente,  obviously  a  scribal 
error,  for  in  every  other  case  in  the  poem  *  inoscent '  has  no 
final  -e.  I  take  the  phrase  to  mean  '  according  to  (his) 
innocence.'  O.  keeps  ' m-oscente,'  and  suggests  that  'at' 
may  be  a  scribal  error  for  *]?at,'  objecting  to  my  reading 
as  forced,  and  contrary  to  the  ordinary  idiom,  'by'  being 
the  preposition  elsewhere.  But  '  at '  may  be  paralleled  by 
'at  my  Prynce^  paye,'  1164. 

678.  Vulgate,  Ps.  xxiii.  3,  4  (A.V.,  Ps.  xxiv.). 

680.  I  have  little  doubt  that  this  was  suggested  by  some 
commentary  that  the  poet  had  before  him,  for  I  find  in  the 
Anglo-Saxon  version  of  the  parallel  Psalm  (Vulgate  xiv.  2, 
Authorised  Version  xv.  2),  'He  that  walketh  uprightly,'  the 
following  introductory  words  not  in  the  original  text :    J?a 
andswarode  Drihten  J?ass  witgan  mode,  ]?urh  onbryrdnesse 
J?aes  halgan  gastes  ;   and  cwaej?  se  witga,  Ic  wat,  ]?eah  ic 
ahsige,  Hwa  ]?aei  earda]?  ?  z.  e.  the  Lord  inspires  the  prophet 
to  ask  the  question,  of  which  he  knows  the  answer. 

68 1.  Hondelynge}  harme  }?at  dyt  not  ille :  I  take  the  whole 
of  this  line  to  be  a  paraphrase   of  '  innocens   manibus ' ; 

hondelynge^'  is  an  adverb,  and  not  a  noun,  as  formerly 
taken,  and  means  'with  his  own  hands.'  The  word  puzzled 
me  until  I  found  a  striking  illustration  of  its  adverbial  use  in 
Anglo-Saxon  :  '  Nis  be  him  gersed  Sast  he  handlinga  senigne 
man  acwealdo,'  i.e.  'It  is  not  read  of  him  [/.  e.  St.  Paul]  that 
he  killed  any  man  with  his  own  hands,'  ^Ifric's  '  Homilies,' 
ed.  Thorpe,  i.  386.  The  literal  meaning  of  the  line  is  : 
'He  that  with  his  own  hands  did  no  injury  through  evil 
iintent.'  'Ille'  is  not  a  pleonasm,  as  might  be  supposed, 
but  brings  out  the  full  sense  of  the  original. 

150  PEARL. 

683.  This  may  have  been  suggested  by  Vulgate,  Ps.  xxv. 
12  (Authorised  Version,  Ps.  xxvi.),  catching  up  v.  8. 

685-8.  This  continues  Ps.  xxiii.  (Vulgate),  paraphrasing 
the  remaining  part  of  v.  4,  '  qui  non  accepit  in  vano  animam 
suam,  nee  juravit  in  dolo  proximo  suo.'  It  is  noteworthy 
that  the  words  'proximo  suo,'  'to  his  neighbour,'  are  not 
in  the  ordinary  Hebrew  text  nor  in  the  Authorised  Version, 
but  are  found  in  the  Wycliffite  and  Prayer  Book  versions, 
1  whiche  took  not  his  soule  in  vayn,  nether  swoor  in  gile  to 
his  ne^bore'  (later  Wycliffite  version).  I  do  not  think  there 
is  any  reference  in  the  passage  to  Ps.  xiv.  (Vulgate),  as  has 
been  suggested. 

690.  How  kyntly  oure  [Koyntyse  hym]  con  aqayle:  MS. 
omits  [koyntyse  hym].     Dr.  Henry  Bradley  in  'Academy' 
xxxviii.    p.    201,  pointed   out  the   source   of   this  passage, 
namely,  Wisdom,  ch.    x.   10.      The   obscurity   of  the  line 
was   due  to   the  scribe's  omission    of  some  word  or  two.  | 
Dr.  Bradley  suggested  the  reading  '  how  [koyntyse  onoure],' 
but    I    think  the   simpler  solution   is  the  reading    I    have 
suggested  in  the  text.     Koyntyse  =  sapientia.     The  verse  in 
Wisdom,  speaking  of  '  sapientia,'   says,  with   reference  to 
Jacob  :  '  Hsec  profugum  iras  fratris  justum  deduxit  per  vias  j 
rectas,  et  ostendit  illi  regnum   Dei.'     The  later  Wycliffite  \ 
version,  commenting  on  '  schewide  to  hym   the   rewme  of  ) 
God,'  explains   in   the  margin  that  this   has  reference  to 
Jacob's  vision   of  the  ladder  that  reached  to  Heaven,  for  \ 
then  he  had  revelation  of  the  heavenly  Jerusalem.     To  the 
medieval  reader,  Koyntyse  or  Wisdom  =  Christ.     Cp.  St.  I 
Augustine,  'De   Trinitate,'   iv.    20,  'Cum   pronunciatur  in 
Scriptura  aut  enarratur  aliquid  de  sapientia  sive  dicente  ipsa 
sive  cum  de  ilia  dicitur,  Filius  nobis  potissimum  insinuatur.' ; 
'  Koyntyse '  occurs,  according  to  my  interpretation   of  the 
line,  in  the  same  sense  in  '  Patience'  39,  '&  by  quest  of  her 
quoyntyse  enquylen  on  mede,'  i.  e.  by  the  decision  of  their 
Wisdom  (i.e.  Christ)  they  receive  one  reward.     The  word    | 
'  aquyle '  occurs  again  in  1.  967. 

693.  yle :  not  '  island,'  as  formerly  interpreted  by  me,  nor 


'remote  province  or  land,'  as  O.  proposes,  from  secondary 
uses  of  the  word  instanced  by  N.E.D.,  but  in  all  proba 
bility  in  the  sense  in  which  the  word  occurs  in  ecclesiastical 
Latin,  '  temple,'  with  reference  to  the  heavenly  Jerusalem,  as 
in  the  Wycliffite  gloss  ;  it  repeats  the  idea  of  '  pyle,'  1.  686. 
699-700.  Ps.  cxliii.  2  (Authorised  Version). 

702.  [cjryed:    MS.  tryed,  but  as  this  word  occurs  again 
in  the  last   line  but  one  of  the  stanza,   I    think  one   may 
safely  restore    the   poet's   obvious    reading,   with    its    fine 
alliterative  effect. 

703.  alegge,  /'.  e.  renounce,  O.E.  alecgan,  to  give  up.     The 
whole  force  of  the  passage  is  missed   by  taking  it  to  be 
F.  alegier,  as  glossed   by  O.,  in  the  sense  of  'to  urge  in 
one's  defence.' 

703.  in-nome,  /.  e.  taken  in,  received.  I  do  not  know  of 
the  occurrence  of  the  word  elsewhere  in  English,  but  it 
evidently  existed  apart  from  the-  present  passage  ;  cp.  O. 
Frisian,  innima,  to  receive  (Richthofen,  Altfriesisches 
Worterbuch,  1840).  O.  erroneously  refers  the  word  to 
O.E.  genomen,  comparing  the  'i//-'  with  the  prefix  in  such 
words  as  'inliche,'  'innoghe.' 

709.  For  'ry^twysly,'  with  accent  on  the  first  and  third 
syllables,  cp.  delfully,  706.  As  regards  the  second  half  of 
the  line,  if  the  MS.  is  correct,  'quo'  must  be  regarded  as  a 
monosyllabic  foot. 

711-24.  The  reference  is  evidently  to  Luke  xviii.  15-17 
(in  view  of  1.  721,  cp.  v.  16,  'Jesus  autem  convocans  illos') 
in  preference  to  Mark  x.  13-16,  or  Matt.  xix.  13-15. 

I  do  not  agree  with  O.  that  we  have  here  any  case  of  the 
poet's  memory  adapting  scriptural  material  from  several 
passages,  and  therefore  blending  the  versions  of  Mark  and 
Luke  with  that  of  Matthew,  nor  that  1.  717  is  more  consistent 
with  Matthew's  account.  Nor  do  I  hold  with  him  that 
'mylde,'  in  1.  721,  reverts  to  Matt,  xviii.  2,  and  that  'mylde' 
=  parvulum,  a  little  child.  '  Hys  mylde5  can  hardly  be 
anything  but  the  disciples,  the  twelve;  cp.  O.N.  guSs 
mildingr,  a  man  of  God.  It  is  noteworthy  that  the  poet 

152  PEARL. 

here  rhymes  a  pi.  adj.,  used  as  a  noun,  with  the  monosyllabi< 
1  chylde.' 

726.  sulpande :  i.  e.  defiling.  The  origin  of  the  word 
obscure,  and  N.E.D.  notes  that  it  is  possibly  related  t< 
dial.  Ger.  sulper,  solper,  bog,  mud.  It  is  noteworthy  th< 
'  sulp,'  also  written  '  soolp,'  occurs  in  the  Shetland  and  Orkm 
dialect  in  the  sense  of  'a  wet  state  of  ground,  a  marsl 
This  is  probably,  in  my  opinion,  the  same  word,  and  furth( 
the  Northern  English  'sowp,'  in  the  sense  of  'to  drench, 
soak,'  may  well  be  the  variant  of  the  word.  Arising  from 
the  theme  of  'Cleanness,'  the  word  occurs  in  that  poem 
-•*-  some  five  times,  namely  575  (by-sulpe^),  15,  550,  1130, 


730.  Ipnxi  perre  pres :  *'.  t.  among  excellent  gems  ;  cp.  Matt. 

xiii.  45)  'quaerenti  bonas  margaritas.'  'Prys'  occurs  as  an 
adj.  in  this  sense  in  'Gawain'  1945,  'suche  prys  ]?i#ges'; 
but  the  form  'pres,'  if  used  as  an  adj.  here,  must  be  com 
pared  with  the  noun  'prese,'  419. 

734.  Note  the  caesura  after  '  fore,'  which  governs  a  relative 
pronoun  understood. 

735.  heuenes  [sp]ere:  MS.  heuenesse  clere,  but  the  spell 
ing    'heuenesse'   is   suspicious,    nor  is   it   likely    that    the 
poet  would  repeat  'clere'  as  a  rhyme.     He  had  in  mind 
the  imperial  heaven  or  celestial  'sphere,'  where  God  and 
the  angels  were  said  to  dwell.     The   seven  (or  later  the 
eleven)  spheres,  are  often  referred  to,  see  under  '  heaven '  4, 
and  '  sphere,'  N.E.D.      Concerning  the  spheres,  see  Caxton's 
'  Mirrourof  the  World,'  ed.  Prior,  E.E.T.S.  Extra  Series  CX., 
especially  ch.  xxiii.,  on  the  Celestial  Heaven. 

739.  commune :  evidently  here  used  in  the  sense  of 
'common  as  a  possession  or  mark.'  The  spotless  pearl 
is  the  common  badge  of  the  righteous,  as  the  celestial 
heaven  is  the  home  they  have  in  common.  It  is  indeed 
the  '  peculium '  of  the  righteous,  even  as  is  heaven.  The 
pearl  may  not  be  visible  on  the  righteous  while  on  earth, 
though  in  heaven  it  becomes  the  visible  emblem  of  the 
sinless,  but  it  is  none  the  less  their  common  badge.  The 


passage  is  somewhat  subtle,  but  I  do  not  agree  with  O.  that 
it  is  somewhat  confused.  There  are  in  commentaries  on 
Matt.  xiii.  45-6  many  different  interpretations  of  the  pearl, 
but  in  this  verse  the  poet  makes  it  clear  that  'righteousness' 
comprehends  them  all. 

740.  hit  stode :  this  seeming  past  tense  has  hitherto  been 
accepted  as  the  poet's  loose  way  of  making  the  tense  accom 
modate  itself  to  the  rhyme,  for  one  would  expect  the  present. 
The  poet,  however,  has  not  done  this;  'stode'  is  a  sub 
stantive  corresponding  to  the  modern  '  stud,'  in  its  original 
sense  of  'support,'  here  suggestive  of  the  setting.  'Hit'  is 
the  possessive  pronoun  ;  cp.  11.  108,  120,  224,  446.  The 
omission  of  the  verb  after  '  lo '  is  characteristic  ;  cp.  11.  693, 
822.  The  present  instance  of  '  stode '  antedates  by  many 
years  the  instances  of  the  word  given  in  N.E.D. 

742.  pes  :  cp.  1.  1 201. 

748-9.  Cp.  '  Romaunt  of  the  Rose '  where  Reason,  whose 
attributes  are  so  closely  transferred  to  Pearl,  is  described 
in  the  Chaucerian  version  : 

'  Hir  goodly  semblaunt,  by  devys, 
I  trowe  wore  maad  in  paradys  ; 
Nature  had  never  such  a  grace 
To  forge  a  werk  of  such  compace. 
For  certeyn,  but  the  letter  lye, 
God  him-silf,  that  is  so  high, 
Made  hir  aftir  his  image'  (11.  3205-11.) 

750.  Pymalyon  :  the  story  of  Pygmalion  is  given  at  length 
in  the  '  Romaunt  of  the  Rose,'  and  it  is  interesting  that 
Chaucer,  as  our  poet,  had  in  mind  the  passage  in  question 
in  'Canterbury  Tales,'  C.  10-15. 

'  Lo  !  I,  Nature, 

Thus  can  I  forme  and  peynte  a  creature, 
Whan  that  me  list ;  who  can  me  countrefete? 
Pigmalion  noght,  though  he  ay  forge  and  bete, 
Or  grave,  or  peynte.' 

154  PEARL. 

See  Professor  Skeat's  note  on  the  passage,  Vol,  V., 
pp.  260-1. 

751.  Arystotel :  references  to  the  philosopher  are,  of 
course,  very  common  in  medieval  literature  generally ;  but 
the  use  of  the  word  *  pr0pert[y]3 '  suggests  knowledge  of 
medieval  logic. 

lettrure:  learning  or  science;  cp.  'Gawain,'  1513,  ']?e 
lettrure  of  armes.'  I  do  not  agree  with  O.  that  *  writings, 
books'  seems  more  appropriate,  though  this  sense  of  the 
word  is  found. 

753.  flour-de-lys :  cp.  Hymn  to  the  Virgin,  *  Heil  fairer 
then  the  flour  de  lys,'  N.E.D.  under  '  fleur-de-lys.3 

755.  of  triys :  i.e.  of  truce,  very  much  in  the  sense  of 
'peace'  in  1.  742.  Pearl  has  stated  that  the  pearl  has  been 
placed  on  her  breast  in  token  of  peace.  '  What  kind  of 
peace,'  asks  the  father,  '  bears  as  symbol  or  token  the  spot 
less  pearl?'  In  the  lines  that  follow  the  answer  is  given. 

'  of  triys '  is  written  in  the  MS.  with  a  small  *  after  the  /  as 
the  usual  abbreviation  for  rf. 

O.  reads  'offys,'  and  maintains  that  this  is  the  reading  of 
the  MS.,  and  that  the  second  /is  spread.  From  a  careful 
examination  of  words  containing  fft  I  have  no  doubt  that 
the  reading  *  of  tr/ys '  is  correct. 

759-60.*".*.  'chose  me  as  His  bride,  although  unfitting 
that  union  might  once  have  seemed  (while  I  was  on  earth).' 
There  should  be  no  pause  after  'vnmete,'  and  the  whole 
sense  of  the  passage  is  lost  by  placing  a  full-stop  after  '  wete.' 
The  stanza  has  hitherto  been  misinterpreted. 

763-4.  Song  of  Sol.  iv.  7-8, '  tota  pulchra  es  arnica  mea,  et 
macula  non  est  in  te.  Veni  de  Libano  sponsa  mea  ;  veni  de 
Libano,  veni.'  The  verse,  as  pointed  out  by  Dr.  Holthausen, 
is  quoted  far  and  wide  in  medieval  literature  ;  cp.  '  Olympia,' 
1.  235.  Chaucer  puts  the  same  refrain,  as  though  it  were  a 
popular  catch,  in  the  mouth  of  his  Friar,  Prologue,  1.  672. 

768.  [He]  py^t:  MS.  &  py3t,  probably  due  to  the  '£'  in 
the  previous  line.  The  sense  and  force  of  the  line  seem  to 
be  restored  by  the  emendation. 


769.  bryd:  O.,  printing  'byrd'  in  his  note,  thinks  that  the 
poet  intends  a  pun.  The  context,  he  says,  points  unmis 
takably  to  the  meaning  'bride,'  but  'flambe,'  cp.  1.  90, 
shows  that  he  is  thinking  of  *  bird.3  To  my  mind  there  is 
not  the  least  suggestion  of  '  bird ' ;  the  bride  is  all  radiant 
with  light. 

775.  a  comly  on-vunder  cambe :  'a  comely  one  under 
comb '  is  one  of  many  '  kennings '  for  a  woman  ;  the  only 
instance  I  can  call  to  mind  is  from  Cromek's  ballad  of  '  The 
Lord's  Mairie' : 

'  Come,  here's  thy  health,  young  stranger  doo, 
Wha  wears  the  gowden  kame.' 

786.  [fowre] :  not  in  MS.,  but  it  is  hardly  likely  that  the 
poet  would  have  been  inaccurate  in  the  number,  seeing  that 
he  gives  the  reference  to  the  Apocalypse,  and  quotes  the 
correct  number,  11.  869-70 ;  cp.  Rev.  xiv.  i. 

791-2.  Rev.  xix.  7-8. 

799-804,  807-8.  Isa.  liii.  4-9. 

817.  [In]  Jerusalem :  I  propose  the  insertion  of  [i«],  as 
without  some  such  words  there  is  apparently  no  syntax  in 
the  lines,  and  in  the  beginning  of  each  of  the  other  verses 
the  refrain  is  '  o '  or  '  in,'  taken  from  the  last  words  of  the 
previous  stanzas. 

The  reference  to  John's  baptizing  in  Jerusalem,  Jordan, 
and  Galilee,  on  which  occasions  his  words  accorded  to 
Isaiah,  presents  difficulties.  The  words  of  Isaiah  to  which 
reference  is  made  would  seem  to  be  Isa.  xl.  3-8,  'The 
voice  of  him  that  crieth  in  the  wilderness,  Prepare  ye  the 
way  of  the  Lord,'  etc.  In  Matt.  iii.  i  he  speaks  these 
words  when  preaching  in  the  wilderness  of  Judaea,  evidently 
near  Jerusalem,  for  the  people  went  out  to  him  from  there. 
In  Mark  i.  4  the  passage  is  well-nigh  the  same.  In  Luke 
iii.  3  he  baptized  in  'the  country  about  Jordan.'  From  these 
passages  Jerusalem  and  Jordan  might  be  associated  with  his 
baptizing  and  reference  to  Isaiah's  words.  Hitherto  the 
difficulty  has  been  the  poet's  reference  to  Galilee.  O.  states 

156  PEARL. 

that  *  J?er-as'  of  1.  818  must  refer  to  Jordan.  'There  is  no 
account,'  he  writes,  'of  John's  having  preached  or  baptized 
elsewhere  than  in  the  region  of  Jordan/  and  he  adds 
that  Herod,  who  imprisoned  and  beheaded  John,  was 
Tetrarch  of  Galilee,  and  suggests  that  this  accounts  for  the 
place  being  named.  Our  poet,  however,  had  excellent 
authority  in  John  i.  28,  where  A.V.  reads  '  Bethabara  beyond 
Jordan,'  but  the  Vulgate  reads  '  Bethania  trans  lordanem,' 
so  too  the  Wycliffite  versions.  It  was  because  of  the  words 
'trans  lordanem'  that  Origen  preferred  the  reading  'Beth 
abara,'  though  the  MS.  evidence  was  admittedly  against  it, 
seeing  that  it  could  not  be  the  Bethany  referred  to  in  the 
Gospel,  which  was  to  the  east  of  Jerusalem  on  the  road  to 
Jericho.  As  Jesus,  according  to  Matt.  iii.  13  and  Mark 
i.  9,  came  from  Galilee,  so  that  '  Bethany  beyond  Jordan ' 
may  well  have  been  identified  with  the  neighbourhood  of 
Galilee,  Conder  ('  Encyc.  Biblica,'  under  '  Bethabara ')  sug 
gests  the  identification  of  the  spot  with  the  Makhadet 
'Abara,  N.E.  of  Beisan.  It  is  noteworthy  that  after  the 
words  'hsec  in  Bethania  facta  sunt  trans  lordanem,'  John 
adds  'ubi  erat  Joannes  baptizans,'  even  as  our  poet  writes  in 
I.  818  '  }?er-as  baptysed  ]?e  goude  Saywt  Jon,'  so  that '  Galalye' 
is  pointedly  the  antecedent  of  'p>er-as,'  and  further,  the 
original  of  11.  820-4  immediately  follows  in  the  Gospel, 
John  i.  29. 

824.  vpon :  prep,  placed  after  the  pronoun  it  governs,  i.  e. 
1  vpon  J?at ' ;  but  probably  without  any  idea  of  '  accumulation 
or  amassing 'as  O.  suggests.  Its  force  is  little  more  than 
'at,'  cp.  'vpon  fyrst,'  'Gawain,'  11.  9,  301,  1934.  The 
sense  is,  therefore,  'at  which  all  this  world  has  worked' ;  cp. 
'My  wreched  wylle  in  wo  ay  wra^te.'  In  1.  1054  'vpone' 
rhymes  with  'mone.' 

825-8.  These  lines  are  not  to  be  considered  as  expanding 
the  quotation  from  John  i.  29,  but  as  amplification  from 
Isaiah  liii.  6-9. 

826.  on  hym  self  he  con  al  clem,  cp.  Isa.  liii.  6,  'posuit 
Dominus  in  eo  iniquitatem  omnium  nostrum.'  For  the  form 


'clem,'  instead  of  the  usual  'claim/  see  N.E.D.  under 
'claim.'  M.  suggested  'clem'<O.E.  clseman,  to  smear; 
'cleme'  occurs  in  'Cleanness,'  1.  312,  in  the  sense  of  'daub.' 
It  is  hardly  likely  that  the  poet  would  use  this  word  in  the 
present  passage. 

834.  In  Apokalype} :  from  here  to  1.  1128  the  Apocalypse 
is  the  main  source  of  the  poet's  inspiration. 

835-7.  Cp.  Rev.  v.  6-8,  I, 

836.  sajt,  MS.  sayt}  ;  the  MS.  reading  is  more  likely  to 
have  been  due  to  '  sa^ '  than  '  sy^,'  as  the  form  '  sat3 '  (=  sayt}) 
is  used  ;  cp.  1.  677. 

838.  Cp.  Rev.  v.  i. 

839.  Rev.  v.  13. 

841-4.  i  Peter  i.  19;  cp.  Exod.  xii.  5.  Rev.  i.  14;  cp. 
Dan.  vii.  9. 

843.  mask[e]lle  :  MS.  masklle  ;  perhaps  the  correct  reading 
should  be  'maskle' ;  cp.  wyt^-outen  mote  oper  mascle,  726, 
maskle,  '  Cleanness,'  556. 

845-6.  Rev.  xiv.  5. 

848.  [n]o]?er  strot  ne  stryf :  MS.  non  ofyer,  but  usual  form 
in  MS.  is  'nau]?er.'  The  extension  of  this  form  into  'non 
o]?er '  may  have  been  due  to  intermediate  forms  '  nowther ' ; 
cp.  '  Gawain,'  659,  '  nojw,'  the  '  non ;  being  due  to  an  effort  to 
explain  the  following  'bot.' 

853-64.  This,  if  any,  of  the  six  stanzas  in  this  section,  may 
represent  a  discarded  stanza  that  has  been  against  the  poet's 
intention  copied  by  the  first  copyist. 

859-60.  'We  have  fullest  knowledge  of  this  one  thing, 
namely,  that  salvation  comes  to  us  from  the  One  Death.' 
This,  I  think,  must  be  the  meaning  of  these  lines.  Anyhow, 
the  second  of  the  two  lines  cannot  possibly  mean,  as  O. 
translates,  '  Our  dread  of  the  bodily  death  hath  been  realized.' 

866-900.  In  Appocalyppece  :  cp.  Rev.  xiv.  1-5. 

869.  &  wyth  hym  maydenne^  :  cp.  'virgines  enim  sunt,' 
Rev.  xiv.  4.  In  the  original,  'virgines'  refers  specifically  to 
chaste  men,  but  the  poet  is  evidently  using  'maydenne3'  in 
the  more  limited  sense  of  virgins  ;  cp.  11.  785-8.  So  in  earlier 

158  PEARL. 

homiletic  literature  ;  cp.  '  Hali  Meidenhad,'  ed.  Cockayne, 
E.E.TS.  1866,  p.  22. 

874.  Cp.  '  tanquam  vocem  aquarum  multarum,'  Rev.  xiv.  2. 
l[e]den,   MS.  laden,  probably  with  the   idea  of  'heavily 

laden  ' ;  the  emendation  is  justified  by  1.  878. 

875.  Cp.  'tanquam  vocem  tonitrui  magni,'  Rev.  xiv.  2. 
Crowes  in  torre 3  bio  :  probably  little  more  than  *  hurtles  in 

lowring  skies,'  literally,  peaks,  then  the  peak-like  cloud- 
shapes  ;  cp.  'Cleanness,'  951,  ' Clowde^  clustered  bytwene 
kesten  vp  torres.'  In  the  alliterative  'Troy  Book,'  1893, 
'  torres '  =  high  peak-like  waves. 

879.  a  note  ful  nwe  :  i.  e.  a  new  tune.  '  Note '  is  a  synonym 
for  '  song '  in  1.  882.  I  do  not  think  it  carries,  as  O.  suggests, 
any  suggestion  of  'note,'  1.  155,  in  the  sense  of  'matter.' 

88 1.  Cp.  Vulgate,  Rev.  xiv.  2, '  sicut  citharoedorum  cithariz- 
antium  in  citharis  suis  ; '  first  Wycliffite  version  '  as  of  harpers 
harpinge  in  her  harpis.' 

883.  a  gentyl  carpe:  i.e."*  noble  theme.     I  take  'carpe' 
to  refer  to   the  matter  of  the  song  ;   cp.   '  Cleanness,'  23, 
'  Kryst  kydde  hit  hym  self  \n  a  carp  one^ ' ;  also  ibid.  1.  1327. 
If  the  scribe  omitted  'con'  before  'carpe/  the   meaning    j 
would  be  '  In  accents  clear  one  maiden  spoke'  (*.  e.  led). 

899.  moteles  :  cp.  Rev.  xiv.  5,  '  sine  macula  sunt.' 

901-2.  The  movement  and  the  thought  of  the  lines  surely    i 
require  that  the  first  two  lines  form  a  complete  thought,  as 
indicated.     O.  places  a  full-stop  after  the  first  'I,'  and  a 
comma  after  '  appose.' 

904.  ichose :  this  is  the  only  case  in  the  four  poems  of  a 
p.p.  with  i-  prefixed,  a  mark  of  a  more  southern  dialect.     In 
'i-brad/  'Cleanness,'  1693,  a  past  tense,  the  prefix  is  equally 
anomalous,  but  in  this  case  probably  affected  the  meaning  of 
the  word  ;  cp.  'bradde,'  'Gawain,'  1.  1928. 

905.  The  words  in  the  present  line  are  evidently  suggested  i 
by  Abraham's  words  in  Gen.  xviii.  27  ;  cp.  '  Cleanness,'  736, 

'  J>at  mul  am  &  aske^.' 

amon[c] :  MS.  among.  In  1.  470  (amo«g'  rhymes  with 
1  3onge ' ;  in  1.  1 165  '  flonc '  (=  '  flong ')  with  '  ronk,'  etc. 


906.  Cp.  1.  269. 

909.  sympelnesse :  the  word  is  perhaps  suggested  by 
'  Simplesse,'  one  of  the  arrows  of  Cupid  in  the  '  Romaunt 
of  the  Rose,'  z.  e.  one  of  the  attributes  of  Womanhood,  that 
wound  the  heart  of  the  lover.  It  evidently  means  Simplicity 
as  contrasted  with  Pride,  one  of  the  evil  arrows ;  it  hurts 
less  than  Beauty.  The  father  has  already  addressed  Pearl 
as  a  'reken  rose,'  1.  906,  and  he  continues,  '  Now,  great  lady, 
in  whose  heart  was  set  Simplicity,  I  would  ask  for  a  straight 
forward  answer  to  my  question.' 

911.  [w]ose:  MS.  blose.  The  word  ' blose '  has  proved  a 
stumbling-block.  Morris  suggested  O.N.  blossi,  a  flame  ;  I 
formerly  adduced  O.F.  bios  =  prive* ;  O.  notes  'bloss'from 
E.D.D.  =  a  buxom  young  woman.  But  all  these  words  are 
impossible  as  origins  of  'blose.'  I  am  convinced  that  the 
word  is  due  to  a  scribal  error,  the  bl  being  a  scribal  mis 
reading  of  w,  which  is  easily  mistaken  in  certain  scripts  for 
bl  or  bb,  especially  when  followed  by  o.  Moreover,  the  word 
'wose'  may  well  have  puzzled  the  scribe.  It  is  the  O.K. 
wasa,  only  hitherto  found  in  the  compound  '  wudu-wasa,'  a 
wild  man  of  the  woods,  a  faun  or  satyr.  The  word  main 
tained  itself  through  the  centuries;  our  poet  uses  it  in 
'Gawain,'  721,  'wodwos,  }?at  woned  \n  ]?e  knarre^,'  and  it 
appears  in  the  'Wars  of  Alexander,'  1540,  'full  of  wodwose, 
and  oper  wild  bestis.'  The  word  was  early  used  heraldically 
for  the  wild  man,  '  savage-man  or  wood-man/  with  a  club, 
generally  appearing  as  a  supporter  of  a  shield ;  cp.  *  Buke 
of  the  Howlat,'  1.  616,  'The  rouch  Wodwyss  wyld,  that 
bastounis  bare.'  Later,  the  word  was  corrupted  into  Wood- 
house  ;  see  Strutt,  '  Sports  and  Pastimes  of  the  English 
People,'  1831,  pp.  161,  253,  378,  and  cp.  Note  on  'wod- 
wyse,'  'Winner  &  Waster,'  11.  70-1.  The  present  is  the 
only  instance,  if  I  am  correct,  of  'wose'  without  'wode,' 
but  the  correctness  of  the  suggestion  is  borne  out 
by  the  cross-alliteration  of  this  and  the  next  line  taken 

Further,  the  word  'bustwys'  is  often  the  epithet,  as  N.E.D. 

160  PEARL. 

points  out,  of  a  boar  or  bear,  meaning  rude,  savage,  rough, 
violent.  The  derivation  of  the  word  is  difficult.  N.E.D. 
points  out  that  in  phonology  and  form  the  M.E.  word 
corresponds  to  O.F.  boisteus,  A.F.  boistous,  Mod.  Fr. 
boiteux,  meaning  'lame/  which  Diez  refers  to  'boiste,' 
box.  Skeat,  on  the  other  hand,  derives  M.E.  'boistous' 
from  the  O.F.  or  A.F.,  going  back  to  a  Scand.  source  ;  cp. 
Norw.  baust.  The  base  of  this  word  =  English  'boast' 
(  =  A.F.  bost). 

I  venture  to  suggest  that  there  are  really  two  words 
'boistous'  (  =  later  'boisterous')  in  M.E.,  hitherto  not 
differentiated,  and  that  the  two  words  of  different  origin, 
though  they  may  well  have  flowed  together,  are  both  used 
in  their  special  senses  in  the  present  poem,  the  one,  O.F. 
boisteus  =  wooden,  cp.  1.  814,  'a  bostwys  bem,'  the  other 
in  the  present  passage,  in  the  sense  of  'wild,  blustering,' 
O.F.  or  A.F.  boisteus,  from  Scand.  root,  to  be  bold,  to 

912.  bone  vayl[e]:  MS.  bone  vayl ;  cp.  fayly,  34,  fayle, 
317.  '  Bone '  is  disyllabic  ;  cp.  '  bone  '916,  rhyming  with  '  to 
done,'  *won[e]'  (MS.  won),  etc. 

915.  Cp.  Note  on  1.  463. 

921.  hone:  this  seems  to  mean  'to  delay  or  tarry,'  hence 
'to  abide  or  be' ;  see  N.E.D.  The  origin  of  the  word  is  not 
known  ;  the  noun  is  common  in  the  phrase  '  without  hone.' 

944.  theme:  //$  probably  alliterative  with  /in 'take';  cp. 
'Patience'  358,  'J?e  trwe  tenor  of  his  teme.' 

952.  Cp.  Rev.  iii.  12,  'et  nomen  civitatis  Dei  mei  novas 
Jerusalem.'  Our  poet,  however,  in  using  the  word  '  mene,' 
seems  to  refer  to  some  alleged  etymology  of  Jerusalem. 
Among  the  several  interpretations  was  one  meaning  '  found 
ation  of  Shalem,  i.  e.  God  of  peace.' 

Sy}t  of  pes  :  '  visio  pacis '  was  the  commonest  etymological 
interpretation  of  the  name,  being  due  to  the  attempt  to 
associate  the  first  part  of  the  word  with  'jireh,'  i.e.  'will 
see';  cp.  Gen.  xxii.  14. 

In   Old   English   literature   from    Cynewulf  onward,  the 


supposed   etymological   significance  of  Jerusalem   is   often 
referred  to  ;  cp.  Crist,  49-50  : 

'Eala,  sibbe  gesihft,  Sancta  Hierusalem, 
Cyne-stola  cyst,  Cristes  burg-lond,' 

/.  e.       '  O  Sight  of  Peace  !  Holy  Jerusalem  ! 

Choicest  of  royal  thrones  !  Citadel  of  Christ.' 

961.  By  a  scribal  error,  this  verse  begins  a  new  section 
in  the  MS. 

962.  The  or  in  'flor,'  etc.  =  our;  cp.  stanza  xxxvi. 

967.  aquylde  :  cp.  '  aquyle,'  690.  This  word,  as  well  as  the 
thought  of  the  whole  passage,  is,  I  have  little  doubt,  sug- 
I  gested  by  the  part  of  Bel  Acueil,  '  fitz  de  Courtoysie,'  /.  e. 
\  Fair  Welcome,  the  son  of  Courtesy,  who  plays  so  important 
I  a  part  in  the  '  Romaunt  of  the  Rose.'  Fair  Welcome 
|  instructs  the  lover  how  he  may  see  the  object  of  his  love- 
; longing.  In  the  Chaucerian  version  Bialacoil  first  appears 
iin  1.  2984.  Similarly  we  have  the  figure  of  Grace  Dieu, 
Jin  Deguilleville's  'P£lerinage  de  I'homme,'  who  instructs 
'the  Pilgrim. 

j    979-  tyl  on  a  hyl :  the  poet  does  not  see  the  city  on  the 

ihill,  but  he,  being  on  a  hill,  beholds  the  New  Jerusalem. 

|The  poet  is  in  the  position  of  St.  John,  Rev.  xxi.  10-11, 

f  Et  sustulit  me  in  spiritu  in  montem  magnum  et  altum,  et 

)stendit  mihi  civitatem  sanctam   Jerusalem   descendentem 

e  caelo  a  Deo,  habentem   claritatem    Dei.'     Possibly  the 

in  spiritu '  of  the  passage  accounts  for  the  '  be  veued,'  976, 

e.  be  brought,  wafted. 

981.  keued:  cp.  320.  N.E.D.  thinks  that  the  suggestion 
hat  both  these  words  are  derived  from  O.N.  kefja,  to  sink, 
s  scarcely  satisfactory  for  this  passage.  O.  emends,  and 
cads  ' breued,'  i.e.  described,  revealed.  But  'keued'  is 
he  most  fitting  word  in  the  passage.  The  dreamer  is  on 
he  hill,  and  he  sees  the  New  Jerusalem  descended,  sunk 
jlown  from  heaven;  hence  the  appropriateness  of  the  word. 
I  989-  Cp.  Rev.  xxi.  1 3. 

i6z  PEARL. 

990.  burnist  broun :  metrically  these  words  are  difficult. 
I  suggest  that  'broun'  =  'beroun' ;  cp.  boro^t  =  bro^t,  628, 
bereste  =  breste,  854.  As  regards  '  burnist,'  the  inchoative 
suffix  received,  if  not  the  chief  accent,  almost  an  equal  accent 
with  the  root  syllable  ;  cp. 

*  Off  clothes  of  gold  burneysshed  bright.' 
('  The  Adulterous  Fahnouth  Squire,'  1.  278,  in  '  Political, 
Religious  and  Love  Poems,'  E.E.T.S.  1903.) 

992.  Cp.  Rev.  xxi.  14. 

bantele3 :  cp.  bantels,  1017.  In  1.  1022  these  bantels 
are  described  as  'twelue  de-gres,'  i.e.  twelve  steps,  and 
we  may  infer  that  whatever  is  the  origin  of  the  word, 
the  sense  is  'risings  or  steps,'  at  the  top  of  which  the 
wall  rises  sheer.  As  regards  the  origin  of  this  difficult 
word,  I  still  adhere  to  my  view  that  'bantel'  (with 
/  for  d,  as  in  other  cases  in  this  dialect)  =  O.F.  bandel, 
derived  from  O.H.G.  band,  and  signifying  a  projecting 
course.  A  series  of  these  would  form  a  flight  of  steps. 
There  is  little  likelihood  of  the  word  being  connected  with 
'enbaned,'  or  'embaned,'as  O.  suggests,  though  this  wordj 
occurs  in  connection  with  'bantelles'  in  'Cleanness,'  1459,1 
where  the  reference  is  to  the  rich  cups  of  the  Temple  : 

'  Cou/rred  cowpes  foul  clene,  as  casteles  arayed, 
En-baned  vnder  batelment  wyt^  bantelles  quoy^t.' 

Here  the  reference  is  to  the  corbel-steps  (popularly  knowrj 
as  corbie-steps)  under  the  battlements. 

993.  foundemente}  =  Vulgate  '  fundamental 
997-1016.  Cp.  Rev.  xxi.  19-20. 

icoi.  he  glente  grene :  the  poet  evidently  had  before  hirr 
some  Lapidary,  or  commentary  dealing  with  the  preciou: 
stones  in  the  Bible,  for  he  shows  his  knowledge  of 

'  the  fynest  stones  faire 
That  men  rede  in  the  Lapidaire;' 


as  Chaucer  puts  it  in  'The  Hous  of  Fame,'  Bk.  III.  11.  261-2. 

See  Skeat's  note  on  the  lines. 

As  regards  the  green  jasper,  Pliny's  statement  is  as  follows: 
I  'A  kind  of  jasper  likewise  there  is  of  a  green  colour,  and 
!  the  same  oftentimes  is  transparent :  and  although  there  be 
|  many  other  stones  go  beyond  it  in  richesse,  yet  it  retaineth 
.  still  the  ancient  glory  and  honour  that  it  had'  ('Sundry 
>  kinds  of  jaspers,'  Bk.  XXXVII.  ch.  ix.,  Holland's  translation, 
'  1634.) 

1005.  ]?e    emerade  ...  so   grene    of   scale:    cp.    Pliny, 
'Emeralds  for  many  causes   deserve  the   third  place,  for 
there  is  not  a  colour  more  pleasing  to  the  eye.     True  it  is 
that  we  take  great  delight  to  behold  green  herbs  and  leaves 
of  trees,  but  this  is  nothing  to  the  pleasure  we  have  in  look 
ing  upon  the  emerald,  for  compare  it  with  other  things,  be 
they  never   so  green,   it   surpasses   them  all    in    pleasant 
verdure '  (Ibid.  ch.  v.). 

1006.  sardonyse :  cp.  sardonice,  '  N.  Test,  in  Scots,'  ed. 
Law,  Scottish  Text  Society,  52. 

1007.  [sarde]  :    MS.   rybe ;    Vulgate    sardius,    with    v.r. 
sardinus,  Wycliffite  versions,   sardius.     'Sardius'   was   the 
(first  of  the  precious  gems  on  the  High  Priest's  breast-plate  ; 
|A.V.  ruby,  R.V.  'sardius'  in  text,  'ruby'  in  margin.     It  is 
(noteworthy  that  our  poet  uses  '  sardiners,'  probably  an  error 
for  'sardines,'  in  'Cleanness,'  1469,  a  form  with  which  he 
would  have  been  acquainted  from  Rev.  iv.  3   as  well  as 
possibly  from  his  reading  of  Mandeville  in   French  (the 
English   version   has   'sardone').     It   is  possible  that   the 
IFrench  Mandeville's  '  sardoine  '  is  properly  sardonyx.     The 
poet  could  hardly  have   sacrificed   the  ready  alliteration, 
he  substitution  of  '  rybe '  for  '  sarde '  must  have  been  due 
o  a  scribe's  effort  to  differentiate  '  sarde '  from  '  sardonyse.' 
The  likeness  of  the  two  words  may  have  been  more  striking 
f  the  poet  used  such  a  form  as  'sardine.' 

|  ion.  J?e  beryl  cler  &  quyt:  the  ordinary  comment  on 
!  beryl,'  Rev.  xxi.  20,  is  that  the  stone  was  of  a  green  colour, 
!tnd  such  is  the  general  acceptance  of  the  word.  But  early 

164  PEARL. 

in  the  Middle  Ages  beryl  was  used  much  in  the  sense  of 
crystal,  and  in  this  sense  is  common  in  Middle  Engli 
Hence  Chaucer's 


'  walles  of  beryle 
That  shoon  ful  lighter  than  a  glas.' 

('Hous  of  Fame/  III.  198-9.) 

Cp.  Med.  Latin  berillus,  which  was  applied  also  to  crystal, 
hence  M.H.G.  berille,  Mod.  G.  brille,  spectacles.  The 
identification  of  beryl  and  crystal  must  have  been  due  to 
the  special  kind  of  beryl  described  by  Pliny  as  the  beryls 
'  crystalline,  which  are  white  and  come  very  near  to  crystals.' 
Cp. '  Cleanness,'  554, '  As  ]?e  beryl  bornyst  byhoue}  be  clene.' 
1012.  ]?e  topasye  twynne-how:  Vulgate  topazius.  Our 
author  has  had  before  him  some  commentary  on  these 
stones,  hence  '  twywne-how,'  /.  e.  two-colour,  used  adjecti 
vally,  as  though  'tvvin-hued.'  '  How'  may  be  a  scribal  error 
for  'hew';  cp.  11.  304,  308.  The  reference  is  probably  to  | 
the  yellow-green  of  the  stone  ;  cp.  Bede,  '  Explan.  Apoca- 
lypsis,'  'topasius  .  .  ,  duos  habere  fertur  colores  ;  unum 
auri  purissimi.' 

1014.  jacyngh[t]:  MS.  jacyngh ;  but  final  ngh  is  not  a 
possible  spelling  for  our  poet,  ancj  we  may  safely  assume 
that  the  scribe  has  left  out  the  t.     Cp.  O.F.  jacincte ;  other 
M.E.   spellings   are   'jacinct,  jasynkt';   see   N.E.D.      Cp. 
bro3[t],  286. 

1015.  [tryjeste:  MS.  gentyleste.     It   is   certain   that  the 
scribe  has  made  an  error  here,  due  to  his  having  written 
'gent'   in   the   previous   line.     The   poet   would   not  have 
repeated  the  epithet,  nor  would  he  have  used  so  colourless 
a  word  with  his  obvious  knowledge  of  the  wonderful  powers 
attributed  to  the  amethyst.     No  stone  was  so  efficacious  in 
all  difficulties,  not  only,  as  its  derivation  was  said  to  imply, | 
as  a  preventive  of  intoxication,  but  as  a  'sovereign  remedy; 
against  charms  and  sorceries  that  be  practised,  with  poison-; 
ing '  (Pliny,  Bk.  XXXVII.  ch.  ix.).  Some  effective  epithet  wouldi 
have  been  used  by  our  poet,  and  although  certainty  is  not 


possible,  I  have  made  bold  to  insert  '  tryeste,'  i.  e.  surest, 
safest,  alliterating  with  *  twelfj?e,'  in  place  of  the  erroneous 
plyt:  see  Note  on  1.  1075. 

1016.  purpre  wyth  ynde  blente:  see  Pliny,  as  in  previous 
note  ;  also  cp.  Trevisa,  'Earth.  De  P.R.,'  xvi.  ix. '  Amatistus 
is  purpre  red  in  colour  medelyd  wyth  colour  of  uyolette.' 

1017.  b[r]ent:  MS.  bent.     The  emendation  is  due  to  the 
impossibility  of  interpreting  'bent/  and  to  my  conviction 
that  the  poet  is  here  referring  to  Rev.  xxi.  12,  'et  habebat 
murum  magnum  et  altum?     Graphically,  the  poet  glances 
from  the  steps  to  the  great  high  wall,  even  as  he  makes 
Gawain,  when  he  reaches  the  castle,  pass  from  his  descrip 
tion  of  the  moat  to  the  wall  that  went  deep  in  the  water, 

'Ande  eft  a  ful  huge  heat  hit  haled  vpon  lofte/ 

(1.  788). 

Also    cp.    'Cleanness,'     1381.     For    'brent'    see    1.     106, 
'Gawain,'  2165;  'brentest/  'Cleanness/  379. 

1018.  0  jasporye:  'ex  lapide  iaspide/  Rev.  xxi.  18.     The 
form  'jasporye'  is  anomalous;   it   cannot  be  a  variant  of 
ijasper,  11.  999,  1026.     There  may  be  some  adjectival  forma- 
Ition  parallel  to  such  a  word  as  'diapery/  'jasporye'  standing 
therefore  for  'jasper  stone.'     The  o  may  well  be  a  scribal 
error  for  e.     But  in  1026  we  have  '}?e  wal  of  jasper/ 

as  glas  )?at  glysnande  schon  :  these  words  qualify  'jasporye/ 
and  are  due,  I  think,  to  Rev.  .xxi.  11,  'tanquam  lapide 
aspidis,  sicut  crystallum.'  The  ureek  is  altogether  clearer, 
dffinSi  Kpvo-Ta\\t£ovTi,  i.  e.  jasper  crystal-clear.  There  were 
various  kinds  of  jasper,  and  Pliny  notes  that  there  was  '  a 
[asper  which  seemeth  as  it  were  infected  with  smoke 
Bk.  xxxvu.  ch.  ix.). 

1024.  Cp.  Rev.  xxi.  16,  'longitude  et  altitudo  et  latitudo 
ejus  aequalia  sunt.'    'Ful  fayre'  is   perhaps    suggested  by 
'  aequalia/  and  if  so,  means  *  full,  evenly/  otherwise,  simply 

full  clear  to  view.1 

1025.  Rev.    xxi.    21,    'platea   civitatis    aurum    mundum, 

i66  PEARL, 

tanquam  vitrum  perlucidum ' ;  Wycliffite  versions  '  strett 
A.V.  'street.'  Vulgate  reads  'platea,3  but  other  codic 
'platen.'  Cp.  strate^,  1043  ;  vch  a  strete,  1059. 

1026.  glayre,  z.  e.  the  glair  or  white  of  egg,  well  known 
the  Middle  Ages  in  various   processes,  but  here  espech 
with  reference  to  its  brightness.     At    first   sight   it  woul 
seem  that  the  poet  is  crudely  repeating  11.  1017-18,  but  this 
is  not  the  case.     In  the  previous  passage  he  is  emphasising 
the  brightness  of  the  jasper ;   here,  its  transparency,  pre 
paring  the  way  for  his  description  of  the  'wone^  wyt^-iraie.' 
'  Glayre '  cannot  come  from  O.E.  glser,  amber,  as  O.  suggests, 
comparing  Ezek.  viii.  2  and  i.  27. 

1027.  ]?e  wone3  wyth-inne  enurned:    nothing  is  said  in 
Rev.  xxi.,  the  passage  which  the  poet  is  paraphrasing,  con 
cerning  the  dwellings  within,  but  the  phraseology  used  by 
our  poet  with  reference  to  these  dwellings  is  derived  from 
v.  19,  which   in   the   earlier  Wycliffite  rendering  runs  as 
follows:    'And  the  foundementes  of  the  wal  of  the   citee 
ourned  with  al   precious  stoon,'  the  various  stones  of  the 
foundations  being  then  mentioned.     It  seems   to  me  just 
possible  that  the  poet's  transference  of  the  words  belonging 
to  the  foundations  (already  described  by  him)  to  the  dwell 
ings  within  the  wall  may  have  been  due  to  a  reference  at 
this  place   in  his  commentary  or  text  to  Isa.  liv.  n,  12, 
4  Behold,  I  will  lay  thy  stones  with  fair  colours,  and  lay  thy 
foundations  with  sapphires.     And  I  will  make  thy  windows 
of  agates,  and  thy  gates  of  carbuncles,  and  all  thy  borders 
of  pleasant  stones.'     It  was  important  for  our  poet  to  bring 
in  a  reference  to  'wone^,'  seeing  that  the  whole  episode  of 
the  revealing  to  him  of  the  New  Jerusalem  is  the  answer 
to  the  poet's  question, 

*  Haf  36  no  wone^  in  castel-walle, 
Nemamrr?'  (11.  917-18). 

For  the  phrase  'wone^  wyt^-i»ne,'  compare  'Cleanness,' 
1391,  *  He3e  houses  wyt^-iwne.' 
1030.  Twelue  Oowsande]  forlongefer:   MS.  twelue  for- 


longe  space  er.  The  poet  certainly  did  not  depart  from 
his  original.  I  have  no  doubt  that  'space'  was  a  marginal 
gloss  on  'sware'  of  the  previous  line,  and  got  by  scribal 
mistake  into  this  line.  The  erroneous  insertion  of  the  word 
probably  antedated  the  omission  of  ']?owsande,'  which  was 
then  dropped  for  metrical  considerations.  'Sware'  must 
have  puzzled  some  reader,  for  the  word  is  used  here  in  the 
sense  of  *  side  of  a  square,'  referring  to  linear  measurement. 

1031.  to  cayre,  i.e.  in  the  traversing  (gerundial  inf.),  in 
the  going  from  point  to  point.  The  word  'cayre'  cannot 
well  come,  as  O.  maintains,  from  F.  quarer  'with  the  vowel 
slightly  modified  for  rime.'  Seeing  that  the  rhymes  of  the 
whole  verse  are  on  are  and  aire,  the  poet  would  not  here 
have  ventured  on  the  slight  modification  for  rhyme. 

1033-42.  Rev.  xxi.  12,  21. 

1035.  poursent:  I  now  hold  that  this  is  the  correct  read 
ing,  and  not  '  po^rseut,'  i.  e.  succession,  the  meaning  being 
'precinct'  or  earlier  'purcint';  cp.  'Cleanness,'  1385,  'J?e 
place  ]?at  plyed  ]?e  pursauwt  wyth-iraie/  the  sense  being 
'boundary  or  limit  or  compass,'  though  this  meaning,  so 
far  as  N.E.D.  gives  instances,  seems  rather  later. 

In  Rev.  vii.  5-8,  and  in  Ezek.  xlviii.  31-34,  the  order  of 
the  names,  /.  e.  their  nativities  or  fortunes  of  birth,  is  not 
that  of  birth  ;  'byrpfej-whate^'  evidently  refers  to  Gen.  xlix. 
1-28,  Jacob's  blessing  of  his  sons  in  their  birth  order — 'all 
these  are  the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel.' 

1041.  byr)?[e]-whate3 :  i.e.  birth  omens ;  O.E.  hwaet.  Morris 
and  O.  read  '  byrj>  whate^,'  making  '  whate^  '= '  wat},' '  was '  ; 
an  absolutely  impossible  solution  of  the  problem.  Other 
wise,  'hwate^'  must  be  taken  as  a  verb  (cp.  O.N.  hvata), 
with  the  sense  of  'hastens,  runs.' 

1043-8.  strate}:  cp.  'strete^,'  1025,  and  'strete'  (rhyming), 
1059.  Cp.  Rev.  xxi.  23. 

1050.  [s]y3t:  MS.  ly^t^  ;  but  it  is  hardly  likely  that  the 
poet  would  have  repeated  the  rhyming  word  in  the  same 
stanza.  The  obvious  meaning  is  that '  on  account  of  the  subtle 
clearness  nothing  hindered  sight,'  i.  e.  he  could  look  through 

i68  PEARL. 

the  walls.     O.  strangely  renders  '  for  air  so  subtle  and  cl( 
could  bar  no  light.' 

1051-3.  Cp.  Rev.  iv.  1055-60.  Rev.  xxii.  i. 

1058.  foysoun :  at  first  sight  this  would  seem  to  be  a  noui 
used  anomalously  as  an  adj.  No  similar  instance  occurs  ii 
English,  but  Godefroy  gives  examples  of  the  word  as  an 
adverb,  and  its  adjectival  use  may  be  assumed. 

1060.  galle  o]?er  glet :  cp.  Note  on  463. 

1061-3.  Rev.  xxi.  22. 

1064.  Rev.  v.  6.  1065-6.  Rev.  xxi.  25. 

1065.  wat*  :  the  poet  uses  the  past  tense,  though  in  Rev. 
xxi.  25  we  nave  the  future.     I  suspect  'wat^'  with  plural 
subject,  and  am  inclined  to  think  that  the  scribe,  having 
written  *  wat$ '  three  times,  in  the  previous  four  lines,  has  by 
an  error  repeated  it  instead  of  writing  '  wern.' 

1067-8.  Rev.  xxi.  27.  1069-76.  Rev.  xxi.  23,  xxii.  5. 

1070.  spotty:  cp.  Milton,  'Paradise  Lost,'  I.  287-90:— 

'  The  moon,  whose  orb 
Through  optic  glass  the  Tuscan  artist  views 
At  evening,  from  the  top  of  Fesole, 
Or  in  Valdarno,  to  descry  new  lands.' 

1071.  Perhaps  the  poet  wrote  '  £  also  Iper-as  nis  neuer  ny}!,' 
z.  e.  '  And  also  where  is  never  night,  why  should  the  moon/ 
etc.    If  so,  there  would  be  a  stop  at  '  grym.'    Cp.  Rev.  xxi.  25. 

1073.  &  to  euen:  for  added  'to'  in  the  second  of  two 
infinitives,  cp.  'Cleanness,'  53-4, 

'}?at  ]?ay  samne  schulde, 
&  in  comly  quoyntis  to  com  to  his  feste.' 

O.  reads  '  to-euen,'  but  the  compound  does  not  occur. 

1075.  ply3t:  one  would  expect  'plyt,'  condition  (O.F. 
plite) ;  not  'ply^t,'  O.E.  pliht,  peril.  I  am  of  opinion  that 
the  two  words  were  used  indifferently  by  our  poet ;  here 
<  ply  }t '  =  ' plyt '  ;  'plyt,'  647,  1015  =  '  ply 31 ';  but  'plyt' 
correctly,  1114. 

1077-80.  Rev.  xxii.  2. 


1083.  ba[y]l[e] :  MS.  baly  ;  see  Note  on  1.  442. 

1085.  dased  quayle :    the   reference   is  evidently  to   the 
'couching,'  i.e.  the  crouching  or  cowering   of  the  quail; 
cp.  Chaucer,  'Clerk's  Tale,'  1150: 

'  Thou  shalt  make  him  couche  as  dooth  a  quaille.' 

Couch-quail,  in  the  phrase  '  to  play  couch-quail,'  is  recorded 
in  the  early  sixteenth  century,  in  the  sense  of  '  to  cower,  to 
crouch  timidly ' ;  see  N.E.D. 

1086.  for  ferly :  this  phrase  looks  like  a  weak  repetition 
of 'so  ferly,'  1.  1084.     It  may  mean  'because  of  my  wonder 
at,'  or  '  because  of  the  marvel  of J  ;  but  in  view  of  the  previous 
line,  the  sense  is  evidently  the  former  :  cp.  11.  183-8,  where 
'hende  as  hawk'  is  parallel  to  'dased  quayle.'     I  am  in 
clined  to  hold  that  the  poet  wrote  '  for-ferlyd,'  i.e.  utterly 

freuch :  Morris  '  french '  ;  whatever  the  significance  of 
the  word,  'freuch'  may  safely  be  accepted,  as  formerly 
proposed  by  me.  I  am  no  longer  of  opinion  that  it  is  the 
Scottish  frusch,  frush,  freuch,  fragile  (cp.  O.F.  fruisser,  to 
bruise),  which  is  synonymous  with  '  frough,'  of  obscure 
origin,  with  meanings  suggestive  of  'frail,  brittle,  not  to 
be  depended  on,'  and  is  referred  back  to  an  O.E.  *froh  ;  so 
O.  renders  'frail,  uncertain,  evanescent.'  But  it  is  not 
likely  that  such  an  epithet  would  be  applied  by  the  poet 
to  the  New  Jerusalem.  I  have  little  doubt  that  we  have 
here  the  M.E.  corresponding  to  M.H.G.  vro,  O.Fris.  fro, 
O.S.  frao,  gen.  frahes,  meaning  'joyous.' 

fygure:  'shape,  form,'  here  very  much  as  'fasure,'  1084, 
not  'vision'  as  O.  glosses. 

1106.  Rev.  xxi.  21. 

1107.  Hundreth   l>owsande} :    perhaps   suggested  by  the 
number  of  the  angels  in  Rev.  v.  n. 

1 1 08.  liure :  MS.  liure^.     The  collective  sg.  is  what  one 
would  expect  here,  and  not  the  plural,  and  the  emendation 
is  further  justified  by  the  sg.  verb.     The  scribe  has,  in  my 
opinion,  made  a  similar  error  as  regards  'wede^,'   1112, 

1 70  PEARL. 

though  there  he  may  have   been  influenced  by  metric 

mi.  red  g[ol]de  cler :  this  does  not  occur  in  Rev.,  bi 
is  evidently  due  to  the  Song  of  Songs  v.  n,  'caput  eii 
aurum  optimum.'  It  is  not,  as  O.  notes,  '  apparently  adde 
for  embellishment  by  the  poet.' 

1 1 12.  Cp.  11.  841-4. 

1113.  throne  :  elsewhere  'trone' ;  this  looks  like  an  inten 
tional  variant  directly  from  the  Lat.  thronus  (e.g.  Rev.  iv.  5), 
used  here  by  the  poet  to  avoid  the  repetition  in   the  line 
of  the  same  sound.     O.,  comparing  '  theme,'  1.  944  =  '  teme,' 
would  make  'throne'  =  'trone.' 

1119-20.  Rev.  v.  8. 

1 12 1.  legyounes  of  aungele} :  cp.  Rev.  v.  n  ;  as  N.E.D. 
points  out,  '  legion,'  in  the  sense  of  a  vast  host  or  multitude, 
with  special  reference  to  angels  or  spirits,  is  a  reminiscence 
of  Matt.  xxvi.  53.     Cp.  'Piers  Plowman,'  A.  i.,  109,  '  Lucifer 
with  legiouns  lerede  hit  in  heuene.' 

1 1 22.  )?er  kesten  ensens:    probably  suggested  by  Rev. 
viii.  3. 

1126.  Vertues :  one  of  the  orders  of  the  angels  (for  a  list 
see  'Ypotis,'  1.  90,  Horstmann's  '  Altenglische  Legenden, 
Neue  Folge,'  where  the  '  virtues '  are  seventh  in  order)  ;  cp. 
i  Peter  iii.  22,  'subjectis  sibi  angelis  et  potestatibus  et 
virtutibus,'  and  Rom.  viii.  38. 

1129-30.  'Delight  and  much  marvel  were  in  my  mind;' 
not,  as  O.  thinks  that  the  lines  mean,  'Glad  desire  entered 
my  heart  tp, describe  the  Lamb  with  many  a  marvel.' 

1135.  wjrse :  if  this  is  from  O.E.  wlsian,  it  should  mean 
'point  out,  show,'  and  may  possibly  be  used  here  intransi 
tively,  i.e.  'show  itself,  appear.'  This  verb,  in  con 
tradistinction  to  O.E.  wissian,  occurs  only  once  in  the 
poems,  'Cleanness,'  453-4,  'wysed  Jwoute  a  message,'  i.e. 
he  directed  thereout  a  messenger  ;  with  reference  to  the 
raven  sent  by  Noah.  Strictly,  therefore,  the  sense  should 
be  '  directed.'  Could  it  here  signify  '  directed,  /'.  e.  pointed, 
towards  the  heart '  ? 


1141.  The  Lombe  delyt  non  lyste  to  wene:  MS.  lyste. 
'Lombe'  is  evidently  gen.  sg.  without  inflection.  The 
sense  of  the  line  seems  to  be  :  '  to  no  one  was  there  the 
desire  to  question  the  delight  of  the  Lamb  (for  it  was 
obvious).'  '  Lyste '  is  used  here  in  rather  a  rare  sense,  'to 
no  one  came  the  inclination.'  'Wene'  is  'to  think  out'; 
cp.  'but  wene,'  without  doubt,  doubtless. 

1146.  Cp.  Rev.  ii.  10,  'Be  thou  faithful  unto  death,  and 
I  will  give  thee  a  crown  of  life,'  James  i.  12,  etc. 

1149-50.  Cp.  Ps.  xlv.  14,  15,  'The  virgins  her  companions 
that  follow  her  shall  be  brought  unto  thee.  With  gladness 
and  rejoicing  shall  they  be  brought ;  they  shall  enter  into 
the  King's  palace.' 

1154.  Cp.  224;  also  'hys  madding  mynd,'  Spenser, 
'Shepherd's  Calendar,'  April,  1.  25. 

1158.  To  fech  me  bur:  'to'  in  this  line  and  elsewhere 
indicates  the  genmdial  infinitive ;  and  I  am  strongly  in 
clined  to  hold  that  my  former  suggestion  in  respect  of '  to 
feche  me  bur'  is  correct,  the  phrase  meaning  'to  take  the 
preliminary  spurt' ;  cp.  E.D.D.,  'to  take  birr,'  a  leap  taken 
after  a  quick  run  ;  Cotgrave,  '  II  recule  pour  mieux  sauter, 
he  goes  back  to  take  bur,  or  to  leap  the  better.'  Possibly 
the  poet  wrote  'my  bur/  instead  of  'me  bur.' 

take  me  halte :  this  I  take  to  be  parallel  in  sense  to  the 
previous  words,  and  interpret  it  to  mean,  '  in  taking  off.' 
It  may  have  been  used  technically,  as  the  modern  phrase 
'to  take  off,'  in  the  sense  of  'to  start  in  leaping.' 

The  poet  is  here  using  two  technical  terms  with  reference 
to  the  initial  movements  before  plunging,  and  he  goes  on 
to  say  that  if  no  one  prevented  the  '  bur '  and  the  '  take-off,' 
he  would  start  on  his  swim,  though  he  perished  in  the 
course.  The  force'of  the  line  has  hitherto,  in  my  view,  been 
altogether  missed. 

1160.  to  swymme :  again  the  gerundial  infinitive,  i.e.  in 
swimming,  *  and  nought  (methought)  should  keep  me  from 
the  start,  though  I  perished  there  in  swimming  the  rest,' 
i.e.  though  he  perished  before  reaching  the  other  bank. 

172  PEARL. 

O.  in  his  translation  takes  '  to  swymme '  as  dependent 
'  I  ]?03t,'  and  renders  the  lines  as  follows  :  '  if  no  one  cculc 
prevent  my  plunging  in  the  stream,  I  hoped  to  swim  the 
interval  in  safety,  though  I  should  die  for  it  at  last.' 

1165.  flonc:  cp.  ]?ynk,  587. 

1172.  hylle  :  see  Note  on  1205. 

1175.  and  sykyng :  cp.  '  Gawain,'  753, '  &  ]?erfore  sykyng  ; ' 
'  Destr.  Troy,'  866,  *  Thus  sykyng  ho  said'; '  and  also  *  Gawain,' 
1796,  'Sykande  ho  swe^e  dou#,' and  'Cleanness,'  715,  'Al 
sykande  he  sayde.'  Evidently  the  verbal  noun  had  in  the 
case  of  this  word  very  early  taken  the  place  of  the  present 
participle,  and  coexisted  with  the  older  pr.  part,  forms,  as 
in  the  present  case.  So,  too,  in  such  a  Southern  text  as 
'William  of  Palerne'  we  have  'sikande,  sikende,  sikinde, 
siking,'  all  present  participles. 

1177.  out-fleme:  'an  outcast,'  not  'banished,'  as  M. 
glosses;  O.K.  fllema,  flema,  a  fugitive.  'Ut-flema'  does 
not  occur  ;  but  we  have  '  ut-laga, '  an  outlaw,  borrowed  from 
Scand.  ;  cp.  O.N.  ut-lagi.  Side  by  side  with  ' ut-laga' 
there  was  'ut-la^,  ut-lah,'  outlawed,  the  adj.  being  used  as 
a  sb.,  so  that  'outlaw'  frequently  has  the  sense  of 'out 
lawed.'  Hence  the  similar  usage  in  respect  of  the  synonym 
'out-fleme,'  as  in  the  present  passage,  without  'an.' 

1 1 80.  in  swone :    the  original  form  of  the  phrase  would 
appear    to    have     been    '  a-swoune,'    which     became    '  on 
swoune,'   and   then   'in   swoune.'     'Swone,'   rhyming  with 
'regioun,'  etc.  = 'swoune5 ;   cp.    rhymes  in   stanza  LXXXI. 

1181.  to:  not  marking  the  infinitive,  but  adverbial,  i.e. 
'towards,  to';  cp.  'Cleanness/  1551,  'He  bede  his  burnes 
bo}    to ' ;  unless  '  to-reme '  is  a  compound,  the  prefix  im 
plying  intensity. 

1 1 86.  gailande  gay:  the  reference  must  be  to  the  crown, 
11.  205-8.  The  crown  has  '  flurted  flowre^ ' ;  but  it  is 
doubtful  whether  the  flowers  are  necessarily  implied  in  the 
word  'garlande'  here.  'Garlande'  may  mean  the  whole 
crown  or  diadem  ;  cp.  Matthew  Paris  (Du  Cange),  '  Rex 
veste  deaurata,  et  coronula  aurea,  quae  vulgariter  garlanda 


dicitur,  redimitus,'  and  this  use  of  the  word  is  not  rare  in 
the  fourteenth  century.  The  word  '  garlande  '  seems  to  be 
ultimately  due  to  M.H.G.  wiere,  gold  wire. 

It  is  noteworthy  that  the  thirteenth-century  alliterative 
homily,  '  Hali  Meidenhad,'  has  the  following  statement  in 
respect  of  the  crowns  worn  in  heaven  by  maidens.  Over 
and  above  the  crowns  common  to  all  the  blest,  they  have 
'a  gerlaundesche  schinende  schenre  Ipen  ]?e  sunne,  Auricle 
ihatew  o  latines  ledene  ;  ]?e  flurs  ]?«t  beoft  idrahe  ]?ron,  ne 
Ipt  ^imstanes  ]?rin  to  tellen  of  hare  euene  ne  is  na  mo/mes 
speche.'  The  auriole,  equivalent  to  'coronula,'  was  'a 
celestial  crown,  worn  by  a  martyr,  virgin  or  doctor,  as 
victor  over  the  world,  the  flesh  or  the  devil.3  The  aureola 
of  the  virgins  was  white,  of  the  martyrs  red,  of  the  doctors 
green.  Hence  the  aureole  of  Pearl  is  of  clear  white  pearl, 
1.  207. 

1193.  As  helde:  'as  likely  as  possible.'  This  difficult 
phrase  has  not  hitherto  been  explained,  but  I  now  adduce 
the  Lanes,  dialect  'helt'  (see  E.D.D.),  in  the  sense  of 
'likely,  easily.'  The  word  is  not  recorded  in  M.E.,  though 
'helder*  (in  the  sense  of  'rather')  is  of  course  common. 
It  is  not  necessary  to  add,  as  O.  does,  '  r'  to  'helde' ;  indeed 
he  misunderstands  the  force  of  the  words,  translating,  'had 
I  been  rather  drawn  to  God's  presence  than  forced  my  way.' 
This  line  goes  with  the  apodosis,  and  not  with  the  protasis. 
'  Helt '  would  represent  an  older  comparative  form  of  the 
adverb;  cp.  Goth,  haldis.  In  O.N.  the  adv.  is  'heldr,' 
as  opposed  to  the  adj.  'heldri.'  It  seems  likely,  therefore, 
that  'held'  represents  a  lost  O.E.  comparative  adverb,  the 
M.E.  'helder'  being  of  Scand.  origin.  The  syllabic  e  in 
'helde  '  was  evidently  added  to  intensify  the  adverbial  force 
of  'held.'  The  adverbial  comparative  would  be  parallel  to 
such  adverbial  comparatives  as  'leng'  (=  longer). 

present :  cp.  389. 

1201.  sete  sa3te:  this  is. clearly  the  O.N.  phrase  'setja 
satt';  cp.  'setja  friS,  griff,'  to  establish  peace.  The  Scan 
dinavian  origin  of  the  phrase  is  strikingly  attested  by 

174  PEARL 

the  spelling  'sete,'  as  opposed  to  the  ordinary  'sette,'  th< 
former    representing    O.N.    setja,    the   latter   O.K.    settan. 
There  is,  I  think,  a  neglected  law  of  M.E.  phonology  th; 
words  of  Scandinavian  origin  showing  a  short  e  in  the  root 
followed  by   a  single  consonant  with  -ja  suffix,  have  theii 
radical  lengthened  ;  hence  'sete,'  against  M.E.  'sette'  froi 
O.E.    settan.     Similarly  in  11.    320,  981,  we  have   'keue: 
from  O.N.  kefja,  where  the  rhyme  shows  the  length.     O. 
unnecessarily  emends  to  '  sete  [hym]  sa3te,'  deriving  '  sete ' 
from  O.E.  settan. 

1204.  Perhaps   the  most  striking   M.E.  poem  recalling 
Pearl,  being  in  the  same  metre  and  with  much  the  same 
feeling,  is  the  fine  poem  'God's  Complaint,'  with  the  refrain 
'  Whi  art  ]?ou  to  ]?i  freend  vnkinde '  (ed.  Furnivall, '  Political, 
Religious  and  Love  Poems,'  E.E.T.S.  Original  Series,  15). 

1205.  hyul:  I  am  now  convinced  that  this  is  the  reading 
of   the   MS.,   and  that  the   scribe  did  not,   as  has  been 
generally  maintained,  write  '  hyiil '  with  a  dot  on  the  first  t. 
O.  says,  "MS.  clearly  'hyiil,'"  but  the  same  stanza,  in  the 
case  of  'Krystyin'   and   'enclyin,'  shows  how  the  scribe, 
when  he  wished  to  mark  an  z,  used  a  stroke  resembling  an 
acute  accent,  while  the  small  dot  was  often  used  over  a  y, 
and  it  is  this  dot  which  is  used  in  the  present  word,  though 
written  rather  over  the  first  stroke  of  the  it  than  they.     For 
'hyul,'  cp.  'huyle,'  41,  and  see  Note. 

121 1.  gef:    the   more   ordinary  form   of  the   pres.  subj. 
would  be  'geue' ;  but  'gef  is  probably  correct  ;  cp.  ')?ryf,' 
851.      Anyhow,  it  is  not  a  probable   error  for  '  gyue,J  as 
O.  states,  although  that  form  occurs  in  1.  707. 

homly  hyne  :  '  homly '  =  '  intimate,  friendly.'  The  word 
does  not  occur  in  O.E.  ;  the  M.E.  'homly'  was  probably 
influenced  by  Scand.  '  heimuligr,' as  used  in  such  phrases 
as  'hans  heimuligt  folk/  'his  household  folk';  '  heimuligr 
clerkr,5  'a  private  clerk.'  In  Scottish  the  word  is  still 
common  in  this  sense.  For  'hyne/  see  Note  on  505. 

12 12.  The  last  line  of  the  poem  catches  up,  as  it  were, 
the  first,  and  indeed  emphasises  its  deeper  suggestion. 


a,  indef.  art.  a,   19,  23,   34, 

etc.;  one,  786  (cp.  869), 

1037;  vch  a,  see  vch  ;  cp. 

an,  on  (i). 
abate,  see  abyde. 
abated,  pt.  3  pi.  123.    OF. 


able,  adj.  599.     OF.  able. 
abof,     adv.     above,     1023; 

prep.  1017.  OE.  a-bufan. 
aboute,  prep,  round  about, 

75,   1077;   abowte,   149; 

concerning,     268 ;     near, 

513  ;  adv.  near,  932.     OE. 

abroched,  pp.  set  abroach, 

1123;    (lit.    let    forth    as 

liquor    from     a    pierced 

cask).      OF.     abrochier; 

broche,  a  spit. 
abyde,    inf.    endure,     348; 

pt.  3  s.  abate,  617;   pp. 

abiden,   1090.     OE.  abi- 

dan;  cp.  byde. 
acheue,   inf.   achieve,    475. 

OF.  achever. 
acorde,      agreement,      371, 

509.     OF.  acord. 
acorded,    pt.    3    pi.    agreed 

with,  819.     OF.  acorder. 

acroche,  inf.  gain,  lit.  draw 
to  itself  as  with  a  crook, 
1069.  OF.  acrocher;  cp. 

Adam,  656. 

adaunt,  inf.  subdue,  157. 
OF.  adanter. 

adoun,  adv.  down,  988. 
OE.  of  dune ;  cp.  doim  (i). 

adubbement,  adornment, 
splendour,  glory,  84,  96, 
108,  120;  adub[be]mente, 
72 ;  adubbemente,  85 ;  cp. 
dubbed,  dubbement. 

adyte,  imp.  s.  indict,  349; 
prob.  OE.  adihtan,  in 
fluenced  in  form  and 
meaning  by  ME.  endite, 
later  indict;  AF.  enditer; 
late  L.*  indictare. 

affray,  fright,  terror,  lit. 
the  sudden  losing  of  one's 
peace,  1174.  OF.  effreer; 
late  L.  ex-fridare,  a 
Latinising  from  Teut. 
friSu,  peace. 

after,  prep,  along,  125; 
according  to,  998;  adv. 
afterwards,  256.  OE. 



agayn,  prep,  against,  28, 
1199,  1200;  agayn3,  79; 
adv.  again,  326.  OE. 

age,  n.  412.     OF.  aage. 

agly3te,  pt.  2  s.  didst  glance 
off,  slip  away,  go  agley, 
245.  Cp.  ON.  glia,  to 
shine;  cp.  gly^t. 

a-grete,  'in  the  great,'  by 
the  job,  560;  cp.  OF.  en 
gros ;  cp.  gret. 

a3t,  see  036. 

a3tye,  eighth,  ion.  OE. 

al,  adj.  all,  16,  86,  285,  424, 
etc. ;  everything,  360 ; 
everybody,  1124;  of  al  & 
sum,  in  full,  entirely,  584 ; 
alle,  73,  119,  292,  372, 
384,  etc. ;  everybody, 
404,  447;  adv.  wholly, 
fully,  97,  197,  204,  210, 
258,  280,  364,  540,  etc.; 
al  samen,  all  together, 
518.  OE.  call. 

a-las,  alas  !  1138;  alias,  9. 
OF.  a  las. 

alder,  aides t,  see  olde. 

alder-men,  elders,  887, 1119. 
OE.  ealdormann. 

alegge,  imp.  s.  lay  aside, 
give  up,  703.  OE.  alec- 
gan ;  (  not  OF.  esligier, 
'  allege,'  which  gives  the 
contrary  meaning). 

al-my3t,  almighty,  498  ; 
OE.  aelmiht. 

al-my3ty,  1063.  OE.  ael- 

al-one,  solely,  933 ;  OE.  eal 

alow,  inf.  reckon,  take  into 

count,    place    to    credit, 

634.     OF.  alouer. 
aloynte,  pp.    removed,    far 

off,    893.     AF.    aloyner, 

&  loin. 
also,  adv.  685,  872;   al-so, 

1071 ;  als,765.  OE.eal  swa. 
al-J>a3,  conj.  although,   759, 

857,  878.     OE.  al  Seah. 
alyue,  adj.  living,  445,     OE. 

on  life. 

am,  see  be  (i). 
amatyst,    amethyst,    1016. 

OF.  amatiste. 
Amen,  1212. 
among,  prep.  470,  848,  1145, 

1150;   adv.     amon[c],  in 

the  meanwhile,  905.    OE. 

onmang,  on  gemang. 
an,  indef.   art.   640;  cp.  a, 

on  (i),  vchon. 
and   (&),   and,   16,    18,   27, 

etc.;   if,    560,    598,    etc.; 

(?)asif,  io73;ande,  1212. 
an-ende,  prep,  in  respect  of, 

concerning,     697 ;      over 

against,  1136;    an-ende^, 

on  a  level  with,  in  a  line 

with,  975;    on-ende,    as 

regards,  1 86.   OE.  onefn. 
angel-hauyng,    angelic    de 
meanour,    754;  cp.   aun- 

gele3,  hafyng. 
anger,  anguish,    passionate 

grief,     343;     ON.     angr, 

trouble,  affection. 
ani,  see  any. 



anioynt,      pp.      enjoined, 

appointed,       895.       OF. 

anon,  adv.  forthwith,   584, 

629.     OE.  on  an. 
ano]>er,  adj.  a  second,  297. 
answar,    n.   518;   OE.  and 

swaru ;  cp.  on-sware,  inf. 
an-vnder,  prep,  at  the  foot 

of,  1 66;  under,  1081,  1092 

noo;    an-vnde[r],  1068; 

on-vunder,  775 ;  &•  vnder 


any,  adj.  345,  463»  617,  8o0* 
1068;  ani,  1139.  OE. 

apassed,  pp.  passed,  540. 
OF.  apasser;  cp.  passe. 

apere,  inf.  appear,  405. 
OF.  aparoir  (stem  aper-) . 

apert,  adv.  plainly,  589. 
OF.  apert. 

Apocalyppce,  the  Apo 
calypse,  944,  1008;  Apo- 
calyppe?,  787.  996,  1020; 
Apokalypce,  983 ;  Apo- 
kalype?,  834;  Appocalyp- 
pece,  866. 

apostel,  n.   790,   836,   944, 

984,  985,  996,  I008,  1020, 

1032 ;     appostel,      1053. 
OE.  apostol. 

apparaylmente,  n.  array, 
1052.  OF.  apareillement. 

j  apple,  n.  640.     OE.   aeppel. 

|  appose,  pr.  i  s.  interrogate, 
pose  with  question,  902 ; 
cp.  Apposition,  still  used 
at  St.  Paul's  School,  origi 
nally  the  public  examina- 


tion  day.  OF.  aposer, 
apposer,  by  the  side  of, 
oposer,  opposer. 

appostel,  see  apostel. 

aproche,  inf.  approach,  686 ; 
pt.  3  s.  aproched,  1119. 
OF.  aprochier. 

aquyle,  inf.  receive,  wel 
come,  690;  pp.  aquylde, 
967.  OF.  aquillir, 
acuillir,  accueillir ;  late 
L.  accolligere. 

ar,  am,  art,  see  be  (i). 

araye,position,  arrangement, 
5 ;  array,  191 ;  aray,  491. 
OF.  arei. 

arayed,  pp.  prepared,  719, 
791 ;  arayde,  conditioned, 
1 1 66.  OF.  areier. 

are-]>ede,  people  of  yore, 
711.  ON.  ar;  cp.  J>ede. 

arme,  n.  arm,  459,  466. 
OE.  earm. 

aros,  pt.  3  5.  arose,  181.  OE. 
arisan;  cp.  ryse. 

Arraby,  Arabia,  430. 

ary3t,  adv.  straight  on,  112. 
OE.  on  riht. 

Arystotel,  Aristotle,  751. 

aryue,  inf.  arrive,  447. 
OF.  ariver. 

as,  adv.  20,  76,  822,  1024, 
etc.;  conj.  787,  801,  915, 
923,  980,  etc.;  j>er  as, 
whe/e,  129,  818,  1173; 
as  quo,  as  if  one,  693; 
uses  idiomatically  with 
adjectives,  836,  1193.  OE. 
al  swa;  cp.  bare,  helde, 
as  tyt,  J>er. 



asent,  harmony,  94 ;  asente, 

concurrence,     391.     OF. 

aske,    inf.    ask,    316,    580, 

910;    ask[e],    564.    OE. 

assemble,  union,  760.    OF. 

asspye,  inf.  espy,  1035;  pt. 

i    s.  asspyed,  979;    pp- 

descried,  704.  OF.  espier. 
astate,  estate,  393;  asstate, 

state,     rank,     490.     OF. 

a[s]tount,    pp.    astounded, 

179.     OF.  estoner. 
astraye,    adv.    out   of   the 

right    way,     1162.     OF. 

estraie;  cp.  stray, 
as  tyt,    as   quickly  as   pos 
sible,  645;  cp.  tyt,  as. 
asyse,     manner,     97.     OF. 

at  (i),  prep.  161,  198,  218, 

321,  529,  547,  635,  647, 

839,     862,     1066,     1115; 

beside,     287 ;     according 

to,     199,     1164;    in    the 

condition    of,   672.     OE. 

aet ;  c^.ene,  on  (i),  steuen. 
at    (2),    pron.    rel.     which, 

536.     ON.  at. 
at-slyk63,  pr.  3  s.  slips  away, 

575.     OE.     *slican     (not 

found),  with  pref.  at. 
atteny,  pr.  2  s.  subj.  come 

up  to,  reach,  548.      OF. 

Augoste,    August,    39.     L. 


aungele3,  angels,  1121.   OF. 

angele;  cp.  angel-hauyng, 
aunte,  aunt,  233.  OF.  ante. 
auenture,  adventurous 

quest,  64.  OF.  aventure. 
avysyoun,  vision,  1184. 

OF.  avision. 
away,  adv.  away,  655,  823; 

from     the      right     way, 

amiss,  488;   awaye,  258. 

OE.  onweg;  cp.  way  (2). 
awayed,  PP-  instructed, 

taught,  710.     OF.  avier; 

late  L.   *  adviare,  to  put 

on  the  way. 
[a]  we,  see  036. 
awhyle,  adv.  awhile,  692; 

cp.  whyle. 
ay,  adv.  ever,  33,  44,  56,  366, 

1189,  etc.;  a[y],  144;  aye, 

1198.     ON.  ei. 
ay|>er,  each  of  the  two,  831. 


bale,  harm,  grief,   18,  373, 

478,  651,  1139;  pi-  bale?, 

123,  807.    OE.  balu. 
balke,    mound,    ridge,    62. 

OE.  balca. 
bantele?,  risings,  steps,  992  ; 

bantels,  1017;  prob.  OF. 

bandel,  a  rising,  in  archi 

tecture  :    hence,    step. 
baptem,  baptism,  653  ;  bab- 

tem,  627.    OF.  bapteme. 
baptysed,  pt.  3  s.  baptised, 

8  1  8.     OF.    baptiser. 
bare,  clear,  1025  ;   '  as  b.', 

as  clear  as  possible,  836. 

OE.  baer. 



barne,  child,  426;  pi. 
barne3,  712  Israel  bar- 
ne3,  1040.  OE.  beam. 

basse,  n.  base,  1000.  OF. 

basyng,  n.  base,  992. 

ba[y]l[e],  '  bail/  '  bai 
ley/  the  external  wall  of 
a  feudal  castle,  1083; 
bayly,  the  domain  en 
closed,  315;  (cp.  Med. 
Lat.  ballium;  OF.  bail, 

bayly,  jurisdiction,  442. 
OF.  baillie. 

bayn,  willing,  807.  ON. 

baysment,  discomfiture  from 
surprise,  174;  (aphetic 
form  of  abaysment.  OF. 
abaissement) . 

be  (i),  inf.  29,  281,  etc.; 
pr.  i  s.  am,  246,  335,  etc. ; 
2  s.  art,  242,  276,  etc. ; 
arte,  707 ;  3  s.  is,  26, 
33,  etc.;  nis  (  =  ne  is), 
100;  nys,  951;  pi.  am, 
384,  402,  517,  927,  etc.; 
ar,  923 ;  bene,  785 ;  ben, 
572 ;  3  s.  (=  future)  bet}, 
611;  pr.  subj.  be,  379, 
470,  572,  694,  etc.;  imp. 
s.  344,  406;  pi.  s.  wat3, 
45,  372,  1088,  etc. ;  wace, 
65;  wasse,  1108,  1112; 
wore,  232;  pi.  wern, 
71,  251,  etc.;  wer,  68, 
641;  were,  1107;  ware, 
151,  1027;  wore,  154; 
( ?)  wat},  1065 ;  pt.  s.  subj. 

wer,  972, 1092 ;  were,  264, 
1167,  etc.;  wore,  142;  pi. 
wern,  451;  wore,  574; 
pp.  ben,  252,  373.  OE. 

be  (2),  prep,  see  by. 

beau,  beauteous,  197.  OF. 

beaute,  beauty,  749;  bew- 
te,  765.  OF.  beaute. 

bede,  see  bydde?. 

bele,  inf.  burn,  18.  ON. 

bem,  beam,  rood,  814.  OE. 

beme?,  see  sunne-beme3. 

ben,  bene,  se<?  be  (i). 

bene,  gracious,  bright,  no, 
198.  (?)  etym. 

bent,  pp.  bound,  664 ;  bente, 
bowed,  1189.  OE.  ben- 

bere,  inf.  bear,  carry,  807, 
1078;  pr.  35.  bere;,  100, 
746,  756,  1068;  pi.  beren, 
854,  856,  1079;  pr.  2  s. 
subj.  ber,  466 ;  pt.  i  s.  bere, 
67;  35.  ber,  426;  pp. 
bore,  239;  borne,  626. 
OE.  beran. 

bereste,  see  breste. 

beryl,  beryl,  ion;  'cry 
stal/  no.  OF.  beryl. 

beste,  see  god. 

beste3,  beasts,  886.  OF. 

bete  (i),  inf.  make  good, 
amend,  757.  OE.  betan. 

bete  (2),  pt.  3  pi.  beat,  93- 
OE.  beatan. 



better,  see  wel. 
bewte,  see  beaut6. 
beyng,  being,  nature,  446. 
bi-talt,    pp.    shaken,    1161. 

OE.-tealtian,  to  shake. 
pp.     bleached,    212. 

OE.  bl£can,  blsecean,  pp. 

blake,    black,    945.      OE. 

blame  (i),  n.  rebuke,  715. 

OF.  blame. 

blame  (2),  inf.  303  ;  pr.  2  s. 
F.    bla- 

a,    275.    O 

blayke,    pale,     27.       ON. 

ble,  colour,  76;    hue,  com 

plexion,    212.     OE.  bleo. 
bleaunt,    garment,    or    the 

stuff  of  which  it  is  made, 

163.     OF.  bliaut. 
blent,  pp.  blended,  mingled, 

385;  blente,  1016.     ON. 

blanda  (pr.  sg.  blend-). 
blesse,  pr.  35.  subj.,  850; 

inf.  to  cross  oneself,  341  ; 

pp.  blessed,  blessed,  436. 

OE.   bletsian. 
blessyng,  n.  1208. 
bio,    dark,    livid,    83,    875. 

ON.  blar. 
blod,  blood,  646,  650,  etc.; 

blode,  74-      OE.  blod. 
blody,  bloodily,   705.     OE. 

blom,      bloom,       blossom, 

flower,  578;    pi.   blome3, 

27.     OE.  blom. 
blot,  stain,  782;    cp.     OF. 

bloustre,    blotte,    a    clot 

of  earth. 
blunt,    stunned,    176;     cp. 

ON.  blunda,  to  doze. 
blusched,  pt.  is.  looked,  980, 

1083;    (cp.   OE.  ablisian, 

to  blush;    blysa,    torch; 

(?)      OE.     blyscan),      cp. 

blwe,    blue,    27,   76,     423. 

OF.  bleu. 
blynde,  dark,  dim,  83.     OE. 

Wynne,     inf.     cease,     729. 

OE.  blinnan. 
blys,  bliss,    123,    126,   etc.; 

blysse,    372,    373.    etc.; 

blys[se],  286.    OE.  blips, 

ace.  bliSse. 
blysfnl,  421,  907,  etc.;  blys- 

fol,  279. 
blysned,   pt.    3  s.   gleamed, 

1048;    pr.  p.  blysnande, 

163,  197.     OE.*  blysnian, 

(not  found}. 
bly>e  (i),  adj.  joyous,  gentle, 

352,    738;    sup.   bly>est, 

1131.     OE.     blHfe;      cp. 

n.  blyj>e. 
bly^e  (2),  n.  joy,   goodwill, 

grace,  354.     ON.  blffia. 
bly>ely,  joyously,  385. 
bod,  see  byde. 
body,  n.  62,  460,  1070.  OE. 

bodyly,    adj.    bodily,  478; 

adv.,     with     the     body, 

boftete},    pi.    buffets,    809. 

OF.  bufet. 



b036,  inf.  take  one's  way, 

196;    imp.  s.,  bow,  974; 

pt.  i  s.  bowed,  126.     OE. 

bo^t,  see  bye. 
bok,  book,  710;  boke,  837. 

OE.  bsc. 
bolde,  audacious,  806.     OE. 

boiler,     boles,    trunks,    76. 

ON.  bolr. 
bolne,  inf.  swell,   18.    ON. 

bolgna;  Dan.  bolne. 
bon,  bone,  212.     OE.  ban. 
bone,   high  ground,    slope, 

bank  of  a   stream,   907, 

1169;  bonk,  102;  bonke, 

196;     pi.     bonke;,    no, 

138,      93 1  ;       b[o]nkes, 

1 06;  cp.  ON.  bakki    (= 

bone,  petition,  prayer,  912, 

916;   boon,  favour,  1090. 

ON.  bon. 
bonertS,  goodness,  762.  OF. 


bonke,  bonke},  see  bone, 
bor,     dwelling,     964.     OE. 

borde,    pr.  2  pi.    jest,    290. 

OF.  bourder. 
bOF3,  burgh,  city,  957,  989, 

1048;  burghe,  980.    OE. 

borne},  gen.  s.  river's,  974. 

OE.  burna. 
bornyst,  pp.  burnished,  77; 

bornyste,    220 ;     burnist, 

990.     OF.  burnir,  pr.  p. 


bon>3t,  see  bryng. 

bostwys,  rough,  rude,  814; 

bustwys,    savage,     wild, 

911 ;  see  Note,  1.  911. 
bot,  adv.  but,  only,  17,  18, 

83,   269,   382,    551.    592, 

905 ;    COM/,  co-ord.  66,  91, 

265,  etc. ;   subord.  unless, 

308,  428,  723,  972 ;  prep. 

except,     331,    336,    337, 

496,  842,  892,  952,  955; 

after  negative,  658;   O.E. 

bote,     remedy,     275,     645. 

OE.  bot. 
boj?e    (i),    pron.  both,  950; 

cp.     ON.   baSir,  Sw.  ba- 

da,  Dan.  baade. 
bo>e    (2),  conj.    both,  with 

and,  90,   329,   682,   731, 

1056,       1203  ;        without 

and,     373  ;      cp.       ON. 

baftir,    Sw.    bada,    Dan. 

boun,    ready,    534;     fixed, 

992,    1103.    ON.    biiinn. 
bounden,  pp.  bound,  edged, 

198;       fastened,      1103. 

OE.  bindan. 
bourne,  see  burne. 
bow,  bowed,  see  boae. 
boye3,     churls,     806;      not 

in      OE.,      cp.      EFris. 

bos,    impers.   pr.    behoves, 

323 ;  pt.  by-hod,  928.  OE. 

brade,  see  brpde. 
brat[h]  e,    violence,     1170; 

pl.  bra>63,  violent  emo- 



tions,  346.     ON.  braS(r), 

adj.  with-]>e,  suff. 
braundysch,  pr.  2  s.    subj. 

toss     about,     346.     OF. 

brandir,   pr.   p.   brandis- 

bray,    pr.    2  s.    subj.    utter 

harshly,  346.     OF.  braire. 
brayde,  pt.  3  5.  roused  sud 
denly,       1170;        3      pi. 

brought,  712.     OE.  breg- 

dan,  braegd. 
brayne;,  brains,  126.     OE. 

bred,     bread,     1209.     OE. 

brede  (i),  n.  breadth,  1031. 

OE.  braedu. 
brede (2),  «n/.extend, stretch, 

814;    grow,  flourish,  415. 

OE.  braedan. 
bred-Sul,  brimful,  126;    cp. 

Sw.        braddfull;       OE. 

bref,      brief,     268.       OF. 

breme,  spirited,  bold,  346; 

valiant,     glorious,     863. 

OE.  breme. 

brende,     pp.     burnt,     bur 
nished,      '  red,'     applied 

to  gold  (cp.  brantail),  989. 

ON.    brenna;     cp.     OE. 

bernan;  cp.  for-brent. 
brent,     adj.      steep,       106; 

b[r3ent,  1017.   OE. brant; 

Sw.  brant ;  ON.  brattr. 
breste,  n.  breast,   18,   222, 

740,  1103,  1139;  bereste, 

854.     OE.  breost. 

breue,  imp.  s.  tell,  755. 
ON.  brefa. 

brode,  broad,  650,  1022, 
1024;  brade,  138.  OE. 

bro3te,  bro3[t],  see  bryng. 

broke,  n.  brook,  141,  146; 
brok,  981;  gen.  s.  bro 
ke?,  1074.  OE.  broc. 

broun,  brown,  dark,  537; 
the  colour  of  burnished 
metal,  990.  OE.  briin. 

brunt,  n.  smart  blow,  174. 
cp.  ON.  bruna,  to  ad 
vance  at  fire-speed. 

bryd,  bride,  769.    OE.  bryd. 

brydde?,  birds,  93.  OE. 

bry3t,  adj.  bright,  75,  no, 
989 ;  used  as  n.,  755 ; 
comp.  bry3ter,  1056;  adv. 
bry3t,  769,  1048.  OE. 

brym,  brink,  1074;  brym- 
me,  232.  OE.  brymme. 

bryng,  inf.  bring,  853; 
imp.  s.  963 ;  pt.  3  s. 
bro3te,  527;  pp-  bro3[t], 
286;  boro3t,  628.  OE. 

bur,  n.  impetus,  1158;  burre, 
blow,  176.  ON.  byrr. 

burde,  impers.  pt.  it  was 
meet,  316.  OE.  (ge)- 

burghe,  see  bor?. 

burne,  man,  397,  1090; 
bourne,  617;  pi.  burne 3, 
712.  OE.  beorn. 

burnist,  see  bornyst. 



burre,  see  bur. 
bustwys,  see  bost-wys. 
busye?,   pr.   2  s.   troubles!, 

268.     OE.  bisgian. 
by,    prep.    107,    140,     141, 

etc.;    [by],  672;   be,  523- 

OE.  bl. 
by-calle,  pr.  i  5.  call  upon, 

913;    pp.  by-calt,  called, 

1163;  cp.  calle. 
by-cawse,  conj.  296. 
by-corn,    pt.    3  s.    became, 

537 :  cp.  com. 
bydde3,  pr.  3  s.  bids,  520; 

pt.  3  pl.  bede,  715.    OE. 

byde,  inf.  remain,  399,  977 ; 

endure,     664 ;      pr.     2  s. 

byde},    907;     3 />'•    75; 

pt.    35.    bod,    62.    OE. 

bidan ;  cp.  abyde. 
by-dene,  straightway,  196. 

(?)    OE.   bi  den(e).  pp.  of 

don  (Skeat). 
bye,  inf.  buy,  732;    byye, 

478;    pt.   3  5.   b03t,   651; 

PP-  733;  redeemed,  893. 

OE.  bycgan. 
byfalle,   inf.    happen,    186. 

OE.  befeallan ;  cp.  fel. 
byfore,  adv.  formerly,  172; 

in     front,     mo;      conj. 

530;      prep.     598,     885; 

by-fore,  294;  bifore,  49. 

OE.  beforan. 
byg,      big,      102;       comp. 

bygger,    374-     cp.    Nor. 

bugge,  a  strong  man. 
bygly,  inhabitable,  pleasant, 

963 ;  cp.  bygyng. 

by-gonne,  see  bygynne. 
bygyng,    n.    dwelling,    932. 

ON.  v.  byggja;  cp.  bygly. 
bygynne,   inf.    begin,    581; 

pr.   2  s.   bygynne3,   561  ; 

imp.  s.  bygyn,  547 ;    pt. 

3  pi-  by-gonne,  549 ;    pp> 

33.     OE.  biginnan. 
bygynner,  beginner,  436. 
by3C,    ring,    bracelet,    466, 

OE.  beah. 
by3onde,  prep,  beyond,  141, 

146,  158,  287,  981,  1156. 

OE.  begeondan. 
by-hod,  see  003. 
byholde,   inf.   behold,   810. 

OE.  bihaldan ;   cp.  halde. 
bylde  (i),  n.  building,  727, 

963;  cp.     OE.  byldan. 
bylde  (2),  pt.  3  pl.  encour 
aged,     stirred    up,     123. 

OE.  bieldan. 
byrKe],  birth,  1041.    ON. 

byr5;  see  whate?. 
bysech,  inf.  beseech,   390; 

cp.  sech. 
byseme,     v.     impers.     inf. 

befit,  310;  cp.  semed. 
by-swyke^,  pr.  i  s.  defraud, 

568.     OE.  beswican. 
by-ta3te,  pt.  i  s.  committed, 

1207.     OE.  betsecan;  cp. 

byte,  inf.  bite,   640;    seize 

upon,  355.     OE.  bltan. 
by-twene,  adv.  around,  44; 

prep,  between,  140,  658. 

OE.  bitweonum. 
by-twyste,     prep,    betwixt, 

464.     OE.  betweox. 



bytyde,  inf.  befal,  397.    OE. 

tldan,  with  pref.  be. 
byye,  see  bye. 

caggen,    pr.   3    pi.    fasten, 

bind,   512;  (origin  doubt 
ful;  ?  cp.  catch). 
ca3t,    pt.    3    s.    seized,    50; 

ca3te,  237.     O.  North  F. 

cachier ;     ME.     cacchen, 

ca3t,    on      analogy     with 

la^t,  fr.  lacchen. 
calder,  see  colde. 
calle,  inf.   173,   182,   721; 

pr.    i   pi.   430;   pt.   3   s. 

called,   542;  calde,  762; 

pp.  called,  273;  calle[d], 

572.    ON.  kalla;  cp.  by- 

calsydoyne,         chalcedony, 

1003.     OF.  calcidoine. 
cambe,  n.  comb,  775.    OE. 


can,  see  con  (i). 
care,   n.  50,   371,  86 1 ;     pi. 

care?,  808.     OE.  caru. 
carpe,     inf.     speak,     949; 

carp[e],    381;     pt.    3    *• 

carpe[d],  752.  ON.  karpa. 
Carpe,     n.    discourse,     883. 

ON.  karpa,  vb. 
cas,  case,  673.     OF.  cas. 
Caste,  intention,    1163;   cp. 

ON.  v.  kasta,   to  throw, 

castel  -  walle,     917-      OF- 

castel ;  cp.   wal. 
cause},  pi.  702.     OF.  cause. 
cayre,    ger.     inf.    proceed, 

1031.     ON.  keyra. 

cete,  see  cyte. 

ceuer,     inf.     attain,     319. 

OF.  cuvrer,  cuevr-. 
chace,      inf.      443.      OF. 

chacier;  cp.  enchace. 
chambre,  904.  OF.  chambre. 
chapel,  1062.     OF.  chapel. 
charde,    pt.    3    pi.    turned, 

608.     OE.  cerran. 
chary  te,  470.     OF.  charite. 
chayere,  chair,  throne,  885. 

OF.  chaiere. 
chere,    cheer,    mien,     407, 

887,    1109.     OF.    chiere, 


ches,  chese,  see  chos. 
cheuentayn,  chieftain,  605. 

OF.  chevetaine. 
Chos,   pt.    i   5.   chose,    187; 

3«.  ches,  759;  chese,  954; 

pp.     ichose,     904.    OE. 

chyche,  niggard,  605.     OF. 

chyde,    inf.    chide,    blame, 

403.     OE.  cidan. 
chylde,    723;    pi-    chylder, 

714,  718.   OE.  cild,  cildru. 
cite,  see  cyte. 
clad,  22.    OE.  claSod. 
clambe,  see  clym. 
clanly,  adv.,  nobly,  chastely, 

2.  OE.  claenlice ;  cp.  clene. 
clem,  inf.  claim,  826.     OF. 

clene,  pure,  227,  289,  682, 

737,  969,  972 ;  adv.  per 
fectly,  754,  767;  cor 
rectly,  949.  OE.  clsene; 

cp.  clanly. 



Clente,        pp.         clenched, 

riveted,  259.     OE.  *clen- 

can  (not  found) ;  cp.  MHG. 

Cler,  adj.  clear,  pure,  bright, 

74,  207,  227,  ion,  mi  ; 

clere,  2,  620,  737;   adv. 

cler,    274,  882,  913;    n. 

clearness,      1050.        OF. 


clerke?,  1091.     OF.  clerc. 
cleuen,  see  clyuen. 
clos,   adj.  enclosed,  set,  2 ; 

closed,  shut,  183;  secure, 

(?)  shut  in,  512.    OF.  clos, 

pp.  o/clore;  cp.  enclose. 
Close,    inf.    271 ;     pt.    3    s. 

closed,  803.  OF.  clos,  pp. 

o/clore;  cp.  clos. 
Clot,  clay,  22,  320;  ground, 

789 ;  £/.  clotte3,  857.    OE. 

clott,  clot. 
cloystor,    969.     Cp.     Low 

L.  claustura. 
clyffe,  cliff,  159;  pi.  klyfe?, 

66;     klyff63,     74-       OE. 

clym,     inf.     climb,     1072 ; 

klymbe,    678;    pt.    2    s. 

Clambe,  773.     OE.  clim- 
clynge,  pr.  3  pi.  shrink,  857. 

OE.  clingan. 
clypper,  shearer,  802;    cp. 

ON.  v.  klippa. 
Clyuen,  inf..  remain,    1196; 

pr.  3  pi.  cleuen,  rise,  66. 

OE.  clifian,  cleofian. 
cnawyng,  knowledge,  859; 

cp.  knaw. 

cnoken,    pr.    3   pi.   knock, 

727.     OE.  cnucian,  (ge)- 

cnocian;  cp.  ON.  knoka. 

cofer,     coffer,     259.       OF. 

colde,  adj.  50,    808;   comp. 

calder,  320.    OE.  cald. 
colour,    beauty,    215,  753; 

color,  22.  OF.  colour. 
com,  inf.  come,  676; 
comfe],  701;  3  s.  coni 
ng,  848;  imp.  s.  cum, 
763  ;  pt.  i  s.  come, 
582  ;  com,  615;  3  s. 
155,  230,  262,  645,  749; 
pi.  574;  pt.  2  s.  subj. 
598;  3  s.  723,  724. 
OE.  cuman;  cp.  by- 
come,  n.  coming,  1117. 

OE.  cyme. 

comfort,  n.   55;   comforte, 
357 ;     coumforde,      369. 
OF.  con-,  cunfort. 
comly,    fair,    775;    cumly, 
929;    adv.     comly,    259. 
OE.  cymlic. 
commune,     adj.    common, 

739.     OF.  comun. 
compas,  circuit,  1072.     OF. 

compayny,  851.    OF.  com- 


con  (i),  can,  does;  pr.  i  s. 
931;  2s.  769135.  294,495, 
665,  etc.;  can,  499; 
2  pi.  con,  381,  914 ;  conne, 
521 ;  3  pi.  con,  509,  1078 ; 
pt.  i  s.  cow>e,  134;  2  s. 
cow>63,  484;  3  s. 

1 86 


95 ;  3  pi.  855.  OE.  cun- 
nan,  cann,  cufte. 

con  (2)  did,  i  s.  81,  147, 
149,  etc.;  2  s.  313,  777, 
1183;  cone?,  482,  909, 
925;  3  s.  in,  171,  173, 
etc.;  3  pi.  78,  551;  orig. 
for  gan  (pt.  of  ginnan), 
used  for  auxiliary  '  did', 
attracted  to,  and  confused 
with,  can,  con  (cunnan, 
'  to  be  able ') ,  and  ac 
cordingly  used  as  pres 
ent  and  past  auxiliaries 
in  sense  of  'do'  and 
'  did/ 

conciens,  consciousness, 
1089.  OF.  conscience. 

conne,  see  con  (i). 

contryssyoun,  contrition, 
669.  OF.  contriciun. 

coppe,  see  hyl-coppe. 

corne,  40.     OE.  corn. 

coroun,  237,  255 ;  coroune, 
crown,  205 ;  croune, 
427;  croun,  noo;  pi. 
coroune3,  451.  OF.  co- 

eorouncle,  pt.  3  s.  crowned, 
415;  pp.  480;  coronde, 
767,1101.  OF.  coroner. 

corse,  body,  320;  pi.  corses, 
857.  OF.  cors. 

cortayse,  courteous,  433 ; 
corte?,  754.  OF.  cor- 
teis;  cp.  vn-cort[a]yse. 

cortaysly,  courteously,  381. 

cortaysye,  courtesy,  432, 
469,  480,  481;  cour- 

taysye,    457.    OF.    cor- 


corte,  see  court, 
cortel,     kirtle,     203.      OE. 


corte?,  see  cortayse. 
coruen,  see  keruen. 
coumforde,  see  comfort. 
counsayl[e],    course,    state 

of  being,  319.     AF.  cun- 

counterfete,   inf.    resemble, 

556.     OF.  contrefait,  pp. 

of  contrefaire. 
countes,  countess,  489.  OF. 

countre,    297.    OF.    coun- 

court,  445;  corte,  701.  OF. 

cort,  curt. 

courtaysye,  see  cortaysye. 
cou^e,  cowj^e,  see  con  (i). 
couenaunt,  562 ;  couen- 

aunde,    563.     OF.    cove 
crafte?,   powers,    356,   890. 

OE.  craeft. 
craue,  inf.  crave,  663.     OE. 

Crede,  the  Creed,  485.     L. 

cresse,    cress,    343.      OE. 

creste,    crown,    856.    OF. 

croke},    pi.    reaping-hooks, 

sickles,  40.  ON.  krokr. 
croun,  croune,  sec  coroun. 
[cjryed,  pp.  cried,  702.  OF. 




crysolyt,    chrysolite,    1009. 

G.   xpvff6\i6os,   the    gold- 

coloured  stone. 
crysopase,    chrysoprase,    a 

golden  green  stone,  1013. 

gold,     Trpdcrov,    leek;     L. 

chrysoprassus,        chryso- 

passus  ;        OF.       cryso- 

prasse,  crisopase. 
crystal,     74,      159.      OF. 


Crystes,  see  Kryst. 
cum,  see  com. 
cumly,  see  comly. 
cure,  n.  care,  charge,  1091. 

OF.  cure. 
cyte,  city,   792,  939,   1023; 

cete,  927,  952  ;  cite,  1097  ; 

cyty,  986.    OF.  cite". 

dale?,  121.    OE.  dael. 
dam,    n.  stream,    324  ;    cp. 

OFris.         dam  ;         ON. 

dammr;  OE.  -demman. 
dampned,   pp.    condemned, 

641.     OF.  dampner. 
damysel,    489  ;    damyselle, 

361.       OF.       dameisele, 

dar,   pr.    i    s.    dare,    1089; 

pt.  i  s.  dorst,  143;  dorste, 

182.     OE.  dear,  dorste. 
dare,    inf.    lie     low,    fear, 

839;  pt.  3  s-  dard,  609; 

cp.    LG.   (be)daren;   Sw. 

dasa,  to  lie  idle  ;  E.  daze. 
dased,    pp.    dazed,     1085. 

ON.    dasa(sk),    to    daze 


date,  end,  goal,  492,  493, 
516,528,  540,541;  [date], 
529 ;  appointed  season, 
504,  505 ;  fixed  time 
(?)  =  dawn,  517 ;  pi.  dates, 
dates,  1040.  OF.  date. 

daunce,  pr.  2  s.  subj.,  345. 
OF.  dancer. 

daunger,  subjection,  de 
pression,  250.  OF.  dan 
ger  ;  LL.  *domniarium ; 
cp.  luf-daungere. 

Dauid,  698,  920. 

day,  486,  510,  516,  etc.; 
daye,  5*7>  541.  J2io; 
gen.  s.  daye?,  533. 
554;  pi.  416;  dawe?, 
282.  OE.  daeg,  dagas. 

day-glem,  day-gleam,  sun 
light,  1094 ;  cp.  glem. 

dayly,  inf.  hazard,  dally 
(with  words),  313.  AF. 
dalier;  OF.  dallier;  cp. 
prov.  G.  dahlen,  to  trifle. 

debate,  discussion,  dispute, 
390.  OF.  debat. 

debonere,  162.  OF.  de- 

de-bonerte",  gentleness,  798. 
OF.  debonairete. 

declyne,   inf.   droop,    333 
de-clyne,  bend,  yield,  con 
sent,  509.      OF.  decliner. 

dede  (i),  adj.  dead,  31. 
OE.  dead. 

dede  (2),  n.  deed,  481,  524. 
OE.  dsed. 

de-gres,  pi.  steps,  1022. 
OF.  degre. 

del,  dele,  see  doel. 



dele,  pr.  3  s.  subj.  deal, 
606.  OE.  daelan. 

delf  ully,  grievously,  706 ; 
cp.  doel. 

delyt,  n.  delight,  642,  1104, 
1105,  1116,  etc.;  delit, 
1129.  OF.  delit. 

delyuered,  pt.  3  s.  delivered, 
652.  OF.  delivrer. 

deme,  inf.  deem,  judge,  de 
clare,  336,  348,  360, 
1183;  dem[e],  312;  pr. 
2  s.  dome?,  325,  337J 
imp.  s.  deme,  313.  349; 
pr.  3  s.  subj.  deme,  324; 
pt.  i  s.  demed,  361. 
OE.  deman;  cp.  dom. 

demme,  inf.  be  dammed, 
checked,  223.  OE.  (for-) 
demman ;  cp.  dam. 

dene,  valley,  295.  OE. 

denned,  pt.  3  s.  resounded, 
51.  OE.  dynian;  cp. 

dep,  see  depe  (2). 

departed,  pt.  i  pi.  separated, 
378.  OF.  departir. 

depaynt,  pp.  depicted,  ar 
rayed,  1 102.  OF.  de- 
peint;  cp.  paynted. 

depe  (i),  n.  pi.  depths, 
waters,  109.  OE.  deop. 

depe  (2),  adj.  deep,  143, 
intense,  215 ;  adv.  dep, 
406.  OE.  deop,  deope. 

depres,  inf.  vanquish,  778. 
OF.  depresser. 

depryue,  inf.  449.  OF.  de- 

dere  (i),  adj.  beloved,  pre 
cious,  wonderful,  72,  85, 

97,  etc. ;  adv.  733.     OE. 

dere   (2),   inf.   harm,    1157. 

OE.  derian. 

derely,  wondrously,  995. 
dere^,  pi.  hindrances,   102. 

OE.   n.  daru,   v.  derian; 

cp.  dere  (2). 
derk,  dark,   darkness,   629. 

OE.  deorc. 
der>e,     beauty,    99.      OE. 

deore =dere-j-  -\>suff.;  cp. 

ON.  dyrS-.cp.  dere(i); 
derworth,   wonderful,    109. 

OE.  deorwurSe. 
dese,  dais,  766.     OF.  deis. 
desserte,  n.  desert,  595.  OF. 

dessypele?,    disciples,    715. 

OF.  disciple. 
destyn6,    destined    beloved 

one,  758.     OF.  destinee. 
determynable,    determined, 

fixed,    594.      OF.    deter- 

deth,  death,  323,  630,  652, 

656;    dethe,    860.    OE. 

deuely,  deaf-like,  dull,  OE. 

*deaflic ;  ON.  daufligr. 
deuise,  inf.  picture.   1129; 

pr.  3  s.  deuyse3,  984,  995 ; 

pt.   3   s.   deuysed,    1021. 

OF.  deviser. 
deuote,  devout,  406.     OF. 

deuoyde,   inf.   drive   away, 

15.     OF.  desvoidier. 



deuyse,  device,"  139;  at  my 
deuyse,  in  my  opinion, 
199.  OF.  devise. 

deuysed,  deuyse?,  see  deuise. 

deuysement,  portrayal, 
1019.  OF.  devisement. 

dewyne,  pr.  i  s.  pine,  1 1 ; 
dowyne,  326.  O  dwi- 

do,  doe,  345.  OE.  da. 

do,  do,  338,  496,  etc.; 
cause,  1 02,  306,  etc. ; 
put,  366,  1042;  do  way, 
cease,  718;  inf.  424,  496, 
etc.;  done,  914 ;  pr.  1 5.  do, 
366 ;  2  s.  and  3  s.  dot?,  338, 
556,  17,  293,  etc.;  3  pi. 
don,  511;  imp.  pi.  do, 
718 ;  dot?,  521,  536 ;  pt.  3  s. 
did,  102,  1138;  dyt,  681; 
3  pi.  dyden,  633,  pt. 
3  s.  subj.  dyd,  3°6;  pp. 
don,  250,  282,  etc. ;  done, 
1042.  OE.  don. 

doc,  duke,  211.  OF.  due. 

doel,  grief.336,339,642 ;  used 
attributively,  337 ;  del, 
250;  dele,  51;  dol,  326; 
OF.  doel,  duel,  dol;  cp. 

doel-doungoun,  dungeon  of 
grief,  1187.  OF.  donjon ; 
LL.  domnionem  keep- 
tower;  cp.  doel. 

dole,  part,  136.     OE.  dal. 

dom,  mind,  judgment,  157, 
223,  667 ;  dome,  580,  699, 
OE.  dom;  cp.  deme. 

dorst,  dorste,  see  dar. 

dot?,  see  do. 

double,  202.     OF.  double. 
doun  (i),  adv.  down,  30,  41, 

125,  etc.;  prep.  196,  230; 

cp.  adoun. 
doun    (2),    hill,     121 ;    pi. 

downe?,    73,    85.      OE. 


doungoun,    see   doel-doun 
dousour,     sweetness,     429. 

OF.  dou9or. 
doute,  n.  doubt,  928.     OF. 

douth,    doughty   one,    839. 

OE.  duguj>. 
dowyne,  see  dewyne. 
dra?,   imp.   s.   draw     699; 

pt.     3    pi.     dro?,     1116; 

pp.  drawen,   1193-    OE. 

dragan ;     cp.     o-drawe?, 

died,  pt.    i  s.  feared,  186. 

OE.   (on)dr£edan. 
drede,  n.  dread,  181;  wyth- 

outen     drede,     without 

doubt,     1047;     from     v. 

diem,  n.  dream,  790,  1170. 

OE.  dream. 
dresse,  inf.  ordain,  495 ;  pp. 

drest,     directed,     drawn, 

860.     OF.  dresser. 
dreue,  inf.  go,  323 ;  pt.  i  s. 

dreued,  980.  OE.drafan. 
drof,  see  dryue. 
dro?,  see  dra?. 
drounde,  pt.  3  s.  drowned, 

656  ;    cp.    Dan.    drukne, 

droune  =•  OE.  druncnian, 

ON.  drukkna. 



drwry,  dreary,  323.  OE. 

dry?e,  incessant,  823.  ON. 

dry3ly,  continuously,  stead 
ily,  125,  223;  cp.  dry^e. 

Dry^tyn,  Lord,  324,  349. 
OE.  dryhten. 

dryue,  pr.  3  s.  subj.  drive, 
1094;  pt.  3  s.  drof,  3°. 
1153;  pp-  dryuen,  1194- 
OE.  drlfan;  cp.  out-dryf. 

dubbed,  pp.  adorned,  73, 
202;  dubbet,  97-  OF. 
adouber.^ofr.  of  Germanic 
orig. ;  cp.  Norw.  dubba, 
to  nod,  Fris.  dubben,  to 
strike ;  cp.  dubbement. 

dubbement,  adornment, 
121 ;  dubbemente,  109. 
OF.  adoubement ;  cp. 

due,  894.     OF.  deu. 

dunne,dark,  30.    OE.  dunn. 

durande,  lasting,  336.  OF. 

dyche,  water-course,  607. 
OE.  die;  dat.  dice. 

dyd,  dyden,  see  do. 

dy36,  inf.  die,  306,  642; 
pt-  3  s.  dy3ed,  828 ;  dyed, 
705.  (  ?)  ON.  deyja. 

dyst,  inf.  order,  360;  pp. 
adorned,  920,  987 ;  dy3te, 
202.  OE.  dihtan. 

dylle,  dull,  slow,  680;  cp. 
OE.  dol. 

dym,  1076.     OE.  dim. 

dyne,  din,  339.  OE.  dyne; 
cp.  denned. 

dyscreuen,  inf.  descry,  68. 

OF.  descrivre. 
dysplese3,  pr.  3  s.  displeases, 

455 .'     imp.     s.     be     not 

displeased,       422.      OF. 

dyssente,  pr.  3  pi.  descend, 

627.     OF.  descendre. 
dystresse,  «.  distress,  280, 

337,  dysstresse,  898.  OF. 

destresse;  cp.  stresse. 
dystryed,  pt.  3  pi.  destroyed, 

124.     OF.  destruire. 
dyt,  see  do. 

efte,  again,  328,  332.     OE. 

ellC3,  else,  32,  130,  491,  567, 

724.     OE.  elles. 
emerad,    n.    emerald,    118; 

emerade,     1005.        OF. 

emperise,      empress,      441. 

OF.   emperesse. 
empyre,  54.  OF.  empire, 
enchace,   inf.   pursue,    173. 

OF.  enchacier;  cp.cha.ce. 
enclose,   inf.    enclose,    con 
tain,    909.     OF-    enclos, 

pp.  of  enclore;    cp.  clos. 
enclyin,  adj.  prostrate,  1206. 

OF.  enclin. 
en-clyne,  inf.  bow  630;  pr. 

p.  enclynande,  236.    OF. 

encres,    inf.   increase,   959. 

OF.  encreistre. 
encroched,  pt.  3  s.  obtained, 

brought,  1117.     OF.   en- 

crochier ;     cp.     acroche. 



adv.      perfectly, 

without  end,    738.     OE. 

endent,    pp.    notched,    cut 

into,    inlaid,     1012;    en- 

dente,    629.      L.    inden 
endorde,    pp.    used    as    n. 

adored,  368.     OF.  adorer, 

earlier  aorer. 
endure,  inf.  225;  endeure, 

1082;  pp.  endured,  476- 

OF.  endurer. 
endyte,  pr.  3  pi.  proclaim, 

give    forth,    1126.      OF. 

ene  (i),  adv. ;  at  ene,  at  one 

time,  291,  953.    OE.  aene. 
[ene]  (2),  see  730. 
enle,     singly,     849.       OE. 

enleuenj>e,   eleventh,    1014. 

OE.  endlyfta;  cp.  endlu- 

fon,  endleofan. 
enpr[y]se,    renown,     1097. 

OF.  enprise. 
ensens,    n.    incense,    1122. 

OF.  encens. 
entent,  intention,  purpose, 

1191.     OF.  entent. 
enter,    inf.    966;    pr.    3    s. 

entre^    1067;    pt.    i     s. 

entred,  38.    OF.  entrer. 
enurned,  pp.  adorned,  1027. 

OF.  aorner. 
er,   conj.  before,    188,   224, 

324,  etc.;  prep.  517;  adv. 

first,  319;  formerly,  372; 

ere,  164.    OE.  fer. 
erber,  herb-garden,  garden. 

38,  1171;  erbere,  9-    OF. 

erde,    land,    country,    248. 

OE.  card, 
ere  (i),  seeQi. 
ere  (2),  n.  ear,  1153.     OE. 


erle,  earl,  211.     OE.  eorl. 
erly,  adv.   early,   392,   506. 

OE.  serlice. 

errour,  n.  402.     OF.  errour. 
erj>e,  see  vr)>e. 
erytage,  see  herytage. 
eschaped,    pt.    3    s.    subj. 

escaped     from,     evaded, 

187.     OF.  eschaper. 
ej?e,  easy,  1202.     OE.  ea'Se. 
euel,  adv.  ill,  310  930.     OE. 

euen  (i),  adv.  exactly,  740. 

OE.  efne. 
euen  (2),  inf.  vie,  compare, 

1073.     OE.  efn(i)an. 
euen-songe,  evensong,  ves 
pers,  529.    OE.  afef ensang ; 

cp.  songe  (i). 
euentyde,     n.      582.    OE. 

euer,  adv.   ever,    144,    153, 

180,  etc.     OE.  aefre. 
euer-more,   adv.   591,   666, 

1066;  cp.  much, 
excused  pp.  281.    OF.  ex- 

ezpoun,  set  forth,  37. 

OF.  espondre. 
expresse,  adv .positively,  dis 
tinctly,  910.     OF.  expres. 

fable,  592.    OF.  fable. 



face,   67,    169,   434,    809; 

fa[c]e,  675.     OF.  face. 
fader,  father,  639,  736 ;  gen. 

s.     fadere},     872.     OE. 

faeder;  cp.  ?ore-fader. 
fa3t,    pt.   3  pi.    fought,    54. 

OE.  feohtan,  feaht. 
fande,  see  fynde. 
farande,    plausible,    fitting, 

865.       OE.    faran;      cp. 

fare  (2). 
fare  (i),  n.  demeanour,  832. 

OE.  faer. 
fare  (2),  inf.  go,  147 ;  pr.  3  s. 

fares,  129;   i  pi.  fare  to, 

behave      towards,      467. 

OE.  faran;   cp.  farande. 
fasoun,  form,  manner,  983, 

noi.     OF.  fa9on. 
faste,  adv.  determinedly,  54, 

150.     ON.  fast;    cp.  OE. 

faest,  firm;  cp.  feste. 
fasure,  form,    1084;   fasor, 

431.     OF.  faisure. 
fate?,  pr.  3  s.  fades,   1038. 

OF.  fader. 

faunt,  child,  161.     OF.  en 
fauour,  grace,  428;    fauor, 

968.     OF.  favour. 
fax,  hair,  213.     OE.  feax. 
faye,  faith,   263;    par  ma 

fay,  489-     OF.  fei. 
fayly,  inf.  fail,  34;    fayle, 

317;  pt.  3  s.  fayled,  270. 

OF.  faillir. 
fayn,  glad,  393,  450.    OE. 

fas  gen. 
fayr,  adj.  fair,  147,  490,  810; 

fayre,  169,  177,  747,  1024 

(see   Note),    etc.;    comp. 

fei[r]er,io3;  arfv.fayr,7i4; 

fayre,  88,  884.  OE.  faeger.*- 
fech,   inf.  fetch,    1158^5?.' 

3  s.  subj.  feche,  847.    OE. 

fede,  pp.  blighted,  29.  ON. 


fei[r]er,  see  fayr. 
fel,  pt.  i  s.  fell,  1174;  felle, 

57;     3   pi.     1 120.    OE. 

feallan,  feoll ;   cp.  byfalle. 
felde,  pt.  i  s.  felt,  1087.  OE. 

fele,   many,    21,    439,    716, 

etc.     OE.  fela. 
felle,    adj.    fell,    367,    655. 

OF.  fel. 
felon[e],    crime,    800.     OF. 

fenyx,   phoenix,    430.     OE. 

fer,    adv.    far,    334,    1076; 

comp.    fyrre,    103,     127, 

152,  347,  etc.     OE.  feor, 

fyrr;    cp.  fyrre,  adj. 
fere,    company;     in    fere, 

together,   89,   884,    1105. 

OE.  (ge)fer. 
fere}    (i),    n.    companions, 

1150.     OE.  (ge)fera. 
fere}  (2),  pr.  3  s.  transports, 

98 ;  pp.  f eryed,  946.  OE. 

ferly,  wondrous,  1084;  used 

as  n.  wonder,  1086.     OE. 


f  eryed,  see  fere?, 
feste,  feast ;  mafeste,  283,  to 

make  merry.   OF.  feste. 



fete,  see  fote. 

fewe,  few,  572.     OE.  feawe. 
fla3t,     sod,     57;     cp.     ON. 

flake,  n.    fold,      947.     ON. 

flaki,  a  hurdle. 
flambe,    inf.    flame,    shine, 

769;  pr.  p.  flaumbande, 

90.     OF.  flamber. 
flauore},  pi.  flavours,  scents, 

87.     OF.  flaveur. 
flayn,  see  fly3e. 
fle,     inf.     flee,     294.     OE. 

fle36,  pt.  3  s.  flew,  431 ;  pi. 

flowen,  89.     OE.  fleogan, 

fleme,  pr.   3  s.  subj.  drive, 

334.     OE.     fleman;     cp. 

flesch,   306;    f[l]esch,  958. 

OE.  fl£sc. 

fleschly,  1082.    OE.flaescllc. 
flet,  floor,  1058.     OE.  flet. 
fleten,  pr.  pi.  flow,  2 1 ;   pt. 

3  s.  flot,  46.    OE.  fl€otan, 

flode    (i),    n.   flood,    river, 

water,     736,     1058;     pi. 

flode},  874.     OE.  flod. 
flok,  n.  flock,  company,  947. 

OE.  flocc. 
flonc,  pt.   i  s.  flung,   1165. 

(?)  ON.  flmga;    cp.  ON. 

flengja;  Sw.  flanga. 
flor,  n.  flower,  29,  962 ;  flour, 

426;    pi.    flowre},     208. 

OF.  flour,  flor. 
flor-de-lys,    195 ;    flour-de- 

lys,753-   OF.  flour-de-lys. 

flot   (i),  n.  company,  786; 

flote,  946.     OF.  flote. 
flot  (2),  see  fleten. 
floty,     watery,     127.      Cp. 

OF.  pre  flotis. 
flour,  see  flor. 
floury,  flowery,  57. 
flowen,  see  fle36. 
flowred,  pt.  3  s.  270.     OF. 


flowre?,  see  flor. 
flurted,  pp.  figured,  208 ;  cp. 

OF.  fleurete. 
fly?e,    inf.    flay,    813;    pp. 

flayn,  809.    OE.  flean. 
flyte,  inf.  chide,  353.     OE. 


fode,  food,  88.     OE.  foda. 
folde  (i),  n.  land,  334,  736. 

OE.  folde. 
folde    (2),    inf.   bend,    813; 

pp.  enfolded,  434.    OWS. 

fealdan;   OMerc.  faldan. 
folded,  pt.  s.  followed,   127, 

654;    pr.    p.  folewande, 

1040.     OE.  folgian. 
fon,  see  fyne  (2). 
fonde    (i),    inf.   seek,    try, 

prove,     150,     939;     OE. 


fonde  (2),  fonte,  see  fynde. 
fonge,    inf.    receive,    take, 

479 ;  pr.  3  pl-  fong63,  439 ; 

pt.  3  pl.  fonge,  884.     OE. 

fon,  fangen. 
for  (i),  conj.  269,  321,  343, 

etc;   [f]or,  700.     OE.for, 

for  (2),  prep.  50,  99,  1050, 

etc. ;  fore,  734.    OE.  for. 



orbede,  pr.  3  5.  sub},  forbid, 

379.  OE,  forbeodan. 
for-brent,  pp.  burnt  up, 

1139.       OE.     forbernan. 

ON.  brenna;  cp.  brende. 
for-didden,    pt.    3    pi.    did 

away     with,     124.     OE. 

fordon,  -dyde;  cp.  do. 
for-do[k]ked,  pp.  despoiled, 

robbed,  n;  see  Note. 
foreste,  67.  OF  forest. 
forfete,  inf.  forfeit,  639  pt. 

35.   subj.   forfeted,    619. 

OF.     forfet,     a    fine    for 

for-garte,  pp.  forfeited,  321. 

ON.  fyrirgdra;  cp.  gare. 
for-go,  inf.  328 ;  pr.  3  s.  for- 

gOS,    340.     OE.     forgan; 

cp.  gon. 
for-36te,     inf.     forget      36. 

OE.  forgietan. 
forhede},     foreheads,     871. 

OE.  forheafod. 
for-lete,  pt.  i  s.  lost,  327. 

OE.  forlfetan;  cp.  let. 
fcrlonge,  furlongs,  1030. 

OE.  furlang. 
forloyne,  pr.   i  5.  subj.   go 

astray,     err,     368.     OF. 

forme   (i),   adj.   first,   639. 

OE.  forma. 
forme   (2),    «.   1209.     OF. 

formed,  pt.  3   s.  747.     OF. 


for-payned,  pp.  severely  tor 
mented,  246.    OF.  peiner, 

with  pref.  \  cp.  E.  f  orpined. 

forsake,     inf.     743.    OE. 

forser,    treasure  chest,  263. 

OF.  forsier. 
for-so>e,  forsooth,  21,  292. 

OE.  for  soSe ;  cp.  soth. 
forth,    98,    101,    510,    980, 

1116.     OE.  for]>. 
fortune,  129,  306;  fortwne, 

98.     OF.  fortune. 
forty,       786,       870.       OE. 


for>e,  ford,  150.     OE,  ford. 
for->y,  therefore,   137,  234, 

701,  845.     OE.  for  Sy. 
fote,   foot,    161,    350,    970; 

pi.  fete,  1 1 20.    OE.  fot; 

pi.  fet. 
f  ounce,  bottom,  113.     OF. 


foundemente?,    see    funda 

founden,  see-  fynde. 
fowlea,     birds,      89.      OE. 

fowre,  four,  870,  886.     OE. 

feower;  cp.  fur]>e. 
foysoun,      n.      abundance, 

used  as   adj.    1058.    OF. 

fraunchyse,    freedom,    609. 

OF.  franchise. 
frayne3,     pr.     3  s.     asks, 

129.     OE.  fregnan. 
frayste,   pt.    i    s.   scanned, 

169.     ON.  freista. 
fre,   adj.  free,  liberal,   481, 

796 ;  adv.  299.    OE.  freo. 
frech,  adj,  fresh,  87;  used 

as  n.  195.     OE,  fersc. 



freles,   blameless,   immacu 
late,       431;       cp.      ON. 

frely,  adj.  free,  noble,  used 

as        n.        1155.        OE. 

frende,   friend,    558,    1204. 

OE.  freond. 
freuch,   joyous,    1086;    see 

fro,  adv.   347 ;    conj.  since, 

251,  375,  958;  prep.   10, 

13,  46,  etc. ;  fro  me  warde, 

from  me,  981.     ON.  fra; 

cp.  warde. 
frount,  forehead,  177.    OF. 

frym,  vigorously,  1079.  OE. 

fryt,  fruit    894;  fryte,  29; 

pi.  fryte3,  87,  1078.    OF. 

fryth,   forest,  89,   98,    103. 

OE.  frij>. 
ful,  adj.  1098;    adv.  28,  42, 

50,  etc.     OE.  full. 
fundament,         foundation, 

1010;    pi.  foundemente?, 

993.  OF.         funde- 

fur])e,    fourth,    1005.     OE. 

feorSa ;   cp.  fowre. 
fyf,  five,   849;    fyue,   451- 

fyfj>e,'   fifth      1006.      OE. 

fygure,    170,    747;     form, 

shape,  1086.     OF.  figure. 

"    ,    gold    thread,    106. 

OF.  fil  d'or. 

fytye,     filth,     1060.      OE. 

fyl|>;   cp.  vnde-fylde. 
fyn,    fine,     106;     finished, 

perfect,   170;  fyin,   1204. 

OF.  fin. 
fynde,  pr.  i  s.  find,  150;  pr. 

3  5.  fynde},  508,  514;  pt. 

i  s.  fande,  871 ;  pp.  fonde, 

283 ;  fonte,i  70,  327 ;  foun- 

den,    1203.    OE.    findan; 

cp.  fonde  (i). 
fyne  (i),  n.  finish,  635.     OF. 

fyne  (2),  pr.  i  s.  cease,  328; 

imp.  sing.  353;  pt.  3  s. 

fon,  1030.  OF.  finer. 
fynger,  466.  OE.  finger. 
fyr[c]e,  fierce,  54.  OF.  fers, 

fyrre,  adj.  further,  148.    OE. 

feorr,    fyrra;      adv.      see 

fyrst,  adj.  570,  571 ;  fyrst[e], 

486,      549,      999,      1000; 

fyrste,    548;    adv.    316, 

583,    1042;    fyrste,   638. 

OE.  fyrst. 
fyue,  see  fyf. 

Galalye,  817. 

galle,     (i)     scum,      1060; 

gawle,     bitterness,     463. 

OE.  gealla;  ON.  gall.    " 
galle    (2)    flaw,    189,    915. 

ON.  galli. 

gardyn,  260.    OF.  gardin. 
gare,   inf.    cause,    331;   pt. 

3     s-     gart,     1151;     3 

pi.     garten,     86.      ON. 




garlande,    diadem,    crown, 

1 1 86.     OF.  garlande. 
gate,  way,   395,  526,  619; 

pi.    gates,    streets,    1106. 

ON.  gata. 

gaue,  gawle,  see  gyue,  galle. 
gay,  adj.  1124,  1 1 86;  gaye, 

7,   260;   used  as  n.   gay, 

189;     gaye,    433-     OF. 

gayn,    against,     138.     OE. 

gayne?,  pr.  3  *•  gains,  343. 

ON.  gegna. 
gef,  see  gyue. 
gele,  inf.  tarry,  931.     OE. 

gemme,  gem,  118,  219,  266, 

etc. ;  pi.  gemme.?,  7,  253, 

991.     OF.   gemme. 
generaeyoun,     827;      OF. 

gent,     fair,     gentle,     1014, 

1134;    gente,    118,    253, 

265.     OF.  gent. 
gentyl,     adj.     gentle,     264, 

278,  605,  883,  etc.;  used 

as  n.  602;   gentyle,  632. 

OF.  gentil. 
gesse,  inf.  guess,  think  out, 

499;  cp.  Dan.  gissa. 
geste,      guest,      277.     OE. 

gete,   inf.   get,   obtain,   95. 

ON.  geta;  cp.  reget. 
gilofre,  gillyflower,  43.    OF. 

glace,  inf.  glide,  171.     OF. 

glade,    glad,     136,     1144; 

comp.  gladder,  231 ;  sup. 

gladdest,      1109.       OE. 

glade?,   pr.   3   s.   gladdens, 

86 1 ;    pr.    p.    gladande, 

171.     OE.  gladian. 
Gladne?,  Gladness,  136. 
glas,  glass,  114,  990,  1018; 

glasse,  1025,   1106.  OE. 

glauere?,  pr.  3  pi.  deceive, 


glayre,  amber,  1026. 
glayue ,  sword.  654 .  OF.glaive. 
gle,   music,   joy,   95,    1123. 

OE.  gleo. 
glem,   n.   gleam,   79.     OE. 

gleem;  cp.  day-glem. 
glemande,  pr.  p.  gleaming, 

70,  990. 
glene,  inf.  glean,  955.     OF. 

glent,   pt.   3   s.    shone,    70, 

1026;       glente,       1001; 

glanced    aside,    671;    pt. 

pi.     glent,      1 1 06.      Sw. 

glanta;  cp.  glente. 
glente,   n.   light,    114;   pi. 

glente?,    glances,     1144; 

cp.  glent. 

glet,  mire,  1060.  OF.  glette. 
glod,  see  glyde?. 
glode?,  clear  patches  in  the 

sky  between  clouds,  79; 

cp.    ON.    glaftr,    shining, 

solar-glaSan,  sunset;  OE. 

glaed,  shining;  OE.  'sunne 

gS>   to   glade';     Orkney 

dial,  glode ;  cp.  E.  glade, 




glory,    7°,    I7I»    934.    959, 

1123.     OF.  glorie. 
gloryous,    adj.    799,    915; 

used       as      adv.       1144. 

OF.  glorious. 
glowed,  pt.  3  pi.  114.     OE. 

glyde},  pr.  3  s.  glides,   79; 

pt.  3  pi.  glod,  1105.     OE. 

gly?t,  pt.  3  pi.  shone,  114. 

ON.  glia;  cp.  aglyjte. 
glymme,     radiance,     1088 ; 

cp.     OE.     gleornu;     Sw. 

glimma,  to  shine. 
glysnande,  pr.  p.  glistening, 

165,  1018.     OE.  glisnian. 
go,  see  gon. 
God,    314.    342,    379,    etc.; 

gen.  s.   Gode?,    63,    601, 

822,    etc. ;    Godde;,   591, 

1193.  OE.  Gcd. 
god,  good,  310,  674,  1202; 

goude,  568,  818;  used  as 

n.  goud,  33;  goude,  33; 

goods,  goud,  731;  god, 

734;  sup.  best,  1131; 

beste,  863 ;  used  as  n. 

279;   cp.   wcl.   OE. 


God-hede,  Godhead,  413. 
god-nesse,  goodness,  493. 
golde,  n.  gold,  2,  165,  213, 

989,  1025;  g[ol]de,  mi. 

OE.  gold. 
golden,       golden,        1106; 

changed  from  gulden,  OE. 

golf,  whirlpool,  deep  water, 

608.     OF.  golfe. 

gome,  man,  231,  697.     OE. 

gon,  inf.  go,   820 ;  pr.  3  s. 

got3,    365;      3    PL   5io; 

pr.  3    s.  subj.    go,    53°; 

imp.    s.     559;    pi.    gos, 

521;    got?,  535;   pt.  3  s. 

3ede,    526,    1049;    3    pi. 

713;    PP.   gon,   63,    376. 

OE.     gan,     geeode;     cp. 

vmbe-gon,  for-go. 
gos,  see  gon. 

gospel,  498.     OE.  godspel. 
goste,  spirit,   63,   86.     OE. 

gostly,  spiritual,    185,   790. 

OE.  gastllc. 
gote,    n.    stream,    934;    pi. 

gote?,  608;    cp.  MDu.   n. 

gote;    OE.  v.  geotan,  pp. 

go  ten. 

got?,  see  gon. 
goud,  goude,  see  god. 
grace,  grace,  Divine  favour, 

63,    194,    425,    etc.     OF. 

gracios,   beautiful,    full    of 

grace,  189;  grac[i]os,  95; 

grac[i]ous,  934;  with  adv. 

force,  260.     OF.  gracious. 
grauayl,    gravel,    81.     OF. 

graunt,     permission,     317; 

from  OF.  v.  graunter. 
graye,  adj.  254.     OE.  graeg. 
grayne},  pi.  grain,  31.    OF. 

gray^ely,     fittingly,     499. 

ON.  greiSliga. 
Grece,  Greece,  231. 



greffe,      grief,      86.        OF. 

greme,    anger,     465.     ON. 

grene,  adj.  green,  38,  1001, 

1005.     OE.  grene. 
gresse,  grass,  10,  245;  blade 

of  grass,  31.     OE.  grass. 
gret,  adj.  great,   250,   330, 

511,    etc.,    [gret],    1104; 

grete,  90,  237,  280,  470, 

637.     OE.  great. 
grete,  inf.  weep,  331.    OE. 

greue    (i),   n.   grove,    321. 

OE.  grsefa. 
greue    (2),    pr.    3    s.    subj. 

grieve,  471.     OF.  grever. 
grewe,  see  grow, 
gromylyoun,  gromwell,  43. 

OF.     gremillon,     gremil, 

grounde   (i),  n.  earth,   10, 

81,    434,    1173;    founda 
tion,  372,  384,  396,  408, 

420.     OE.  grund. 
grounde  (2),  see  grynde. 
grouelyng,    adv.    prostrate, 

1120;    cp.    ON.    a    grufu, 

supinus;    ME.    (a)    gruf, 

with  adv.  suff.  -ling. 
grow,    inf.    31;    pt.     3    5. 

grewe,  425.    OE.  growan. 
grym,     grim,     1070.    OE. 

grymly,  cruelly,  654.     OE. 

grynde,     inf.     grind,     81  ; 

pp.   grounde,   654.    OE. 


gryste,    spite,    465.       OE. 

gulte,  guilt,  942 ;  pi.  gyite?, 

655.     OE.  gylt. 
gyfte,  gift,  565;  pi.  gyfte?, 

607.    OE.  gift;  ON.  gipt. 
gyle,  guile,  671,  688.     OF. 

gylte3,  see  gulte. 
gyltle3,  adj.  used  as  n.  668 ; 

gy[l]tl63,  799-     OE.  gylt- 

gyltyf,     guilty,     669.     OE. 

gyltig;     ME.   gilti,    with 

suff.  -ive;  cp.  mornyf. 
gyng,  company,  455.     OE. 

genge;    ON.  gengi. 
gyngure,   ginger,   43.     OF. 

gengibre,  gengivre. 
gyrle,  girl,    205;    cp.    LG. 

gor,    girl;    Norw.    gorre, 

a  small  child. 
gyse,      guise,      1099.      OF. 

gyternere,  guitar-player,  91. 

OF.    guiterne,    with     E. 

gyue,  pr.  3  s.   subj.  give, 

grant,    707;    gef,     1211; 

imp.    s.    gyf,    543,    546>' 

pt.    3    5.   gef,    174,    270, 

734,  765 ;  gaue,  667 ;  pp. 

g[yjuen,  1190.     OE.  gie- 

3  are,     well,     readily,     834. 

OE.  gearo. 
3ate,   gate,    728,    1037;   pi. 

3ate3,    1034,  1065.    OE. 

36,  see  J>ou. 



3ede,  see  gon. 

3emen,  yeomen,  535 ;  prob. 

OE.  *gea-man  (not  found), 

a  villager. 
3er,  year,  1079;  3ere,  503, 

505;  pl.   ser,  483;   OE. 

gear;  cp.  to- 3 ere. 
36rned,   pp.   desired,    1190. 

OE.  geornian. 
36t,  yet,   19,  46,  145,  etc.; 

3Cte,   1061.     OE.  get. 
3Cte,  inf.  grant,  allot,  558. 

(?)  late  OE.  geatan. 
3if,  3yf,  see  if. 
30n,  adj.  yonder,  693.     OE. 

30ng,    young,    412;    3onge, 

474.  535-     OE.  geong. 
30re,  adv.  formerly,  of  yore, 

586.    OE.  geara. 
3 ore-fader,  forefather,  322; 

cp.  fader. 
3ys,  yes,   yea,   verily,   635. 

OE.  gise. 

had,  hade,  haf,  see  haue. 
hafyng,   possession,    enrich 
ment,    450;    cp.    angel- 

halde,    inf.    hold,    possess, 

490;  pr.  i  s.  deem,  301; 

3  s.  hald63,  454J  pt.  3  s. 

helde,    1002,    1029;    pp. 

halden,   1191.    OE.  hal- 

dan;  cp.  byholde. 
hale^,  pr.  3  s.  flows,  125. 

OF.  haler. 
half,    72.    OE.    healf;    cp. 

halle,  hall,  184.     OE.  heall. 

halte,w.  hold^upport, "take 
off,"  1158.  OE.  heald. 

han,  see  haue. 

happe,  good  fortune,  16, 
713,  1195.  ON.  happ. 

harde,  adj.  used  as  n.,  606. 
OE.  heard. 

hardyly,  boldly,  3;  as 
suredly,  695.  OF.  hardi 
with  E.  suff. 

harme,  n.  68 1 ;  pl.  harme?, 
griefs,  388.  OE.  hearm. 

harmle^,  harmless,  676,  725. 

harpe,  n.  harp,  88 1.  OE. 

harpen,  pr.  3  pl.  harp,  88 1. 
OE.  hearpian. 

harpore?,  harpers,  88 1.  OE. 

hate  (i),  adj.  hot,  388.  OE. 

hate  (2),  n.  hatred,  463. 
OE.  hete;  v.  hatian;  cp. 
ON.  hatr. 

hated,  pp.  402.   OE.  hatian. 

hat},  see  haue. 

hai'el,  man,  676.  OE. 

haue,  inf.  have,  132,  661, 
928;  haf,  194,  1139;  pr. 
i  s.  14,  242,  244;  haue, 
704,  967;  2  s.  hat?,  291, 
77°,  935,  971;  3  s.  446, 
465,  625,  824,  etc.;  i  pl. 
haf,  519,  553;  hauen, 
859;  han,  554;  2  pl. 
haf,  257,  917;  han,  373; 
3  pl.  776;  pt.  i  s.  had, 
170;  hade,  164;  35.  had, 
1034,  1148;  hade,  209, 



476,  502,  etc.;  3  pi. 
hade,  550;  had,  1045; 
pt.  i  s.  subj.  hade,  134, 
1189,  1194;  3  s-  IO9°, 
1142;  3  pi.  1091;  pp. 
had,  1140.  OE.  habban. 

hauyng,  see  angel-hauyng. 

hawk,  184.     OE.  hafoc. 

haylsed,  pt.  3  s.  hailed,  238. 
ON.  heilsa. 

he,  pron.  pers.  nom.  s.  m. 
302,  332,  348,  etc.  ref.  to 
jasper,  1001 ;  h[e],  479; 
dat.  ace.  hym,  324,  349, 
360,  etc.;  [hym],  690; 
n.  nom.  hit,  10,  13, 
30,  etc.,  with  pi.  verb. 
895,  H99;  hyt,  482; 
dat.  ace.  hit,  41,  46,  160, 
etc.;  hyt,  270,  271,  283, 
284,  677,  914;  /.  nom.  ho, 
129,  130,  131,  etc.;  scho, 
758;  dat.  ace,  hyr,  8,  9, 
164,  etc.,  hir,  188,  428; 
pi.  nom.  j>ay,  80,  94, 
509,  etc.;  dat.  ace.  hem, 
69,  7°  75,  etc.;  h[e]m, 
635,  715:  he[m],  532. 
OE.  h§;  c£.her,hit(2),hys. 

hed,  hede,  see  heued. 

hede,  inf.  heed,  behold, 
1051.  OE.  hedan. 

he^t,  see  hy3t  (i). 

[h]eke,  also,  210.   OE.  eac. 

helde  (i),  comp.  adv.  more 
likely;  as  helde,  belike, 
1193.  ON.  heldr;  Goth, 
haldis;  cp.  belt,  Dial. 
Diet,  (see  Note). 

helde  (2),  see  halde. 

hele,  welfare,  16,  713.     OE. 

helle,    hell,    442,    651,    840, 

1125;    gen.  s.  643.     OJ 

hel;  gen.  helle. 
hem,  see  he. 
hemme,  hem,  217;   border, 

1001.     OE.  hemm. 
hende,  ready,  quiet,  gentle, 

184;    used  as  n.  hynde, 

gracious,  909.     OE.  (ge)- 

hende;    cp.  ON.  hentr. 
hente,   inf.    get,    find,    669, 

H95;   pr.  i  s.  388.     OE. 

her  (i),  pron.  poss.  her,  4, 

6,  131,  etc.;  hir,  22,  191, 

197;   hyr,  163,  169,  178, 

etc. ;   cp.  he. 
her   (2),   pron.   poss.   their, 

92,  93,  96,  etc. ;  cp.  he. 
here  (i),  adv.  298,  389,  399, 

etc.;  her,  263,  519.     OE. 

here  (2),  inf.  hear,  96;    pt. 

i  5.  herde,  873,  879,  i 

OE.  heran. 
[h]ere  (3),  n.  hair,  210.   OE. 

hser,  her. 

[h]ere  (4),  see  hyre  (i). 
here-inne,  herein,  261,  577; 

cp.  inne. 
herne3,  brains,  58.  Late  OE. 

haernes;    cp.     ON.    hjar- 

ni;   MDu.  herne;    OHG. 

herte,  heart,  128,  135,  176, 

364;     hert[e],    17,    51; 

hert,  174,  179,  682,  1082, 

1136.     OE.  heorte. 



herytage,  n.  417;  erytage, 
443.  OF.  heritage. 

heste,  commandment,  633. 
OE.  h£es. 

hete  (i),  w.  heat,  554,  643. 
OE.  haetu. 

hete  (2),  pr.  i  s.  promise, 
402;  pt.^  s.hy3te,3Q5;  hy3t, 
was  called,  999 ;  pi.  950. 
OE.hatan,het ;  ^ass.hatte. 

heterly,  fiercely,  402;  cp. 
MLG.  hetter. 

hej>en,  hence,  231.  ON.  he- 

heue,  inf.  raise,  314 ;  pt.  2  s. 
heue,  473.  OE.  hebban. 

heued,  head,  459,  465; 
source,  974;  hede,  1172, 
bed,  209.  OE.  heafod. 

heuen  (i),  heaven,  473,  490, 
500,  873,  988,  1126;  pi. 
heuene3,423, 620 ;  heuen}, 
441 ;  g.  sg.  heuenes,  735. 
OE.  heofon. 

heuen  (2),  inf.  raise,  16. 
OE.  hafenian. 

heuen-ryche,  kingdom  of 
heaven,  719.  OE.heofon- 
nce;  cp.  ryche  (2). 

heuy,  heavy,  1180.  OE. 

hider,  see  hyder. 

hJ3e,  see  hy36. 

nil,  see  hyl. 

hir,  see  he,  her  (i). 

his,  see  hys. 

hit  (i),  pron.  pers.,  see  he. 

hit  (2),  pron.  poss.  its,  108, 
120,  224,  740 ;  hyt,  446. 

ho,  see  he. 

hoi,    complete,    406.     OE. 

holte-wode3,  woods,  75 ;  cp. 

holte3,    woods,    921.     OE. 

holy  (i),  adj.  holy,  592,  618, 

679.     OE.  halig. 
holy  (2),  adv.  wholly,  418; 

cp.  hol. 
homly,    adj.    belonging    to 

the  household,  intimate, 

1211;     not   in    OE.,    cp. 

OHG.  heimlich. 
honde,     hand;      com     on 

honde,  came  to  hand,  was 

perceived,    155;     pi.    49, 

218;  honde3,  706.     OE. 

hondelynge3,  adv.  with  one's 

hands,   68 1.     OE.  hand- 


hondred,  see  hundreth. 
hone,  inf.  remain,  be,  921 ; 

see  Note. 
honour,  n.  424,  475,   852, 

864.     OF.  hohur. 
hope  (i),  n.  860.     OE.  hopa. 
hope    (2),    pr.    i    s.    think, 

suppose,    225;     pt.    i    s. 

hope[d],  142,  185;  hoped, 

139.    OE.  hopian. 
hornet,  horns,   mi.     OE. 


houre3,  see  oure  (i). 
how,   334,   690,   711,    1146. 

OE.  hu. 
hue,    n.    shout,    873.     OF. 

huee,  see  hwe. 



hundreth,    hundred,    1107; 

hundred,  869;  hondred, 

786.     OE.  hundred ;  ON. 


hurt,  pp.  1142.    OF.  hurter. 
huyle,    clump,     applied    to 

shrubs,  hence  mound,  41 ; 

hyul     (see   Note),    1205 ; 

hylle,  1172. 
hwe,  hue,  896;   huee,  842; 

pi.  hw63,   90.     OE.  hiw; 

cp.  twynne-how. 
hyde,  skin,  1136.     OE.  hyd. 
hyder,    hither,    249,    763 ; 

hitler,  517.     OE.  hider. 
hy36,   high,    395,   401,   596, 

1024,  1051,  1054;  hy3[e], 

678;       hy?,       39;       adv. 

hy3,     473,     773;     hy3e, 

454:     hi3e,      207.     OE. 


(i),    n.    height,_50i; 

hC3t,  1031.     OE.  heahSu, 

hehSu,  hiehftu. 
hy3t  (2),  hy3te,  see  hete  (2). 
hyl,  hill,  789,  979 ;  hil,  976 ; 

hylle,  678.     OE.  hyll. 
hyl-coppe,     hill-top,     791. 

OE.  copp. 
hym,  see  he. 
hymself,  pron.  reflex.  808, 

811,  826;    hymself,  680; 

emphatic,  hym-self,   812, 

825,  896,  1134;  cp.  self, 
hynde,  see  hende. 
hyne  (monosyllabic],  house 
hold   servants,   505,  632, 
121 1.     OE.    hiwan,    gen. 

hlna,       domestics ;       cp. 

ON.  hju,  pi.  hjun. 

hyr,  see  he,  her  (i). 

hyre  (i),  n.  wages,  hire,  523, 

534.  539,  543,  5§3,  587; 

( ?)  [h]ere,  616  (see  Note). 

OE.  hyr;  cp.  OFris.  her. 
hyre  (2),  inf.  hire,  507;    pt. 

i    5.    hyred,    560.    OE. 

hys,   pron.   poss.   his,    307, 

312,  354,  etc.;    his,  285, 

526,  715,819;  [h]ys,  5°5; 

hys[e],  1133;  hysse,  418; 

cp.  he,  hit  (2). 
hyt,  see  he,  hit  (2). 
hytte3,    pr.    3    s.    has    the 

chance,  132.     ON.  hitta, 

to  light  upon. 
hyul,  see  huyle. 

I,  pron.  pers.  i  s.  nom.  3, 
4,  7,  etc.;  [I],  81,  363, 
977;  dat.  ace.  me,  10, 
*3,  !9,  etc.;  nom.  pi. 
we,  251,  378,  379,  etc.; 
dat.  ace.  vus,  454,  520, 
552,  etc.  OE.  ic. 

ichose,  see  chos. 

if,  conj.  147,  264,  265,  etc. ; 
3if,  45,  662;  3yf,  482. 
OE.  gif. 

like,  same,  very,  704 ;  ilk, 
995.  OE.  ilca. 

ille,  adv.  ill,  681,  1177. 
ON.  ilia. 

in,  prep.  2,  5,  8,  etc.;  on, 
881,  1103;  into,  30,  61, 
224,  366,  627,  1159,  1162, 
1174,  1180;  [in],  342- 
OE.  in. 

in-lyche,    adv.    alike,    546; 



inlyche,  603.    OE.  gelice; 

(ME.  ilyche;  extended  to 

in-lyche ;  cp.  OE.  onlice)  ; 

cp.  lyk. 
inne,  adv.  in,  940.  OE.  inne ; 

cp.  here-inne. 
innocens,    innocence,    708 ; 

in-oscen[c]e,    672.      OF. 

innocent,    adj.    used   as   n. 

625,  720;   innosent,  684, 

696;  innossent,  666.  OF. 

in-noghe,  adj.  enough,  625, 

649 ;  in-nogh,  66 1 ;   adv. 

in-noghe,   636;    in-no3e, 

624 ;     in-nogh,    660 ;     i- 

noghe,  612;   i-no3e,  637. 

OE.  genog. 
in-nome,  pp.  received,  703 ; 

cp.  [n]e[m]. 
in-sample,example,  parable, 

499.     OF.  ensample. 
in-seme,  together,  838;   cp. 

OE.  adj.  gesom;  v.  gese- 

in-to,  prep.  521,  525,  582, 

628;   to,  231;   into,  245, 


in-wyth,  adv.  within,  970. 
is,  see  be. 
Israel,  1040. 
i-wysse,      certainly,       151, 

1128;     iwysse,    394.'     i- 

wyse,  279.     OE.  gewis. 

jacyngh[t],    jacinth,     1014. 

OF.  jacincte. 
jasper,  999,  1026;  jasporye, 

Toi8(seeNote).OF.  jaspre. 

Jerusalem,  792,  793,  804, 
etc. ;  lerusalem,  829. 

Jesus,  711,  717,  820;  Jesu, 
453 ;  lesus,  721 ;  lesu,  458. 

John,  788,  867,  etc. ;  lohn, 
836;  Jon,  383,  818;  Jhon, 
984;  J[o]hn,  1020. 

jolyf,  joyous,  fair,  842; 
joly,  929-  OF.  jolif,  joli. 

joparde,  hazard,  risk,  doubt, 
602.  OF.  jeu  parti. 

Jordan,  817. 

joueler,  see  jueler. 

joy,  234,  395,  796;  joye, 
577,1126;  ioy,266;  ioye, 
128,  1197.  OF.  joye. 

ioyfol,  joyful,  288,  300. 

joyle},  joyless,  252. 

joyned,  pt.  3  s.  1009.  OF. 

Judee,  Judaea,  922;    Judy, 

juel,  jewel,  253,  277;    iuel, 

249;    juelle,  795,   1124; 

pi.   iuele?,    278;     juele, 

929.      AF.    juel.      OF. 

joiel,  jouel. 
jueler,    jeweller,    264,    265, 

etc. ;  juelere,  252 ;  iueler, 

301 ;  joueler,  734. 
JuC3,  Jews,  804.     AF.  Jeu, 

Geu ;     OF.  Giu,  Jui. 
jugged,  pt.  i  s.  judged,  7; 

3  pi.  iugged,  804.    OF. 

justyfyet,  pp.  justified,  700. 

OF.  justifier. 

kaste,  see  kesten. 

kene,  keen,  40.     OE.  cene. 



kenned,  pt.  3  5.  taught,  55. 

OE.  cennan. 
keruen,  pr.  3  pi.  cut,  512 ;  pp. 

coruen,  40.  OE.  ceorfan. 
kesten,  pt.  3  pi.  cast,  flung, 

1122;     pp.    kest,    861; 

keste,   66;    kaste,   1198. 

ON.  kasta. 
keue,    inf.    dip,    320;     pp. 

keued,  981.     ON.  kef) a. 
klyfe?,  klyffe?,  see  clyiie. 
klymbe,  see  clym. 
knaw,  inf.  know,  410,  541, 

794,     1109;      pr.     i     s. 

673;   2  pi.  knawe,   5*6; 

3  pl>  505;  pt.  i  5.  knew, 

66,  164,  168,  998,  1019; 

3  pi.  knewe,   890;    pp. 

knawen,  637.    OE.  cna- 

wan;   cp.  cnawyng. 
knelande,     kneeling,     434. 

OE.  cnEowlian. 
knot,  n.  throng,  788.     OE. 

[Koyntyse],    Wisdom,    690. 

OF.  cointise. 
Kryst,  Christ,  55,  458,  776; 

Kryste,   569;    gen.   Kry- 

ste},  904.  1208;   Crystes, 

383.     OE.  Crist. 
Krysten,      adj.      Christian, 

461.     OE.  Cristen. 
Krystyin,    adj.   used    as   n. 

Christian,     1202.        OF. 

kyn,  n.  kind,  quat  kyn,  755, 

771 ;  what  kyn,  what  kind 

of,  794;  alle  kynne?,  all 

kinds  of,  1028.  OE.  cynn ; 

cp.  man-kyn,  sumkyn. 

kynde    (i),   n.   nature,    55, 

74,  752.     OE.  cynd. 
kynde  (2),  adj.  grateful,  276. 

OE.  cynde. 
kyndely,   adv.  kindly,  369; 

kyntly,      properly,    690. 

OE.  cyndellce. 
kyndom,     kingdom,      445. 

OE.  cynedom. 
kyng,   448,   468,   480,   596. 

OE.  cyning. 
kynne3,  see  kyn. 
kyrk,   church,    1061.    OE. 

circe;  cp.  ON.  kirkja. 
kyste,     coffer,     271.      OE. 

kythe3,  regions,  1198.     OE. 

cy>j>>  cy»u. 
ky)>e,  inf.  show,  356;  imp. 

pl.    [k]y>e3,    369.     OE. 


labor,    inf.    cultivate,    504. 

OF.  laborer. 
labour,  n.  634.     OF.  labour, 


lad,  see  lede  (2). 
lade,  pp.  laden,  1146.     OE. 

lady,  491 ;  "  my  lady,"  453  ; 

OE.  hlatfdige. 
ladyly,  queenly,  noble,  774. 
ladyschyp,     rank,     dignity, 

laften,  pt.  3  pl.  left,   622. 

OE.  laefan. 

Ia3t,    pt.    i    s.    caught,    ob 
tained,  1128;  Ia3te,  1205. 

OE.  laeccan. 
lamb,  lambes,  see  lombe. 



lande,  see  londe. 

langour,  sickness,  357.   OF. 

lantyrne,  lantern,  1047.  OF. 

lappe^,  hanging  sleeves,  201. 

OE.  Iseppa. 
large,  201 ;  bounteous,  609. 

OF.  large. 
lasse,  see  lyttel. 
laste  (i),  inf.  last,  956;   pr. 

3  pi.   Iast63,   1198.     OE. 

laste  (2),  pp.  loaded,  1146. 

OE.  hlaestan. 
late,  adv.  392,  538,  574,  615  ; 

adj.  sup.  laste,  547.  57°. 

571.     OE.  laet. 
launce?,   pi.    boughs,    978. 

OF.  lance. 
laue?,  pr.   3  s.  pours,  607. 

OF.  laver. 
l[a]we,  see  lowe. 
lawe^,  OE.lagu. 
layd,  pp.  958;  layde,  1172. 

OE.  lecgan. 
layned,  pp.  concealed,  244. 

ON.  leyna. 
ledden,  speech,  noise,  878; 

l[e]den,  874.     OE.  laeden. 
lede  (i),  n.  man,  Sir,  542. 

OE.  leod. 
lede  (2),  inf.  lead,  774;    pr. 

i  s.  409;  2  pi.    392;  pp. 

lad,  801.    OE.  Isedan. 
lef  (i),  pi.  leaves,  77;   (of  a 

book),    Ieu63,    837.     OE. 

leaf  (neut.) ;  cp.  leued. 
lef  (2),  beloved,  266;    used 

as  n.  418.     OE.  leof. 

legg,  459-     ON.  leggr. 

leghe,  see  Iy3. 

legyounes,    legions,     1121. 

OF.  legion. 
lelly,  loyally,  faithfully,  305. 

OF.  leel,  with  E.  suff. 
leme,  inf.  glance,  glide,  358 ; 

pt.   3  s.  lemed,  gleamed, 

119,    1043.     (?)  OE.   leo- 

mian;    cp.  geleomod;    ». 

lemman,  n.  loved  one,  763, 

796,  805,  829.     OE.  leof- 

lenge,  inf.  dwell,  261 ;  pr.  2, 

pl-  933-     OE.  lengan. 
lenger,  see  long, 
lenghe,    length,    416;     on 

lenghe,  for  a  long  time, 

167.'   OE.  lengu. 
lenj>e,   length,  '1031.     OE. 


lere,  face,  398.     OE.  hleor. 
lesande,    pr.    p.    loosening, 

opening,     837.     OE.    le- 

san,  liesan. 

lese,  see  neuer->e-lese. 
lesse,  les,  see  lyttel. 
lest,   conj.    187,   865.     OE. 

(Sy)  lees  «e. 
leste,  see  lose  (i). 
lesyng,    n.    lie,    897.     OE. 

let,  inf.  allow ;  let  be,  cease, 

715;     imp.   s.   901,   912, 

964;  pl.jiS;  pt.  35.20; 

lette,  813.     OE.  laetan. 
lette,  pt.  3  5.  hindered,  1050. 

OE.  lettan. 
lettrure,      knowledge      of 



letters,  learning,  751.  OF. 

le>63,  pr.  3  s.  abates,  377; 
ME.  le>,  n.  cp.  G.  ledig, 
free,  MDu.  onlede, 

leue  (i),  n.  permission,  316. 
OE.  leaf. 

leue  (2),  inf.  believe,  311; 
leuen,  69;  pr.  i  s.  leue, 
469,  876;  3  s.  I[e]uc3, 
302,  304,  308;  i  pi. 
leuen,  425;  2  pi.  I[e]ue3, 
308;  pr.  2  s.  subj.  leue, 
865.  OE.  (ge)lyfan. 

leued,  covered  with  leaves, 
978;  cp.  lef  (i). 

Ieue3,  see  lef  (i). 

l[e]uyly,  permissible,  565. 
See  Note. 

liure,  livery,  that  which  is 
delivered,  given  freely, 
to  the  servants  of  a 
household,  1108.  AF. 
livere,  OF.  livree. 

lo,  inter j.  693,  740,  822. 
OE.  la. 

1036,  pool,  119.  (?)  OE. 

loke,  inf.  934  '•  Pr-  3  5-  subj. 
710;  imp.  s.  463;  pt.  i 
s.  loked,  167,  1145.  OE. 

Ioke3,    looks,     appearance, 


lokyng,  n.  gaze,  1049. 

lombe,  lamb,  413,  741,  795, 
etc.;  lom[b]e,  945; 
lom[b],  815;  lambe,  757, 
771 ;  lamb,  407 ;  lou[m]be, 

861;  loumbe,  867;  gen. 
Iombe3,  872 ;  lambes,  785 ; 
lombe,  1141.  OE.  lamb. 

OF.  lampe;  cp.  Iy3t. 

londe,  land,  148,  937;  in 
lande,  in  the  fields,  802. 
OE.  lond. 

lone,  lane,  1066.  OE.  lane, 

long,  adj.  597;  long[e],  586; 
longe,  1024;  adv.  longe, 
hys  Iyue3  longe,  all  his 
life,  477;  533;  comp. 
lenger,  168,  180,  600,  977. 
OE.  adj.  fctfig,  lengra,  adv. 
longe.  J 

longande,  pr.  p.  belonging, 
462.  (?)  OE.  langian,  to 
long  for;  gelang,  depen 

longed,  pt.  3  s.,  me  longed, 
I  longed,  144.  OE.  lan 

longeyng,  «.  longing,  244, 
1 1 80.  OE.  langung;  cp. 

lorde,  God,  Christ,  285,  304, 
362,  etc. ;  master  of  vine 
yard,  502,  506,  513,  etc.; 
inter  j.  108,  1149.  OE. 

lore,  learning,  custom,  236. 
OE.  lar. 

lose  (i),  inf.  265;  pt.  i  s. 
leste,  9;  2  s.  Ieste3,  269; 
pp.  loste,  1092.  OE.  leo- 
san,  losian. 

lose  (2),  inf.  perish,  908. 
OE.  losian. 



lote,  gesture,   238 ;    sound, 

876;    expression,  appear 
ance,  896;    vision,  1205. 

ON.  lat,  appearance;  cp. 

Sw.  lat,  sound. 
lo>e,  n.  trouble,  377.  OE.laJ). 
loude,  adj.  878.     OE.  hlud. 
loue,  inf.  praise,  285,  342, 

IT24,  1127.  OE.  lofian. 
loueloker,  louely,  see  lufly. 
10U63,  pr.  3  s.  loves,  403, 

407.     OE.  lufian. 
lournbe,  see  lombe. 
loute,  pr.  2  pi.  bow,  bend, 

933.     OE.  lutan. 
lowe,  adv.  236 ;  l[a]we,  547 ; 

lowest,    adj.    sup.    1001. 

ON.  lagr. 

luf,,467,85i.  OE.lufu. 
luf-daungere,  might  of  love, 

1 1 ;  cp.  daunger. 
luf-longyng,  1152 ;  cp.  long- 

lufly,  adj.  962 ;  louely,  693  ; 

comp.  loueloker,  148 ;  adv. 

lufly,     880,     978.     OE. 

lufsoum,      loveable,      398. 

OE.  lufsum. 
lure?,    losses,   339;    losses, 

deprivations,     358.     OE. 

lurked,  pt.  i  s.  crept,  978; 

cp.  Norw.  lurka,  to  sneak 

lyf,  life,  247,  305,  392,  etc. ; 

gen.    s.   Iyue3,   477,    57$, 

908.     OE.  lif. 
lyfed,    pt.    2    s.    483;    pr. 

p.    lyuyande,    700;    pp. 

lyued,     477,     776-    OE. 

lifian,  libban. 
lyfte,  pp.  lifted,  567.     ON. 

lygyngC3,    dwellings,     935 ; 

cp.  ON.  v.  liggja. 
Iy3,  inf.  lie,  930 ;  pr.  3  s.  lys, 

360,  602;    pt.  3  s.  leghe, 

214.     OE.  licgan. 
Iy36,  n.  lie,  304.     OE.  lyge. 
Iy3t,  n.  light,  69,  119,  1043, 

1073.     OE.     leoht;      cp. 

Iy3te    (i),   adj.  bright,   238, 

500;      lyjt,     pure,     682. 

OE.  leoht. 
Iy3te  (2),  adv.  lightly,  214. 

OE.  leohte. 
ly?te  (3),  pt-  2  s.  alighted, 

arrived,    247;     3   s.   lytf, 

descended,  943 ;  pp.  ly^t, 

988.     OE.  Hhtan. 
Iy3tly,    lightly,   easily,   358. 

OE.  leohtllce. 
lyk,  adj.  like,  432,  501,  874, 

896;      lyke,     735;     OE. 

(ge)llc;   cp.  in-lyche. 
lyke,,  pr.  impers.    pleases, 

566.     OE.  llcian. 
Iykne3,  pr.  3  s.  likens,  500; 

cp.  Sw.  likna. 
lykyng,  pleasure,  joy,  247. 

OE.  licung. 
lym,  limb,   462;    pi.   lym- 

me3,  464.     OE.  lim. 
lyne,  line;    by  lyne,  in  due 

order,    626.     OF.    ligne, 

L.  linca. 
lynne,  adj.  linen,  731.     OE. 

linen;    cp.  OFris.  linnen. 



lys,  see  ly?. 

lyste  (i),  n.  desire,  173  ;  joy, 
467,  908.  ON.  lyst;  cp. 
OE.  lust,  lystan  (vb.). 

lyste  (2),  pt.  impers.  de 
sired,  146,  181 ;  cared, 
chose,  1141.  OE.  lystan. 

lysten,  inf.  listen  to,  880. 
OE.  hlystan. 


lyttel,  adj.  387,  575,  604, 
1147;  unimportant,  574; 
comp.  lasse,  491,  599,  600, 
601,  853;  lesse,  339,  852; 
les,  864,  876;  adv.  lyttel, 
172,  301;  comp.  les,  865, 
888,  900,  901.  OE.  lytel. 

lyj>e,  inf.  soothe,  357.  OE. 
Ii6ian;  cp.  lej>C3. 

ly>er,  adj.  used  as  n.  evil, 
567.  OE.  lySre. 

lyued,  lyuyande,  see  lyfed. 

Iyue3,  see  lyf. 

ma  (i),  pron.  poss.  (French), 

my,  489. 
ma    (2),    (3),    mad,    made, 

madde,  see  make  (2),  mon. 
mad,  adj.  267,  1199;  madde, 

290;     adv.     1 1 66.      OE. 


maddyng,  madness,  1154. 
make  (i),  spouse,  759.  OE. 

(ge)maca;  ON.  maki. 
make  (2),  inf.  make,   176, 

304,  474;    ma,  283;    pr. 

i  s.  make,  281 ;  35.  mat3 

rescoghe,    rescues,     610; 

3  pi-  man,  512;    pt.  3  s. 

made,  522,   1149;    mad, 

539;  2  pi.  made,  371;  pp. 
mad,  274,  486,  953; 
made,  140;  madde,  359. 
OE.  macian. 

makele3,    matchless,    435, 
780,     784;      cp.     make 

malte,  inf.  melt,  malte  in 

hit  mesure,  enter  into  the 

measure  of  it,  224 ;  pt.  3 

s.  1154.     OE.  meltan. 
man    (i),   mane;,   manner, 

see  mon  (i). 
man  (2),  see  make  (2). 
manor,   manor-house,   918; 

manayre,    enclosed   city, 

1029.     OF.  manoir. 
ma[n]er63,      pi.      manners, 

382.     AF.    manere;  OF. 

man-kyn,     mankind,     637. 

OE.  mancynn;   cp.  kyn. 
mare,  see  much, 
margyrye,  pearl,  1037;    pi. 

margarys,    199;     mario- 

rys,  206.     OF.  margerie. 
marked,  market,  513.  Late 

OE.    market,    from    OF. 

(L.  mercatum). 
marrei,  pr.  2  s.  marrest,  23 ; 

pp.  marre[d],  359-    OE. 


Mary,  383 ;   Marye,  425- 
maryage,     marriage,     414; 

maryag[e],     778.       OF. 

mas,   service  of  the  mass, 

1115;    messe,    497-  OE. 

maesse;     OF.    messe;    L. 




mask[e]lle,  spot,  843 ;  mas- 
cle,  726.  OF.  mascle, 
macle ;  L.  macula. 

maskelle},  spotless,  756, 
768,  769,  780;  ma[s]kel- 
103,  733;  maskelles,  744. 
781 ;  maskele?,  745,  QOO, 
923;  -  ma[s]kele3,  757; 
mascelle3,  732. 

mate  (i),  adj.  depressed, 
dejected,  386.  OF.  mat. 

mate  (2),  inf.  checkmate, 
confuse,  613.  OF.  ma 

Mathew,  497- 

mat?,  see  make  (2). 

may  (i),  maiden,  435,  780, 
961.  (?)  OE.  mseg. 

may  (2),  pr.  i  s.  can,  may, 
487,  783;  2  s.  296,  347, 
694,  703,  966,  970;  3  s. 
300,  310,  312,  etc. ;  2  pi. 
918;  moun,  536;  3  pl- 
29,  336;  pt.  i  s.  mo3t, 
1 88;  2  s.  my3te3,  317; 
3  s.  most,  34.  J94.  223, 
etc.;  mo3te,  475,  1196; 
my3t,  69,135,176,722,891, 
1082,  1157;  2  pi.  mo3t, 
1051;  3  pi.  mo3t,  92; 
my3t,  579.  OE.  maeg, 
magon,  meahte,  mihte. 

mayden,  162;  pi.  may- 
dene3 ,1115;  maydenne3 » 
869.  OE.  maegden. 

maynful,  mighty,  powerful, 
1093.  OE.  n.  maegen; 
suff.  -ful. 

mayster,  master,  462,  900. 
OF.  maistre. 

mayster-ful,  masterful,  401. 

me,  see  I. 

mede,  n.  reward,  620.  OE. 

meke,  meek,  404,  815,  832, 

961.     ON.  mjukr. 
mekenesse,  406. 
mele,  inf.  speak,  925 ;  melle, 

797,  1118;  pr.  35.  mele3, 

497;  pt.  i  s.  meled,  589- 

OE.  mselan. 
[m]ele,     n.    discourse,     23. 

OE.  msel. 
melle,  n.  in  melle,  in  midst, 

among,  1127.   ON.  i  milli. 
membr63,     members,     458. 

OF.  membre. 
men,  see  mon  ( i ). 
mender,  n.  pi.  amends,  351. 

OF.  amende. 
mendyng,       improvement, 

452.     OF.  amender. 
mene,  inf.  mean,  293,  951; 

pr.  2  s.  mene3,  937.    OE. 

mensk,  grace;  dignity,  783; 

menske,  162.     OE.  men- 

nisc;   ON.   menska. 
menteene,     inf.     maintain, 

783.     OF.  maintenir. 
meny,  see  meyny. 
mercy,  356,  623,  670;  merci, 

576;  mersy,  383- 
mere,  mere,  stream,  158 ;  pi. 

mere3,i40,n66.  OE.mere. 
merked,    pp.    marked,  out, 

situated,  142.    OE.  mear- 


mersy,  see  mercy, 
meruayle,  «.  astonishment, 



1130;'    marvel,     portent, 

157;  merwayle,  1081 ;  pi. 

meruayle;,  64.     OF.  mer- 

meruelous,          marvellous, 

1 1 66.     OF.  merveillous. 
mes,     course,     meal,     862. 

OF.  mes. 
meschef,     misfortune,     ill, 

275.     OF.  meschef. 
mesure,     measure,     worth, 

224.     OF.  mesure. 
mete  (i),  adj.  fit,  833,  1063. 

OE.     (ge)msete;   cp.    vn- 

mete  (2),  n.  food,  641.     OE. 

mete    (3),    inf.    meet,    918; 

find,  329 ;  pr .  i  pi.  meten, 

380.     OE.    metan. 
meten,  pp.  measured,  1032. 

OE.  metan. 
meuen,    pr.    3    pi.    move, 

dwell,  exist,  64 ;   pt.  3  5. 

meued,  moved,  156.    OF. 

movoir;  stem  muev-. 
meyny,    company,    retinue, 

892,  899,  925,  960,  1127, 

1145;    meny,    542.     OF. 

mesniee,   maisnee. 
mir>e,  see  myr>e. 
mo,  see  much, 
mod,  disposition,  401 ;  mode, 

738,   832.     OE.  mod. 
moder,  mother,   435.     OE. 

mode},    modulations,     884. 

OF.  mode. 
mo;t,    mo^te,    molten,    see 
may  (2). 

mokke,  dirt,  905.  ON. 

mol,  see  mul. 

molde^,  pi.  moulds,  30. 
OE.  molde. 

mon  (i),  n.  man,  69,  95,  310, 
etc.;  man,  314,  386,  675, 
685,  1195 ;  gen.  s.  manne?, 
223 ;  mane3, 94°. I *54 :  pi- 
men,  290,  331,  336,  etc.; 
pron.indef.  one,  194,  799; 
man,  165,  334;  ma,  323- 
OE.  mann;  cp.  stro>e- 

mon  (2),  n.  moan,  374. 
OE.*  man  (770*  found  ;  cp. 

mone,  moon,  923,  1044, 
1045,  1056,  1057,  1068, 
1069,  1072,  1081,  1092, 
1093 ;  month,  1080.  OE. 

mony,  many,  160,  340,  572. 
mony  a,  775.  OE.  manig. 

moote,  948,  moat.  OF.  mote. 

more,  see  much. 

morne,  inf.  mourn,  359. 
OE.  murnan. 

mornyf,  adj.  as  adv.  miser 
ably,  386.  OE.  murne, 
+  suff.  -ive;  cp.  gyltyf. 

mornyng,  n.  mourning,  262. 
OE.  murnung. 

moste,  see  much,  mot  (2). 

mot  (i),  see  mote  (2). 

mot  (2),  pr.  3  s.  must,  31, 
320,  663;  [mo]t,  25; 
mot,  may,  397;  pt.  2  s. 
moste,  319,  348 ;  3  pi.  623. 
OE.  mot,  moste. 



mote  (i),  castle,  walled 
city,  142,  936,  937,  948, 
973;  pi.  motes,  949- 
OF.  mote. 

mote  (2),  spot,  speck,  726, 
764.  855,  924,  960, 
972;  mot,  843.  OE. 

motele3,  spotless,  925,  961; 
moteles,  899. 

mote3,  pr.  2  s.  arguest,  613. 
OE.  motian. 

moul,  mould,  earth,  23 ;  cp. 
Sw.  dial,  mul,  muel. 

moun,  see  may  (2). 

mount,  n.  868.     OE.  munt. 

mounte3,  pr.  3  pL  amount 
to,  351.  OF.  munter. 

mouth,  183,  803.  OE. 

much,  adj.  244,  604,  776, 
1118,  1130,  1149;  comp. 
more,  128,  132,  133,  etc.; 
mo,  151,  340,  850,  870, 
1194;  adv.  234,  303,  374, 
576;  comp.  more,  144, 145, 
156,  168,  169,  180,  181, 
212,  565,  588,  589,  599; 
mare,  145;  sup.  moste, 
1131.  OE.  micel;  mara, 
mare,  ma;  m&st;  cp. 

mul,  dust,  905;  mol,  382. 
OE.  myl. 

munt,  intention,  1161;  cp. 
OE.  myntan. 

my,  pron.  pass.  15,  16,  17, 
etc.;  myn,  128,  174,  176, 
179,  200,  566,  1208;  by 
myn  one,  by  me  in  soli 

tude,    243;    myne,    335- 

OE.  mm;  cp.  I. 
myddeq,  in  mydde},  in  the 

midst    of,    222,    740;    in 

myde3,  835;    cp.  OE.  to 

my3t  (i),  power,  630,  765; 

my3te,  1069;  myste,  462. 

OE.    mint. 

my3t  (2),  my3te3,  see  may  (2). 
myke3,  pi-   special  friends, 

572  (see  Note). 
mylde,    mild,    961,     1115; 

used   as    n.    gentle  ones, 

721.  OE.  milde. 
myn,  myne,  see  my. 
mynde,  n.  mind,  156,  224, 

1130,      1154.     OE     (ge)- 

mynge,      inf.      remember, 

think,    855.     OE.    myn- 

mynne,  inf.  remember,  583. 

ON.  minna. 
mynyster,     minster,     1063. 

OE.  mynster. 
myr>e,   mirth,    92;    mir>e, 

1 149 ;  personified,  [Myr)>e], 

140.     OE.  myrgj>. 
myr)>e3,  pr.  3   s.  gladdens, 

myry,  merry,  23,   158,  781, 

936 ;       comp.       myryer, 

850;  sup.  myryeste,  199; 

myryest,       435.         OE. 

mys  (i),  amice,  robe,     197. 

OF.  amis;    L.  amictus. 
mys  (2),  see  mysse  (i). 
myself,  pron.  reflex.  1175; 



emphatic,  414;  my-seluen, 

myserecorde,     compassion, 

366.     OF.    misericorde. 
myse-tente,   pp.    misunder 
stood,  257;  cp.  tente. 
mysse  (i),  n.  loss,  364;  mys, 

262;  cp.    OE.  missan,  to 

fail  to  meet. 
mysse  (2),  inf.  miss,    329; 

pr.  i  s.  382.    OE.  missan; 

ON.  missa. 
mysseseme,     inf.     neglect, 

leave    ill-guarded,      322. 

OE.  misgeman. 
myste,  see  my3t  (i). 
mysterys,    mysteries,    1194. 

L.  mysterium. 
myte,  mite,  351.     OF.  mite. 
my|>e,   inf.   avoid   (sorrow), 

359.  OE.  mift'an  (see  Note) . 

,  na3te, 

name,  n.  1039;  nome,  872; 
£/.name[3],998.  OE.nama. 

nature,  n.  749.    OF.  nature. 

naule,  navel,  459.  OE. 

naul  eles,  naw|>eles,  see 

nawhere,  nowhere,  534, 
932.  OE.  nahwair. 

naw>er,  conj.  neither,  alter 
native  with  ne,  485,  1044, 
1087;  nau>er,  465,  484; 
[n]o}>er,  848;  ne  .  .  . 
naw>er,  nor  .  .  .  neither, 
751.  OE.  nahwaefter. 

ne,  adv.  not,  35,  65, 293,  350, 
471,  619;  strengthening 

another  negative,  4,  362, 
403,  516,  1071,  1082; 
strengthening  two  nega 
tives,  825,  898;  conj.  nor, 
262,  334,  347,  465,  484, 
485,  688,  751,  764,  843, 
848,  897,  918,  1044,  1045, 
1057,  1062,  1087;  cp.  nis. 

nece,  niece,  233.  OF.  niece; 
pop.  L.  neptia. 

nedde,  pt.  impers.  needed, 
1044.  OE.  neodian. 

nede,  n.  need,  1045 ;  gen.  s. 
ned63,  necessarily,  25, 
344,  OE.  ned. 

[n]C3bor,  neighbour,  688. 
OE.  neahgebur. 

[n]e[m],  pt.  3  s.  seized,  802; 
3  pi.  nom,  received,  587; 
OE.  niman.  cp.  in-nome. 

nemme,  inf.  name,  997. 
OE.  nemnan. 

nente,  ninth,  1012.  OE. 
nigofta;  ON.  niundi. 

ner,  adv.  near,  286;  nere, 
404  ;[n]  ere, 2 62.  OE.  near; 
cp.  welnygh. 

nerre,  adj.  comp.  nearer, 
233.  OE.  nearra. 

nesch,  soft,  pleasant,  606. 
OE.  hnesce. 

neuer,  never,  19,  71,  333, 
etc. ;  with  negative,  not 
ever,  4,  262,  825,  889, 
900,  1071.  OE.  ncefre. 

neuer->e-lese,  neverthe 
less,  912,  913;  nau]>eles, 
877 ;  naw]>eles,  95° » 
now>e-lese,889;  c^.lyttel. 

newe,  new,  see  nwe. 



nis,  see  be  (i). 

no,  pron.  32,   69,  95,  etc.; 

non,  206,  209,  215,  219, 

etc.;    none,     440;     adv. 

347,     95L      977.      1190. 

OE.  nan,  na. 
noble,  adj.  922,  1097.     OF. 

n03t,    pron.    nothing,    274, 

337.  563,  5?8,  657,  1050; 

with    negative,    anything, 

520.     OE.   nawiht. 
nom,  see  [n]e[m]. 
nome,  see  name. 
non,  none,  see  no. 
not,    29,    34,    92,    etc.;    cp. 

note  (i),  matter,  155,  922. 

OE.  notu. 
note     (2),    song,    879;    pi. 

note},  musical  notes,  883. 

OF.    note. 
[n]oj>er,  see  naw^er. 
now,  271,  283,  etc.    OE.  nu. 
nowj>e-lese,    see    neuer->e- 

nwe,   new,    155,    792,    879, 

882,    943,    987;     nw[e], 

527;    newe,    894;     adv. 

nwe,  anew,    1080,    1123; 

new,     662.     OE.     mwe, 

ny3t,     night,     116,     1071; 

ny3te,    243;    na3t,    523; 

na3te,  1203.     OE.   niht, 

nys,  see  l>e  (i). 

0  (i),  inter  j.    23,    241,   745, 

o  (2),  prep.,  see  of. 

obes,  pr.  3  pi.  do  obeisance 
to,  886.  OF.obeiss-,obeir. 

odour,  58.     OF.  odur. 

of,  adv.  off,  237,  358; 
prep.  3,  12,  55,  etc.; 
by  (of  agent]  n,  248; 
from,  31,  33,  36,  etc.; 
with,  25,  76,  119,  206, 
207;  in,  896,  1101;  out 
of,  1126;  o,  3°9,  429, 
792,  1018 ;  of  al  and  sum, 
in  full,  584.  OE.  of. 

ofte,  often,  14,  340,  388; 
comp.  ofter,  621.  OE. 

036,  pr.  (impers.)  ought, 
552;  pr.  i  s.  [a] we  (MS. 
owe),  owe,  543;  pt.  3  s. 
a3t,  ought,  1139;  (im 
pers.}  03te,  341.  OE. 

03t,  pron.  something,  274; 
anything,  1200.  OE. 

olde,  941,  942;  comp.  alder, 
621;  sup.  aldest,  1042. 
OE.  aid. 

on  (i),  num.  one,  293,  530, 
55 i,  557>  [o]n,  860;  at 
on,  in  accord,  378;  an, 
869  (cp.  786);  indef. 
pron.  953;  gen.  s.  one3, 
864 ;  indef.  art.  on,  9 ;  adv. 
one,  alone,  243,  312. 
OE.  an;  cp.  a,  an, 

on  (2),  prep,  on,  upon,  41, 
45,  60,  etc. ;  in,  97, 
243,  425,  710,  874,  1079, 



1095  ;  on  honde,  to  hand, 
155;  on  lenghe,  for  a 
long  time,  167;  adv.  255, 


one},  see  on  (i). 
only,    adv.    used    as    prep. 

except,   779.     OE.  anllc. 
onslyde?,  pr.  3  pi.  sway,  77  ; 

cp.  slode.     ?  OE.  aslidan. 
on-sware,  inf.  answer,  680. 

OE.      andswerian  ;       cp. 

answar,  sware. 
on-vunder,  see  an-vnder. 
open,  adj.  183;  vpen,  1066; 

vpon,    198.     OE.   open. 
or,  see  o>er  (i). 
oryent,  n.   Orient,  3;   ory- 

ente,    82  ;     used  as    adj. 

orient,  255.     OF.  orient. 
o>er  (i),  conj.  or,  118,  130, 

141,  491,  etc.;    or,  233; 

cp.  OE.  o]>J>e. 
o>er    (2),    adj.    other,    206, 

209,      219,      319,      842, 

935  ;   pron.   449  ;   gen.   s. 

o]>ere3,    450;      pi.    oj^er, 

585,     773,      778.      OE. 

oure  (i),  n.  hour,  530,  551; 

pi.     houre;,     555-     OF. 

hore,  ure. 
oure    (2),   pron.   poss.   304, 

322,  455,  etc.;    our,  851. 

OE.  ure;  cp.  I. 
Out,  adv.  with  of,  282,  365, 

642,     649,     1058,     1163, 

1170;    oute  of,   3-     OE. 

out-dryf,     inf.    drive    out, 

777;  cp.  dryue. 

out-fleme,    n.    exile,    1177. 

OE.  ut-flema ;    cp.  fleme 

(see  Note). 
out-ry3te,  adv.  straight  out, 

1055;  cp.  ryst. 
out-sprent,  pt.  3  5.  spurted 

out,       1137;       cp.      Sw. 

dial,    sprinnta,   to  burst; 

spritta,  to  start. 
ouer,  adv.  too,  473;    prep. 

over,      318,      324,     454, 

773,         1 1 66;         above, 

1205;    o[u]er  gayn,  ovei 

against,  138.     OE.   ofer 

cp.  gayn. 
ouerte,    open,    plain,    59; 

OF.  overt, 
ouerture,  n.  opening,  218. 
owne,  adj.  own,  559.     O 


pace,    passage,    verse,    677. 

OF.  pas. 
pakke,      pack,       company, 

929  :   cp.  Du.  pak. 
pale,  inf.  appear  pale,  ioo/ 

OF  palir. 
pane,w.  side,  1034.  OF.  pai 
par,  prep.  (French),  by,  480 
paradys,  Paradise,  248,  321 

paradyse,   137.    OF.  pz 

radis ;    Gk.    Trapafetcr 

parage,     high     rank,     419. 

OF.  parage. 
paraunter,  perchance,   588. 

OF.  per  aventure. 
parfyt,  perfect,  638,   1038; 

perfet,  wrought,  208.  OF, 




part,    n.   share,    573.     OF. 

parties,     adj.     without     a 

share,  335. 
passe,  inf.  pass,  299,   707, 

i no;     pr.    3    s.    passe}, 

surpasses,   753;    pt.   3  s. 

subj.    passed,    surpassed, 

428;     pp.    passed,    528. 

OF.  passer;    cp.  apassed. 
Pater,  n.  the  Lord's  Prayer, 

485.    L.  pater,  father. 
P[a]ule,  Paul,  457. 
pay,  inf.  pay,  635;    please, 

1201;    pr.  i  5.  524;    3  s. 

paye^,     632;        imp.     s. 

pay,  542;    impers.  pt.  s. 

payed,      pleased,      1165, 

1177;     pp.    payed,    584. 

603.  OF.  payer. 
paye,  pleasure,  i,  1164, 

1176,  1188,  1189,  1200; 

pay,  1212.  OF.  paye. 
payment,  598.  OF.  paye- 

payne,  n.  pain,  664,  954; 

pi.     payne?,    124.       OF. 

peine;  cp.  for-payned. 
paynted,  pt.  3  5.  750.    OF. 

peindre;  cp.  depaynt. 
payred,    pp.    injured,    246. 

OF.  empeirer,  apeirer. 
pechche,  n.  speck,  841.    OF. 

penaunce,  477.     OF.  pene- 

aunce,  penance. 
pene,  see  peny. 
penned  (MS.  spenned),  pp. 

imprisoned,       53.        OE. 


pensyf,  pensive,  246.     OF. 

|  peny,  penny,  546,  560,  614; 

pene,     51°.     562.    OE. 

pening,  penig. 
pere,  «.  peer,  equal,  4.     OF. 

per,  peer. 
pere;,  pear-trees,  104.     OE. 


perfet,  see  parfyt. 
perle,   n.   pearl,    i,    12,    24, 

etc.;    pi.  perle},  82,    192, 

193,   etc.     OF.  perle. 
perre,       precious       stones, 

1028;  "p.  pres.,"   jewels 

of  price,  730.    OF.  pierre. 
peryle,     peril,     695.     OF. 

pes,   peace,    742,   952,   953, 

955.     OF.  pais. 
pitously,  see  pytosly. 
place,    n.    175,    405,    440, 

679,  1034-     OF.  place. 
planete;,  planets,  1075.  OF. 

plate},  pi.  plates,  1036.    OF. 

play,  inf.  261.      OE.    ple- 

playn,      adj.     flat,      clear, 

smooth,  178;  adv.  plainly, 

689;    n.  plain,    104;    pi. 

playne^,  122.     OF.  plain. 
playned,  see  pleny. 
playnt,  complaint,  815.  OF. 

pleny,  inf.   complain,   549; 

pt.  is.  playned,  lamented, 

53 ;   pp.  242.     OF.  plain- 




plesaunte,  adj.  pleasing,  i. 
OF.  plesant. 

plese,  inf.  please,  484.  OF. 

plete,  inf.  plead,  563.  OF. 
plaider;  (n.  plaid,  plet; 
late  L.  placitum,  a  deci 
sion)  . 

plontte?,  £/.  plants,  104.  OE. 

plye,  inf.  mould,  shape, 
show  forth,  1039.  OF. 

ply3t,  see  plyt. 

plyt,  state,  condition,  1015, 
1114;  sore  plight,  647; 
ply}t,  1075.  OF.  plite, 
condition ;  OE.  pliht, 
danger  (the  words  were 
not  always  kept  apart}. 

pobbel,  pebble,  117.  OE. 

pole,  pool,  stream,  117.  OE. 

porchace,  inf.  purchase, 
744;  pr.  3  pi.  porchase?, 
hunt  after,  439.  OF. 

pore,  see  pouer. 

porfyl,  embroidery,  216  ; 
cp.  OF.  pourfiler. 

porpos,  intention,  508;  por- 
pose,  185,  267.  OF.  por 

portals,  portals,  1036.  OF. 

possyble,  452.  OF.  possible. 

pouer,  adj.  poor,  1075; 
pore,  573-  OF.  povre; 
dial,  poure. 

poursent,  precinct,  1035.  AF. 
purceynt ;  OF.  porceint. 

powdered,  pp.  44.  OF. 

poyned,  n.  wristband,  217. 
F.  poignet. 

poynt,  n.  594;  mark,  309; 
jot,  single  note,  891. 
OF.  point. 

pray  (i),  n.  prey,  booty, 
439.  OF.  praie. 

pray  (2),  inf.  484;  pt.  3 
prayed,  1192;    3  pi.  714. 
OF.  preier. 

prayer,  355;  prayere,  618. 
OF.  preiere. 

prayse,  inf.  301;  pp.  pray- 
sed,  1 1 12.  OF.  preisier. 

precios,  precious,  4,  36,  204, 
216,  228,  229,  330: 
prec[i]os,  60,  192;  preci 
ous,  48,  82,  1212.  OF. 

pref,  n.  put  in  pref  to, 
proved  to  be,  272.  OF. 

pres  (i),  n.  throng,  multi 
tude,  crowding,  1114.  OF. 

pres  (2),  pr.  i  pi.  press,  has 
ten,  957.  OF.  presser. 

prese,  n.  price,  worth,  419; 
used  as  adj.  pres,  730. 
( ?)  OF.  preis. 

present,  n.  presence,  1193; 
presente,  389.  OF.  pre 
sent  ;  orig.  in  phrase  '  en 

preste,  priest,  1210.  OE. 



p[re]termynable,  adj.  fore 
ordaining,  596;  prob.  —  L. 

pr«ued,  see  proued. 

prince,  n.  1201 ;  gen.  s. 
prynce3,  1164,  1176, 
1189;  prynces,  i;  pryn- 
863,  1188.  OF.  prince. 

priuy,  see  pryuy. 

proferen,  pr.  3  pi.  proffer, 
1200;  pt.  3  s.  p[ro]fered, 
235.  OF.  proferer. 

professye,  n.  prophecy,  821. 
OF.  prophecie. 

profete,  prophet,  797;  pro- 
phete,  831.  OF.  pro- 

proper,  fitting,  noble,  686. 
OF.  propre. 

property,  property,  peculiar 
ity,  446;  pi.  property]  3, 
752.  OF.  proprete. 

proudly,  mo.  OE.  prut- 

proued,  pt.  i  s.  tested,  found, 
4;  pp.  preued,  983.  OF. 
prover,  stem  preuv-. 

prosessyoun,  procession, 
1096.  OF.  procession. 

pryde,  n.  401.     OE.  pryte. 

prynce3,  see  prince. 

prys,  price,  excellence,  193, 
272,  419,  746.  OF. 

pryse,  inf.  prize,  1131.  OF. 

pryuy,  adj.  intimate,  own, 
12 ;  priuy,  24.  OF.  prive. 

pure,  227,  745,  1088.  OF. 

purly,  chastely,  1004. 
purpre,    adj.    purple,    1016. 

OF.  pourpre. 
put,    pp.     267,     272.     OE. 

pyece,     n.     thing,     person, 

192;  py[ec]e,  229.    OF. 

Py?t,    pt.    3    s-    set    (with 

jewels),     742,     768;    pp. 

117,   192,  205,  217,  228, 

229,  241,  991 ;  py3te,  193. 

216,      240;      cp.     MDu. 

picken;  cp.  vmbe-py^te. 
pyke3,   pr.   3   pi.   pick  up, 

get,  573;  pp-  pyked,  set, 

adorned,  1036;   cp.    ON. 

pyle,     castle,      stronghold, 

686 ;  origin  unknown. 
Pymalyon,  Pygmalion,  750. 
pynakled,     pp-     pinnacled, 

207.     OF.  pinacle. 
pyne,    pain,    330;    labour, 

511.     OE.  pin. 
pyonys,    peonies,    44.     OF. 

pione,pioine;  Lat.  paeonia. 
pytosly,      piteously,      370; 

pitously,    798.     OF.    pi- 

teus,  pitous. 

pyty,  n.  pity,  1206;  pyte, 

355.    OF.  pite. 

quat,  see  quo. 

quat  so,  pron.  rel.  whatever, 

566;  cp.  quo  (2). 
quayle,  n.  quail,  1085.     OF. 

quelle,  inf.  kill,  799.    OE. 




queme,  pleasant,  1179.   OE. 

<iuen,    conj.    when,    40,    79, 

93,  etc.  ;  when,  332,  335, 

347,  etc.     OE.  hwaenne. 
quene,     queen,     415,     423, 

456,     etc.;     quen,     432, 

433.   444.  448>   474.   486- 
OE.  cwen. 

quere,  conj.  where,  65,  376; 
where,    68,    617.      OE. 

quer[e],  query,  question, 
803.  L.  quaerere  (2  s. 
imp.}.  • 

quere-so-euer,  conj.  wher 
ever,  7  ;  cp.  euer. 

que]>er-so-euer,  conj.  whe 
ther,  606;  cp.  whe- 

quo  (i),pron.interr.masc.fem. 
427,  678,  747,  827;  who, 
1138;  neut.  quat,  755, 
771;  what,  249,  331, 
336,  463,  475,  479;  why, 
1072.  OE.  hwa. 

quo  (2),  pron.  rel.  nom. 
masc.  fern,  who,  693, 
709;  who,  whoever,  344; 
dat.  quom,  453;  wham, 
131  ;  quo  [so],  whoever, 
709;  neut.  quat,  186,  293; 
what,  392,  794.'  what 
ever,  523  ;  cp.  quat  SO. 

quo]?,  pt.  i  s.  said,  241,  279, 
325,  etc.  ;  3  s.  569,  758, 
781.  OE.  cwe$an,  cwae}>. 

quoynt,  clever,  skilful,  889. 
OF.  coint. 

quy,  see  why. 

quyke,  lifelike,  1179.     OE. 

quyt,  adj.  white,  207,  842, 

ion,   1150;  quyte,  220, 

844,  1137;  qwyte,  1102; 

whyt,     163,     178,     197, 

1133;  whyte,  219.    OE. 

quyte3,  pr.  2  s.  requitest, 

595.     OF.  quiter. 

raas,  see  resse. 
I  ran,  pt.  3  5.  646,  1055 ;  pp. 

runne,  26,  523;   runnen, 

874.     OE.  rinnan. 
rande?,  borders,    105.     OE. 


rapely,  hastily,  1168;  rash 
ly-  363.     ON.  hrapaliga. 
rasch,  adj.  hasty,  1167;  cp. 

ON.  roskr;    Du.  rasch. 
rau]>e,     grief,     858.        ON. 

hrygS;  cp.  ruful. 
raue  (i),  inf.  wander,  stray, 

665.     ON.  rafa. 
raue  (2),  pr.  i  s.  rave,  363. 

OF.  raver. 
rauyste,  pp.  ravished,  filled 

with  ecstasy,  1088.     OF. 

ravir  ;  stem  raviss-. 
rawe,    n.    row,     545;    pi. 

rawC3,    hedgerows,     105. 

OE.  raw. 
raxled,   pt.    i    s.    stretched 

myself,  1174.    OE.  *  rax- 

lian  (not  found}. 
ray,  n.  160.     OF.  rai. 
raykande,  pv.  p.  wandering, 

112.     ON.  reika. 
rayse,  inf.  305.     ON.  reisa. 



raysoun,  see  resoun. 
rebuke,  imp.  pi.  367.    AF. 

rebuker;  OF.  rebuchier. 
recen,  inf.  relate,  827.    OE. 

rech,    pr.    i    s.    care,    333. 

OF.  reccan. 

recorde,    n.    831.     OF.    re 
red,    adj.    nn;   rede,   27. 

OE.  read. 
rede,  inf.  read,  709 ;  pr.  i  s. 

advise,  743.     OE.  rsedan. 
redy,     ready,      591.       OE. 

rsede  -J-  -ig. 
refete,  inf.  revive,  88.    OF. 

refet,  pp.  o/refaire. 
reflayr,  fragrance,  46.     OF. 


reget,    inf.    get    again,    re 
deem,  1064  ;  cp.  gete. 
regioun,    n.      1178.      OF. 

regne,  kingdom,  501;  ren- 

gne,  692.     OF.  regne. 
regretted,  pp.  243.    F.  re- 

gretter ;     OF.     regrater ; 

(?    cp.     ON.     grata,     to 

weep) . 

relate  3,  attributes  of  royal 
ty,  77°-     OF.  reiaute. 
reken,  quick,  noble,  radiant, 

5,  92,  906.     OE.  recen. 
reles,      intermission,      956. 

OF.  reles. 
relusaunt,    pr.    p.    shining, 

159.     OF.  reluisant. 
reme    (i),    n.    realm,    448, 

735.     OF.  reaume. 
reme    (2),    inf.    cry    aloud, 

1181;  pr.  2  pi.  remen, 
858.  OE.  hreman. 

remnaunt,  remainder,  1160. 
OF.  remenant. 

remorde,  pp.  tormented, 
364.  OF.  remordre. 

remwe,  inf.  remove,  427; 
depart,  899.  OF.  remuer. 

rengne,  see  regne. 

renoun,  renown,  986,  1182. 
AF.  renoun;  OF.  renon. 

re-nowle3,  pr.  3  pi.  renew, 
1080.  OF.  renoveler. 

rent,  pp.  torn,  806.  OE. 
rendan;  cp'.  to-rente. 

reparde,  pp.  shut  off,  kept 
back,  611.  ME.  parren, 
to  enclose.  OE.  *pearrian 
(cp.  parrock);  with  pref. 
re-  in  sense  of  '  back, 
away  from.' 

repayre,  inf.  resort,  come 
together,  1028.  OF.  re 
pairer;  L.  repatriare. 

repente,  impers.  'pr.  subj. 
repent,  662.  OF.  re- 

repren[y],  inf.  reprove,  544. 
OF.  reprendre. 

requeste,  n.  281.  OF.  re 

rere,  inf.  stand  out,  160; 
pp.  rert,  upraised,  591. 
OE.  rseran. 

rescoghe,  n.  rescue,  610. 
OF.  rescousse;  cp.  v. 

reset,  refuge,  harbour,  1067. 
OF.  recet. 

resnabelef ,  reasonable,  523. 



OF.  resonable;  cp.  vn- 

resoun,  n.  reason,  52,  665; 
raysoun,  cause,  268;  pi. 
resoune;,  arguments,  716. 
OF.  raisun,  resun. 

respecte,  n.  84.  OF.  respect. 

respyt,  n.  respite,  644.  OF. 

resse,  n.  rush,  haste,  874; 
raas,  1167.  OE.  ras;  ON. 

rest,  inf.  679.     OF.  rester. 

restay,  inf.  pause,  437; 
pt.  3  pi.  restayed,  hindered, 
716;  pp.  1168.  OF. 

reste,  «.  858,  1087.  OE. 

restored,  pp.  659.  OF.  re 
storer;  L.  restaurare. 

retrete,  inf.  re- tell,  92.  OF. 

reue,  reeve,  steward,  542. 
OE.  (ge)refa. 

reuer,  river,  1055;  pi. 
reuer63,  river-meadows, 
105.  OF.  rivere,  reviere. 

rewarde,  n.  604.  OF.  re 

rewfully,  sorrowfully,  1181; 
cp.  ruful. 

riche,  see  ryche  (i). 

rode,  rood,  cross,  646,  705, 
806.  OE.  rod. 

roghe,  adj.  rough,  646.  OE. 

rokke?,  n.  rocks,  68.  OF.  roc. 

ronk,  luxuriant,  844;  vio 
lent,  1167.  OE.  ranc. 

ros,  see  ryse. 

rose,  n.  269,  906.     OE.,  OF. 

rot,  n.  decay,  26 ;  cp.  MDu. 

rote  (i),  n.  root,  420.  ON. 

rote    (2),    inf.    decay,    958. 

OE.  rotian. 
rounde,   adj.   5,   657,    738. 

OF.  roond. 
rourde,    voice,     112.    OE. 

route,  company,  926.     OF. 


rownande,  pr.  p.   whisper 
ing,  112.     OE.  runian. 
ruful,  sorrowful,  916.     OE. 

adj.  hreow;   cp.  rewfully, 


runne,  runnen,  see  ran. 
ryal,  royal,  160,  193;  ryalle, 

191,  919.     OF.  real. 
ryally,  royally,  987. 
ryche    (i),  adj.     rich,  646, 

770,      906,     919,     1097; 

rych[e],  68,   1036;   rych, 

105,    1182;     riche,   993. 

OE.  rice. 
ryche  (2),  n.  kingdom,  601, 

722.       OE.      rice;       cp. 

ryche},  n.  treasure,  26.  OF. 

ryf,    abundant,    770,    844. 

ON.  rifr. 

adj.  used  as  n.   well 
doing,  496,  622;    justice, 

580,  591,  665,  684,   720, 

1196;    ryste,    672,    696; 



claim,  708;  alegge  >e 
lyji,  renounce  thy  claim, 
703;  adv.  even,  298,461, 
673»  723.  885,  1093,  1169; 
ry$t  m>3t,  nothing  at  all, 
520.  OE.  riht;  cp.  out- 

ry^twys,  righteous,  685,  697, 

739;    ry3t-wys,  675,  689. 

OE.  rihtwis. 

ry3twysly,  adv.  rightly,  709. 
ryse,  inf.  rise,  103  ;  rys,io93  ; 

pr.  3  s.  ryse3,  191  ;  pi.  3  s. 

ros,  437,  506,  519.     OE. 

risan;  cp.  aros. 

sadde,  serious,  grave,  887  ; 

sade,  211.  OE.  saed,  sated. 
sade,  see  say. 
saf,  secure,  safe,  saved,  672, 

684,  720  ;  saue,  696.  OF. 

saffer,  sapphire,   118,   1002. 

OF.  saphir,  safir. 
saghe,    saying,    word,    226; 

saw63,  278.     OE.  sagu. 
sa3,  see  se. 
sa3t,     n.     peace,     52;    sete 

sa3te=to  establish  peace, 

1201.      OE.    seaht,  from 

ON.  *saht  (cp.  Icel.  satt). 
sake,  n,  cause,  800  ;    sake, 

940.     OE.  sacu. 
saker-fyse,  n.  sacrifice,  1064. 

OIV.  sacrifice. 
Salamon,  Solomon,  689. 
same,    adj.      1099,     noi. 

ON.  same. 
samen,  adv.  together,  518. 

ON.  saman;  OE.  somen. 

sange,  see  songe  (i). 

Sant,  see  Saynt. 

[sarde],    sardius,    1007.    F. 

sardonyse,  sardonyx,   1006. 

L.  sardonyx. 
sat},  see  say. 
saule,  see  sawle. 
Sauter,    Psalter,    593,    677, 

698.     OF.  sautier. 
saue  (i),  see  saf. 
saue  (2),  inf.  save,  674;  pr. 

3     5.     saU63,     666.     OF. 

sauerly,  adj.  tasty,  fitting, 

226.    OF.  savour,  saveur. 
sawe3,  see  saghe. 
saw[l]e,  soul,46i ;  saule,845. 

OE.  sawel. 
say,  inf.  226,  256,  258,  391 , 

1041, 1089;  saye,  482;  pr. 

i  s.  saye,  3:25.  says,  295, 

297,  4°9 ;  say3,  6is;sayt3, 

315;   3  5.  says,  693,  867; 

sayt3,    457.     5°i,     697; 

sat3,  677;  pt.  i  s.  sayde, 

589,     962;     sade,    784; 

sayd,   1175;  3  s.  sayde, 

289,      338,      398,      etc.; 

s[a]yde,       433 ;        sade, 

532;  3  pi.   sayden,    534, 

550;  pp.  sayd,  593-    OE. 

Saynt,  adj.  457,  818;  Sant, 

788;    used  as  noun  in  pi. 

saynte3,  835.    OF.  saint. 
say^,  sayt3,  see  say. 
scale,    surface,     1005;     cp. 

OE.  scealu;    OF.  escale; 

OHG.  scala. 



scliadowed,  pt.  3  pi.  shaded, 
42.  OE.  sceadwian. 

schafte^,  rays,  982.  OE. 

SChal,  i,  2,  3  s.  3  pi.  forming 
fut.  tense,  283,  348,  405, 
etc. ;  must,  328,  329,  332, 
344,  424;  intend  to, 
265,  298,  315;  2  s. 
schalte,  564;  pt.  i,  3  s. 
3  pi.  schulde,  ought,  314, 
634,  903,  924;  intended 
to,  153,  1162;  could, 
1159;  must  668;  form 
ing  subj,  1 86,  930,  1072. 
OE.  sculan. 

SCharpe,  adv.  sharply,  877. 
OE.  scearpe. 

schawe;,  see  wod-schawe3. 

schede,  inf.  separate,  de 
part,  411;  pt.  3  5.  shed, 
741.  OE.  sceadan. 

schene,  beautiful,  resplen 
dent,  42,  80,  203,  1145; 
used  as  n.  166,  965.  OE. 

schente,  pp.  shamed,  608. 
OE.  scendan. 

schep,  sheep,  80 1.  OE. 

SChere,  inf.  purify,  refine, 
165;  pp.  schorne,  213; 
see  Note. 

scherej,  pr.  3  5.  cuts, 
cleaves,  107.  OE.  sceran. 

SChewe?,  pr.  3  s.  shows, 
1210;  .pt.  3  s.  scheued, 
692.  OE.  sceawian. 

SCho,  see  he. 

schon,  see  schynej. 

schqre,    bank,     107,    230; 

cliff,   1 66  ;  cp.    OE.     sco- 

ren,  pp.  of  sceran,  to  cut ; 

'  the  part  shorn  off.' 
schorne,  see  schere. 
schot,  pt.  3  s.  shot,  58.   OE. 

schowted,  pt.  3  s.  shouted, 

schrylle,    adv.    shrilly,    re- 

splendently,  80.    Cp.  LG. 

schrell ;  cp.  schyr. 
schulde,  see  schal. 
schylde,  inf.  prevent,  965. 

OE.  scildan. 
schyldere},   shoulders,   214. 

OE.  sculdor. 
schym,  bright,   1077.    OE. 

scima,  brightness. 
schymeryng,  brightness,  80 ; 

cp.  OE.  scimrian.  <•* 
schynde,  see  schyne3. 
schyne?,    pr.    3    s.    shines, 

1074;    3  pi.  28;    pt.  3  s. 

schon,     1 66,     213,     982, 

1018,1057;  3  pi.  schjndef 

80.     OE.  scman. 
SChyr,  bright, >pure,  28,  213, 

284;    schyre,  42;    comp. 

schyrrer,  982.    OE.  scir  ; 

cp.  schrylle. 
sclade,  see  slade. 
scrypture,  n.  writing,  1039. 

OF.  escripture. 
se,  inf.   see,   96,    146,   296, 

675,  914,  964,  969;  sene, 

45;   pr.  i  s.  se,  377,  385, 

932;    3  S.  SO},   3°2;     2  pi. 

subj.  sy^e,  3°8;    pt-  I  s- 

S63,    158,    175,    200,    II55; 



seghe,    867;    sa3,    1021, 

1147;    3736,  986,   1033; 

3  5.  sy3,  788,  985,  1032; 

sa3,  689,  836;   863,  531; 

segh,   790;    2  pi.  s[y]3, 

698;   />/>.  sen,  164;  sene, 

194,     787,     1143.     OE. 

sech,  imp.    s.    seek,    354; 

pt.   3  5.   S03te,   73°;    PP> 

S03t,  sought,  given,  518. 

OE.  secan;  cp.  bysech. 
secounde,  adj.  second,  652, 

1002.     OF.  second. 
sede,  n.  seed,  34.     OE.  saed. 
segh,  863,  see  se. 
selden,   seldom,    380.     OE. 

self,    adj.    selfsame,    very, 

203,   446;    self[e],   1046, 

1076;    used  as  n.  ]>e  hy36 

Gode3    self,    1054;     cp. 

myself,  ]>y  self,  hymself. 
sely,      happy,       659.     OE. 

semblaunt,  face,  expression, 

21 1 ;    sembelaunt,    1143. 

OF.  semblant. 
seme,  modest,  1115;  adv. 

becomingly,      190.     ON. 

semed,  pt.  3  s.  subj.  seemed, 

760.      OE.      seman,      to 

satisfy;  cp.  ON.  soema,  to 

honour,  befit ;  cp.  byseme. 
semly,  adj.  fair,  34,  45,  789. 

ON.  scemiligr. 
sen,  sene,  see  se. 
sende,  pr.  3  s.  subj.  send, 

130.     OE.  sendan. 

sengeley,  adv.  apart,  8.  OF. 

sengle,  with  E.  suff. 
serlyp63,   adv.   used  as  adj. 

separate,  994.     ON.  ser; 

OE.  liepig;  cp.  OE.  an- 

sermoun,  speech,  1185.  OF. 

sertayn,  certainly,  685.  OF. 

seruaunt,  servant,  699.  OF. 

serue3,  pr.   3  s.  avails,  331; 

pp.  serued,  deserved,  553. 

OF.  servir. 
sesed,  pp.   given  seisin  of, 

enfeoffed,    dowered,  417. 

OF.  seisir,  saisir. 
set,    pt.    3    s.    sat,     1054; 

sete,        161 ;         3        pi. 

835.      OE.     sittan,    saet, 

sete,  inf.  set,   1 20 1 ;    pr.  2 

pi.  setten,  307;  imp.  s. 

set,  545;    pt.  i  s.  sette, 

8 ;   3  s.  subj.  52 ;  ind.  set, 

255,  811;  pp.  sette,  222, 

838  ;  set,  1062.  OE.  settan; 

ON.  setja. 
seuenpe,      seventh,      1010. 

OE.  seofofta. 
seuen,    seven,     838,     mi. 

OE.  seofon. 
sexte,     sixth,     1007.    OE. 

seysoun,  season,   39.     OF. 

863,  see  se. 

Sir,  257,  439.     OF.  sire. 
skyfte,  inf.  arrange,  ordain, 



569.    ON.     skipta;    OE. 

self  tan. 
skyl,  n.  reason,  312;  skylle, 

674 ;  pi.  skylle},  question 
ings,  54.     ON.  skil. 
slade,  valley,   141 ;  sclade, 

1148.     OE.  slaed. 
Sla3t,  slaughter,  801.     OE. 

sleaht;  cp.  slepyng-sla3te. 
slake,    inf.    abate,    don   to 

slake,  brought  to  an  end, 

942.     OE.  sleacian. 
slayn,  pp.  slain,  805.    OE. 

slegen  (from  slean). 
slente,    n.    slope,    hill-side, 

141 ;  cp.  Norw.  slenta,  to 

fall  aside,  slant. 
Slepe,  pr.  3  pi.   sleep,    115. 

OE.  sljepan,  slepan. 
Slepyng-sla3te,          slumber- 
stroke,    dead    sleep,    59; 

cp.  sla3t. 
slode,  pt.  i  s.  slid,  59.    OE. 

slldan;  cp.  onslyde% 
Sly3t,   adj.   slight,    190;  cp. 

MDu.  slicht. 
smal,  small,  6,  190;  smale, 

90.     OE.  smael. 
smelle,     n.     1122.       Etym. 

smol>e,  smooth,  6,  190.   OE. 

smofte  (commonly  smeSe). 
SO,  2,   5,   6  etc.;  thus,  97, 

338,  461,  467,  518,  522, 

553,     736,     1035,     1116, 

1165,     1 1 86;    with    subj. 

expressing  wish,  487,  850. 

OE.  swa. 
soberly,       adv.       seriously, 

gravely,  256. 

sobre,  serious,  earnest,  391, 

532.     OF.  sobre. 
SOdanly,     suddenly,     1095, 

1098;  sodenly,  1178.   OF. 

sodain,  sudain;  ME.  suff. 


softer,  see  suffer. 
S03t,  S03te,  see  sech. 
solace,  n.  130.     OF.  solaz. 
solde,   pt.    3   5.    sold,    731. 

OE.  sellan. 

sommoun,  summons,  warn 
ing,  1098;  cp.  v.  sumoun. 
sonde,  n.  sending,  943.    OE. 

sand,  sond. 
sone,      soon,      537,      626, 

1197;    early,  1078.     OE. 

SOnge  (i),  n.  song,  882,  888, 

891;     sange,     19-    OE. 

sang,song;  c^.euen-songe. 
songe      (2),     songen,     see 


sonne,  see  sunne. 
sore    (i),    adv.    sorely,  550; 

SOr,  940.     OE.  sare. 
sore  (2),  n.  sorrow,  130.   OE. 

SOr?,    sorrow,     663;    sor36, 

352.     OE.  sorg. 
sorquydry^e,  n.  overweening, 

309.     OF.  surquiderie. 
soth,  true,  482,  1185;  soj>e, 

truth,  653.     OE.  so>;  cp. 

sothfol,      true,      498.     OE. 

sop;  suff.  -ful. 
sotyle,     thin,     transparent, 

1050.     OF.  sutil,  soutil. 
soun,  voice,  532.    OF.  soun. 



sounande,  pr.  p.  resounding, 

883.     OF.  soner,  suner. 
Space,   n.  61;    place,    438. 

OF.  espace. 
spakk,  see  speke. 
sparred,    pt.    i    s.    struck 

out,  flung  forward,  1169. 

( ?)  OF.  esparer,  to  spar 

(see  Skeat). 
sp[e]ce,  see  spyce. 
speche,  speech,  saying,  37, 

235,  400,  471,  793,  1132; 

spech,  704.     OE.  spfec. 
special,   unique,   rare,   235; 

specyal,  938.    OF.  special. 
spede,  pr.  3  s.  subj.  prosper, 

487.     OE.  spedan. 
speke,  pr.  i  s.  speak,  422; 

3  5.  spek63,  594 ;     pt-  3  s. 

speke,  438;  spakk,  938; 

pp.    spoken,    291.     OE. 

spelle    (i),  pr.    i    s.   relate, 

793.     OE.  spellian. 
spelle  (2),  n.  speech,    363. 

OE.  spell. 
spenn[e]d,  pt.  i  s.  clasped, 

49.     ON.  spenna. 
spent,     pp.       1132.      OE. 

[sphere,  sphere,  735.     OF. 

sponne,    pt.    3    pi.    subj. 

sprang,  35.   OE.  spinnan. 
spornande,  pr.p.  stumbling. 

363.    OE.  spornan,  spur- 
spot,  n.  place,  25,  37,  49,  61  ; 

spote,  13;  spot,  blemish, 

12,    48,    60,    764     1068; 

spotte,  24,  36 ;  pi.  spotte^ 

945;    cp.    MDu.    spotte; 

EFris.  spot;  ON.  spotti. 
spotte;,  spotless,  856. 
spotty,  adj.  10 jo. 
sprang,  see  spryng. 
sprede,  inf.  spread,  abound, 

25.     OE.  sprsedan. 
spryng,    inf.    spring,    453; 

pr.  p.  spry[n]gande,  35; 

pt.    3    5.    sprang,    61; 

sprange,  13.  OE.  springan. 
spyce,    n.    kind,     creature, 

938;  sp[e]ce,  235;  spyse, 

spice,  104;  pi.  spyce3,  35; 

spyS63,   25.     OF.    espice, 

spyryt,     spirit,     61.      OF. 

spyt,  n.  insult,  1138.      OF. 

stable    (i),    adj.    steadfast, 

597.     OF.  estable. 
stable  (2),  inf.  stand  firm, 

683.     OF.  establir. 
stage,  n.    state,    condition, 

410.     OF.  estage. 
stale,  n.  step,  ground-course, 

1002.     OE.  staela. 
stalked,    pt.    i    s.    walked 

cautiously,      152.       OE. 

stalle,   inf.   hold,    fix,    188. 

OE.  steallian. 
stande,  inf.  stand,  514,  867; 

pr.  3  s.  stande;,  547;  2 

pi.  stande,  515;  stonde, 

533;  3  pl>  stonden,  113; 

pt.   i   s.   stod,  182,  184, 

1085;  3  s.  1023;  endured, 



597;    pp>   standen,   519, 

1148.   OE.   standan;    cp. 

stare,  inf.  gaze,  149;  pr.  3 

pi.    staren,     shine,    116. 

OE.  starian. 
start,    inf.     start,    plunge, 

1159,    1162  :   prob.     OE. 

*  sty  r  tan ;  cp.  Du.  storten  ; 

G.  stiirzen. 
stayre,    adj.    steep,    1022 : 

cp.  LG.  steger,  steep;  OE. 

stseger,  stair. 
stele,   inf.   steal,    20.     OE. 

stepe,  adj.  bright,   shining, 

113.     OE.  steap. 
Step[pe],  n.  step,  683.     OE. 


stere,  inf.  guide,  623;  res 
train,  1159.    OE.  steoran. 
sterne?,    stars,    115.    ON. 

steuen,  voice,  sound,  1125; 

at  steuen,  within  reach, 

188.     OE.  stefn. 
stode,    support,   stud,   set 
ting,  740.     OE.  studu. 
stok,  stock,  stump  of  tree, 

380.     OE.  stoc. 
stoken,    pp.    barred,  1065  ; 

cp.  OLG.  stecan. 
ston,  stone,  gem,  206,  822, 

994, 1006;  stok  o>er  ston, 

380;  pi.  stone?,  113,  997- 

OE.  stan. 

stonde,  stonden,  see  stande. 
Stonge,     pt.     3     s.     stung, 

pierced,    179.     OE.   stin- 


store,  n.  number,  847.   OF. 

stote,  inf.  stumble,  149  :  cp. 

MDu.  stoten. 
stounde,  hour,  time,  20,  659. 

OE.  stund. 
stout,   proud,   strong,    779; 

stoute,  935-     OF.  estout. 
strange,        strange,        175. 

OF.  estrange. 
strate?,  see  strete. 
stray,  adv.  astray,  179;  cp. 

strayd,    pt.    3    s.    strayed, 

1173.     OF.  estraier. 
strayn,    inf.    guide,     691; 

streny,  strain,    551;    pr. 

3  s.  strayn 63,  constrains, 

128.  OF.     estraindre;  cp. 

streche,    inf,    extend,    on 

streche,  rest  upon,  843; 

strech,  proceed,  971.  OE. 

stre3t,  adj.  straight,  direct, 

691.     OE.  streht,  pp.  of 

strem,  «.  stream,  125,  1159, 

1162.     OE.  stream. 
stremande,  pr.  p.  streaming, 

115:     from    strem;     cp. 

ON.  streyma. 
strenghjje,    strength,     128. 

OE.  strengSu. 
streny,  see  strayn. 
stresse,  distress,   124.     OF. 

destresse;  cp.  dystresse. 
strete,  street,  971,  1059;  pi. 

strete?,     1025;      strate?, 

1043.     OE.    strset. 



strok,  see  stryke. 

stronde,    bank,     152.     OE. 

stronge,    adj.   strong,    531; 

adv.    firmly,    476.      OE. 

Strot,  contention,  353,  848; 

cp.  Dan.  strutte,  to  strut. 
stroj>e-men,  pi.  strath-men, 

dalesmen,       115.      Gael. 

strath,    valley,     country 

near  a  river;  cp.mon  (i). 
Stryf,  strife,  248,  776,  848. 

OF.  estrif. 
stryke,  inf.  go,  1125;  pr.  2 

s.    st[r]yke3,    1186;    3   s. 

stryke3,    570;    pt.     3   s. 

strok,  struck,  1180.    OE. 


stryng,  see  sytole-stryng. 
stryuen,   pr.    3   pi.    strive, 

1199.     OF.  estriver. 
styf,    adj.    firm,    779.     OE. 

stylle,  adj.  quiet,  20,   182, 

1085 ;      adv.    ever,     683. 

OE.  stille. 
I  styntf,  imp.  s.  cease,  353. 

OE.  styntan. 
I  such,        adj.       2.6,        407, 

1043,1099;  such  a,  176; 

suche,  58,    171 ;   used  as 

pvon.  such,   727;  suche, 

719.     OE.   swylc. 
SVC,   inf.   follow,    976;    pr. 

3  pi.  swe,  892.     OF.  suir. 
suffer,  inf.  954 ;  softer,  940 ; 

pp.    suffred,     554-    OF. 

soffrir,  suffrir. 
suffyse,     inf.     be    enough, 

suffice,  135.     OF.  suffire; 

sulpande,  pr.  p.  polluting, 

726.    Cp.  G.  dial,  solpern. 
sum,   pron.   some,    428;   of 

al  &  sum,  entirely,  584; 

pi.    summe,    508.     OE. 

sumkyn,  adj.  some  kind  of, 

619;  cp.  kyn. 
sumoun,  inf.  summon,  539. 

OF.   somoner;    cp.  som- 

sum-tyme,    adv.    at    some 

time,      620,      760;       cp. 

sunne,   sun,   28,   519,   538, 

982,    1044,    1045,    1056, 

1057,  1076;    sonne,  530. 

OE.  sunne. 
sunne-berne;,        sunbeams, 

83.     OE.  sunnebeam ;  cp. 

supplantorei,     supplanters, 

440.     OF.  supplantour. 
Sure,  adj.  1089;   adv.  firmly, 

222..    OF.  sur,  seur. 
sute,  n.  fashion,  203 ;  in  sute, 

of  the  same  pattern,  1 108. 

OF.  suite. 
swalt,  pt.  3  s.  died,  816;  pt. 

i    s.   subj.   swalte,    1160. 

OE.  sweltan. 
swange,  pt.    3    s.    rushed, 

IO59I    3   pl>  toiled,  586. 

OE.  swingan. 
swangeande,  pr.  p.  rushing 

in.    (?)  OE.*  swangian; 

cp.  OE.  swengan. 
sware  (i),  adj.  square,  837, 



1023;  n.  dimension,  1029. 

OF.  esquarre. 
sware  (2),  inf.  answer,  240. 

ON.  svara ;  cp.  on-sware. 
swat,  pt.  3  pl>  sweated,  586. 

OE.  swajtan. 
swe,  see  sve. 
swefte,  see  swyft. 
sweng,  n.  labour,  575.     OE. 

swepe,  inf.  sweep,  in.   OE. 

*  swsepan  (not  found). 
swete,  sweet,   19,   94,   763, 

1122;  sw[e]te,  829;  used 

as  n.,  240,  325;   adv.  in, 

1057.     OE.  swete. 
swetely,  sweetly,  717.     OE. 

sweuen,   sleep,   dream,    62. 

OE.  swefen. 
swone,     n.     swoon,     1180; 

cp.  OE.  swogan. 
swyft,  adj.  571 ;  adv.  swefte, 

354.     OE.  swift, 
swymme,  inf.  swim,   1160. 

OE.  swimman. 
swype,  quickly,   354,   1059. 

OE.  swISe. 
syde,    n.    975,    "37;     pi- 

syde?,   6,    73,    198,   218. 

OE.  side, 
sy?,  sy3e,  see  se. 
sy3t,    n.    sight,    226,    839, 

952,  968,  1151;   eyesight, 

985;    [s]y?t,    1050;    pi. 

syste^  1179.    OE.  sih>. 
sykyng,  pr.  p.  sighing,  1175. 

OE.  sican. 
syluer,  n.  silver,  77.     OE. 


sympelnesse,        simplicity, 

909.     OF.    simple  ;    ME. 

suff.  -nesse. 
symple,     adj.     1134.     OF. 


syn,  see  syj>en. 
synge,  inf.   sing,   891  ;    pt. 

3  pi.  songen,  94.  882,  888  ; 

songe,  1124.    OE.  singan. 
synglerty,  uniqueness,  429. 

OF.  senglierte.  ;  cp.  syn- 

syngnette?,   pi.   seals,    838. 

OF.  signet. 
syng[u]l[e]re,     adj.    alone, 

used  as  n.  in  syng[u]l[e]re, 

in   uniqueness,    8.      OF. 

singulier  ;  cp.  synglerty. 
synne,  n.  sin,  610,  726,  811; 

pi.     synne},     823.    OE. 

synne},  pv.  3  s.  sins,  662. 

OE.  syngian. 
Syon,  789,  868. 
syt,  lamentation,  663.  ON. 

sytole-stryng,    citole-string, 

91.      OF.      citole;      OE. 

sy)>en,  adv.  afterwards,  643, 

1207;  conj.  since,  13,245; 

syn,    519-     OE.    si]>j)an. 
,    times,    1079.       OE. 

tabelment,  tier  of  ground- 

course,  994. 

table,  tier,  course,  1004. 
tached,  pp.  fastened,   464. 

OF.  atachier. 



take,    inf.    539,    552,    599, 
944,     1067,     1158;      pr. 

2  pi.  387;    3  pl.  take?, 
687;   imp.  s.  take,  559; 
pt.  3  s.  toke,  414,  808; 

3  pl.  585 ;  Pp.  taken  for, 
considered  as,  830;    tan, 
614.     ON.  taka. 

tale,    257,    311,    590,    865, 

897,  998.     OE.  talu. 
tan,  see  take, 
tech,   imp.    s.    direct,    936. 

OE.     tsecan;       cp.     by- 
teche,  n.   stain,   845.     OF. 

telle,    inf.    tell,    134,    653; 

pr.  2  s.  telle?,  919;    pt. 

3  s.  tolde,   uttered,    815. 

OE.  tellan. 
temen,  pr.  i  pl.  are  joined 

to,     subserve,     460;     cp. 

LG.  tamen,  temen,  to  fit. 
temple,  1062.  OF.  temple. 
tempte,  inf.  try,  903.  OF. 

tender,      adj.     412.     OF. 

tene?,  vexations,  332.     OE. 

tenoun,   n.   tenon,   joining, 

993.     OF.  tenon. 
tente,    n.    heed,    387.     OF. 

atente;    cp.  myse-tente. 
tenl^e,     tenth,     136,     1013. 

OE.  teotfa;  ON.  tiundi. 
terme,  n.  end,  503;  pl. 

terme?,      words,      1053. 

OF.  terme. 
that,  the  see  }>at,  I*. 

theme,  n.  subject,  944.  OF. 
*teme;  L.  thema. 

then,  thenne,  this,  thow, 
see  penne  (i),  >ys,  }>ou. 

throne,  see  trone. 

thys,  see  >is. 

to,  adv.  too,  2,  481,  492, 
615,  1070,  1075,  1076, 
1118;  to  ne  fro,  to  or 
fro,  347;  prep,  i,  10, 
20,  etc. ;  forming  ger.  22, 
45,  etc.;  for,  507,  638,  719, 
759.  79i;  before,  700; 
on,  434;  to  hym  warde, 
towards  him,  820. 

to-drawe?,  pr.  2  s.  removest, 
280;  cp.  dra?,  wyth-droj. 

togeder,  together,  1121. 

to-36re,  adv.  for  a  long  time, 
588.  OE.  to-geare;  cp. 

to?t,  adj.  taut,  firm,  sure, 
522;  (?)  pp.  of  ME. 
to?en.  OE.  togian,  to 
tow,  pull;  cp.  OE.  teon, 
to  draw. 

toke,  see  take. 

token,  n.  742.     OE.  tacen. 

tolde,  see  telle. 

torn,  leisure,  134;  toke 
more  torn,  had  to  wait 
longer,  585.  ON.  torn. 

tonge,  tongue,  100,  898; 
tong[e],  225.  OE.  tunge. 

topasye,  n.  topaz,  1012. 
OF.  topase;  L.  topazus, 
topazon,  topazion. 

tor  (i),  adj.  difficult,  1109. 
OE.,  ON.  tor-,  only  as 



tor    (2),    n.    tower,    citadel, 

966.     OF.  tur. 
to-rente,  pp-  torn  asunder, 

1136;  cp.  rent, 
to-riuen,    pp.    torn    away, 

1197.  OE.  to-;  ON.  rifa. 
tone?,     tors,     cloud-peaks, 

875.     OE.  tor. 
tot},  pr.   3  s.  betakes  him 
self,     513;     pp.    towen, 

drawn,   251.     OE.  teon. 
tou[c]h,    inf.  714;     pt.  3  s. 

towched,  898.     OF.  tou 

toun,  town,  995.     OE.  tun. 
towarde,  prep.  438,   1113; 

to-warde,  67,  974.    OE. 

toweard ;   cp.  to,  warde. 
towched,  see  touch, 
tras,     path,      1113.       OF. 


trauayle,  n.  labour,  1087. 
trauayled,  pp.  toiled,  550. 
traw,  inf.  believe,  487;    pr. 

i    5.    trowe,    933;     2    s. 

trawe?,    295;     pt.    i    s. 

trawed,  282.    OE.  treo- 

trawjtt,   justice,   495.    OE. 

trendeled,  pt.  35.  rolled,  41. 

OE.  trendlian. 
tres,  trees,  1077.     OE.  treo. 
tresor,  treasure,   331 ;    tre- 

sore,    worth,    237.    OF. 

triys,    '  truce,'    peace,    755. 

OE.  treow,   pledge;  ME. 

trew,  pi.  trews;    cp.  AF. 


trone  (i),  throne,  835,  920, 

1051,      1055;       throne, 

1113.     OF.     trone;      L. 

trone   (2),   pt.   3  pi.   went, 

1113;  cp.  Sw.  trina,  tran. 
trowe,  see  traw. 
trwe,   true,    421,    725,    822, 

1191;     true,   311;    trw, 

831 ;  adv.  trwe,  460.    OE. 

treo  we ;  cp.  vn-trwe. 
tryed,  pp.  brought  to  trial, 

707.     OF.  trier. 
[tryjeste,  surest,  1015.    OF. 

try^e,     inf.    trow,     believe, 

311.     OE.  triewan. 
trylle,  inf.  quiver,  78;    Sw. 

trilla,  to  twist. 
t[r]yste,    adv.   trustily,  460 

(see  Note). 
twayned,     pp.     separated, 

251.     OE.  twegen,  twain. 
twelf]>e,  twelfth,  1015.    OE. 

twelue,    twelve,    992,    993. 

IO22,  IO3O,  1035,  1078, 

1079.     OE.  twelf. 
two,  483,  555,  674,  949-   OE. 

twye3,  twice,  830.   OE.  twia 

+  -s. 
twynne,w.;  in  twynne, apart, 

251.     OE.    (ge)twinn.  — 
twynne-how,    adj.    of    two 

colours,  1012;  cp.  hwe. 
ty36d,  pp.  tied,   464.     OE. 

ty3t,  inf.   come,    718;    pp. 

503.     OE.  tihtan. 



ty3tc,  pt.  3  s.  described, 
1053:  PP>  ty?t,  1013; 
(?)  cp.  OE.  dihtan,to  com 

tyl,  cow/,  till,  548,  976,  979 ; 
prep,  tylle,  to,  676.  ON. 

tyme,  n.  503,  833.  OE. 
tima;  cp.  sum- tyme. 

tynde,  n.  branch,  78.  OE. 

tyne,  inf.  lose,  332.  ON. 

tyt,  quickly,  645,  728.  ON. 
tiSr,  neut.  titt;  cp.  as  tyt. 

J>a3,  cow;,   though,   52,    55, 

134,  etc. ;    ]>03,  345-    OE. 


J>are,  see  >er. 
j>at  (i),  cow/,  that,  65,  137, 

185,  etc. ;   so  that  (effect), 

35.    "9,    356,    1087;     in 

order  that,  471,  544.  OE. 

]>at   (2),   def.  art.  the,   953, 

955;    cp.  fe  (i). 
>at  (3),  pron.  dent,  that,  12, 

13,    14,   etc.;    that,   253, 

481,  937;    fern.  ace.  sing. 

>0,     136;     pi.     73.      85. 

109,       138,      451,      557, 

777.  "79;  J>ose,  93.  127; 

]>os,  515- 
>at  (4),  pron.    rel.  that,  15, 

17,37;  b&Uat,  657,  658; 

J>a[t],  856,  892. 
J>ay,  see  he. 
jje  (i),  <fe/.  art.  the,  28,  67, 

69,  etc.;  the,  85,  109,  121, 

445,     541,     685,      1141; 

with  comp.  ]?e,   103,   127, 

128,  etc.;    the,  169;    cp. 

>at  (2). 

}>e  (2),  see  jjou. 
>ede,  land,  483.    OE.  >eod; 

c/>.   are->ede. 

>ef,  thief,  273.     OE.  >Sof. 
>en    (i),    adv.,    see    jjenne 

)>en    (2),    cow;,    than,    134, 

181,     212,     etc.;    ])enn, 

555.      OE.  ftaenne. 
]>enke,  inf.  think,  22 ;  >enk, 

1151;  pr.  p.   >enkande, 

370;    pt.     I     S.     Jtfjt,     137. 

1138,  1157.     OE.  J>encan. 

>enn,  see  >en  (2). 

]>enne  (i),  arfu.  then,  155, 
177,  213,  etc.;  thenne, 
361;  >en,  277,  398,  494, 
etc.;  then,  589.  OE. 
Ssenne,  Sanne. 

|>enne  (2),  adv.  thence,  631, 
1094.  OE.  Sanon,  8a- 

>er,  adv.  there,  28,  47,  53, 
etc.;  [j>er],  1117;  l^ere, 
167,  194,  742,  942,  1155; 
>are,  830,  1021;  >ore, 
562 ;  as  subj.  of  verb, 
}>er,  21,  113,  161,  493, 
657,  1107 ;  cow/.  where,26, 
30,  41,  etc.;  |>ere,  835, 
838.  OE.  &£r,  Sar. 

}>er-as,  129,  818,  1173. 

Derate,  adv.  there,  514.  OE. 
Saer  at. 

)>er-Iore,  therefore,  1197. 

lier-inne,  therein,  447,  644, 


724,    1061,    1168;    j>ere- 

ine,  633.     O.E.  5£rinne. 
>er-of,     thereof,     99,     161, 

410,    968,     1084;    there 

from,  1069.     OE.  Sair  of. 
>er-on,  thereon,  1042  ;  there 

of,  387.     OE.  Saeron. 
]>er-oute,  out  of  doors,  930. 

OE.  Scerut. 
J>er-to,    thereto,    664,    833, 

1140;   >erto,   172.     OE. 

>ese,  see  }>ys. 

>ike,      thickly,      78.     OE. 

Jjicce;  ON.  J>ykkr. 
>is,  >ise,  see  >ys. 
>0,  see  >at  (3). 
>03,  see  ])&3. 
J>03te,  n.  thought,  524.  OE. 


>03t,  see  ]>enke,  J>ynk. 
>ole,  inf.  endure,  344.    OE. 

>onc,  n.  thanks,  901.     OE. 


>oo,  then,  873.     OE.  Sa. 
>ore,  see  >er. 
>os,  pose,  see  j>at  (3). 
J>OU,    pron.    pers.     nom.    s. 

thou,  23,  242,  245,  etc.  ; 

>ow,    411;     thow,    337; 

dat.  ace.  s.   pe,  244,  263, 

266,    etc.  ;    nom.    pi.    36, 

290,  515,  516,  etc.;   dat. 

ace.  yow,  470,  471,    524, 

928  :     used    for    s.,   nom. 

36,    3<>7»    3°8>    371,   etc.; 

dat.  ace.   yow,  287,   913, 

951.  OE.  8u  ;  cp.  J>y,  your. 
^owsande,    thousand,    786, 

869,  870;  pi.  }>owsande3, 

1107;     >ousande3,     926. 

OE.  jmsend. 
grange,    closely,    17.     ON. 

J>re,  three,  291,  292,   1034. 

OE.  |>reo. 
>rete,   inf.   complain,    561. 

OE.   ]?reatian. 
j>ro,  bold,   impatient,   344 ; 

strong,  868.     ON.  }>rar. 
)>rowe3,  pr.  3  s.  whirls,  hurls 

itself,  875.     OE.  J>rawan. 
J?rych,  inf.   press,    17;   pp. 

J>ry3t,  crowded  together, 

926;     brought     forcibly, 

670;  pierced,    706.     OE. 

>rydde,  third,  299 ;  ]>ryd[de], 

1004;    j>ryde,   833.    OE. 

J*yf,  inf.  thrive,   851;  pp. 

>ryuen,      mighty,      868 ; 

wise,   1192.     ON.  J^rifa. 
J>ry3t,  see  >rych. 
fryuen,  see  jjryf. 
Bunder,  ^.thunder,  875.  OE. 

]>ur3,     ^e/?.     through,     10, 

114,  271,  etc.     OE.  fturh. 
]>UT3-Outly,     entirely,     859. 

OE.  Surhut  +  -lice. 
>US,    thus,    526,    569,    573, 

673,  677,  829.     OE.  3us. 

J>y»    pron.    poss.    thy,    266, 

273.  275,  etc.;  >yn,  559, 

567,  754.     OE.  Sin. 

J>yder,    thither,    723,    946. 

OE.  Sider. 
>yn,  see  >y. 



yng,  thing,  771,  1157; 
>ynge,  910;  >ynk,  308, 
496,  587.  OE.  >ing. 

J>ynk,  impers.  v.  seem;  pr. 
267,  316,  552,  553,  590; 
pt.  >0}t,  19,  153-  OE. 

}>ys,  pron.  dem.  this,  250, 
277,  297,  etc.;  >is,  65, 
260,  295,  etc. ;  thys,  841 ; 
this,  733;  >ysse,  370; 
gen.  s.  >ise,  533 ',  pi-  }>ise, 
287,  384,  997,  1022,  1119; 
>yse,  555.  921,  931;  )>is, 
42;  >ese,  551,  752.  OE. 
neut.  Sis. 

}>y  self,  pron.  reflex.  473; 
>yself,  779;  J>y  seluen, 
341 ;  emphatic,  )>y  self, 
298,313.  OE.SuSeself, 
Se  selfum. 

pysse,  see  >ys. 

vayned,  see  wayne?. 

vch,    adj.    each,    31,    323, 

603,  etc. ;  vch  a,  78,  375, 

436,    etc.;    vche,    5.    33, 

310,   839,   845;   vche  a, 

117,    217,    1066,    1080. 

OE.  gehwilc. 
VChon,  pron.  each  one,  450, 

546.  595,  849,  1039;  gen. 

vchone3,  863,   1103;  cp. 

on  (i). 

ueray,  see  veray. 
uesture,  see  under  V. 
veiled,  see  weue. 
vmbe-gon,  pp.  hung  round, 

210.     OE.     ymbe;      cp. 


vmbe-py3te,  pp.  set  round, 
204,  1052;  cp.  py3t. 

vn-a-vysed,  adj.  ill-advised, 
292.  OE.  un-  +  OF. 

vnblemyst,  adj.  unblem 
ished,  782.  OF.  blemir, 

vn-cort[a]yse,  uncourteous, 
303;  cp.  cortayse. 

vnde-fylde,  adj.  undefiled, 
725.  OF.  defouler;  OE. 
fylan;  cp.  fyl>e. 

vnder  (i),  n.  forenoon,  the 
time  from  9  a.m.  to 
midday,  noon,  513.  OE. 
undern;  cp.  Goth,  un- 
daurni-mats,  a  morning 

vnder  (2),  prep,  under,  923; 
cp.  an-vnder. 

vnder-stonde,  inf.  under 
stand,  941;  cp.  stande. 

vn-hyde,  inf.  reveal,  973. 
OE.  hydan. 

vnlapped,  adj.  unfolded,  un 
bound,  214;  cp.  OE. 
laeppa,  a  loose  fold ;  hence 
ME.  lappen,  to  wrap. 

vnmete,  adj.  unfit,  759 ;  cp. 
mete  (i). 

vnpynne,  inf.  unfasten,  728; 
cp.  late  OE.  pinn. 

vnresoun-able,  illogical, 590; 
cp.  resnabelef. 

vnstrayned,  adj.  uncon 
strained,  248 ;  cp.  strayn. 

vnto,  prep.  712,  718; 
vn-to,  1169;  for,  772, 
1 2 12 ;  on  the  part  of,  362. 



vn-trwe,   untrue,    897;   cp. 


uoclied,  see  under  V. 
vp,  adv.  up,  35,   177,   191, 

254,  434,  437,  506,   974. 

OE.  up. 

vpen,  vpon,  see  open. 
vpon,    adv.    thereon,     208; 

prep,  upon,  57,  59,  370, 

824,    etc.;    vpone,    1054. 

OE.  uppon. 
vr]>e,   the   earth,  442,    893, 

1125;    er]?e,    840.      OE. 

vr>ely,  earthly,    135.     OE. 

vt-wyth,  adv.  from  outside, 

969.     OE.  ut  +  wij>. 
VUS,  see  I. 
vyf,  vyue^,  see  wyf. 
uyne,  see  vyne. 

vale?,  vales,  127.     OF.  val. 
vay4[e],  inf.  avail,  912.  OF. 

vayn,    adj.    in    vayn,    at 

nought,     811;     adv.     in 

vayne,  foolishly,  687.  OF. 


vayned,  see  wayne}. 
veray,   true,    1184;   ueray, 

1185.     OF.  verai. 
verce,  verse,  593.    OF.  vers. 
vere},  pr.  3  s.  turns,    177; 

pt.$  s.vered,254.  OF.virer. 
vergyne?,  see  vyrgyn. 
vergynte,     virginity,      767. 

OF.  verginite. 
Vertues,    pi.    Virtues,     an 

order  of  angels,  1126. 

uesture,  raiment,  220.    OF. 


veued,  see  weue. 
vm-,  vn-,  vp-,  vr-,  vt-,  see 

under  U. 
UOChed,      pp.      summoned, 

1 121.     OF.    vochier;    L. 

vus,  see  I. 
vyf,  vyuc},  see  wyf. 
vygour,     n.     power,     971. 

OF.  vigur,  vigor. 
vyne,    vineyard,    504,    507, 

521,   525,   527,   535,   582, 

628 ;  uyne,  502.   OF.  vine. 
vyrgyn,   n.   virgin,   used  as 

adj.    426;    pi.    yergyne?, 

1099.     OF.  virgine. 
vys,  n.  face,  750 ;  vyse,  254. 

OF.  vis. 
vysayge,    v.    visage,     178. 

OF.  visage. 

wace,  see  be  (i). 

wade,  inf.  143,  1151.     OE. 

wage,     inf.     endure,     416. 

OF.  wager,  to  engage. 
wakned,     pt.   i   s.    awoke, 

1171.     OE.  wsecnan. 
wal,  wall,  1017,  1026.     OE. 

weall;  cp.  castel-walle. 
wale,  inf.  choose,  point  out, 

discern,    1000,    1007;   cp. 

ON.  val,  choice. 
walk,  inf.  399 ;  pt.  s.  welke, 

101,  711.     OE.  wealcan, 

wallande,  pr.  p.  bubbling, 

365.     OE.  weallan. 



walle,  see  castel-walle. 
walte,  see  wolde  (i). 
wan,  see  wynne  (2). 
wani[n]g,     n.     diminution, 

558.     OE.  warning. 
war,  adj.  aware,  1096.    OE. 

warde,  adv.  to  hym  warde, 

towards    him,    820;    fro 

me    warde,    away    from 

me,  981.     OE.  weard. 
ware,  see  be  (i). 
warpe,  inf.  give  forth,  utter, 

879.      ON.      varpa,      to 

wasch63,   pr.    3   s.    washes, 

6555  pt>  3  s-  wesch,  766. 

OE.  waescan. 
wasse,  see  be  (i). 
wate,  see  wot. 
water,  n.  107,  in,  122,  etc. 

OE.  waeter. 
wat3,  see  be  (i). 
wawej,  pi.  waves,  287;   cp. 

MLG.  wage. 
wax,  see  wex. 
way   (i),  path,   350,    580; 

pl.    waye3,     691.      OE. 

way    (2),    adv.    away,    718. 

Aphetic  form  of  OE.  on- 

weg,  aweg;  cp.  away. 
wayne3,    pr.    3    5.    sends, 

grants,  131 ;  pp.  vayned, 

249.     ON.    vegna. 
wayted,  pp.  watched,  held 

vigil,  14.     OF.  waiter. 
we,  see  I. 
webbe3,  woven  fabrics,  71. 

OE.  webb. 

inf.  wed,  772.     OE. 

weddyng,  n.  791.   OE.  wed- 

wede,   n.   dress,    748,    766, 

1112;    pl.   wede3,    1 102, 

1133.     OE.  w£de. 
weete,  see  wete. 
wel,   adj.   239,    1187;    sup. 

best,    1131;    beste,   279, 

863;   adv.  164,  302,  411, 

505,     673;      very,     537; 

much,    145,    148;     comp. 

better,  rather,  341.     OE. 

wel ;  cp.  god. 
welcum,  adj.  welcome,  399. 

OE.  wilcuma,  n.  one  who 

comes  pleasing ;  ON.  vel- 

kominn,  pp.  welcome. 
wele,  weal,  prosperity,  joy, 

14,    133,    342,    394;     pl. 

welC3,  154.     OE.  wela. 
welke,  see  walk, 
welkyn,     n.      116.        OE. 

wolcnu,    pl.    of     wolcen, 

welle,    n.    365,    649.    OE. 

welnygh,     adv.     well-nigh, 

581 ;   wel-ne3,  528.     OE. 

welneah ;  cp.  ner. 
wely,     blissful,     101.     OE. 

wemle3,  spotless,  737.  OE. 

wemme,   spot,    fault,    221, 

1003.     OE.  wemman,  to 

stain;  n.  wamm. 
wende  (i),  inf.  go,  643,  pt.  i 

s.  wente,  761 ;   3  s.  went, 



113°;  3  pl>  wente,  525. 
631.  OE.  wendan. 

wende  (2),  see  wene. 

wene,  inf.  think  out,  ima 
gine,  suppose,  1141 ;  pr.  i 
s.  I  wot  &  wene,  I  know 
full  well,  47,  201 ;  pt. 
i  s.  wende,  supposed, 
1148.  OE.  wenan. 

went,  wente,  see  wende  (i). 

wer  (i),  pt.  3  s.  wore,  205. 
OE.  werian. 

wer  (2),  were,  see  be  (i). 

werke,  n.  work,  599.  OE. 

werkmen,  pi.  507.  OE. 

werle,  n.  attire,  covering, 
209.  ( ?)  OE.*  werels  (cp. 
ON.  vesl). 

wern,  see  be  (i). 

wesch,  see  wasche?. 

westernays,  '  widdishins, ' 
contrariwise,  turned 
away,  perversely,  307. 
OF.  bes-torneis,  so  trans 
formed  as  to  suggest 
'  westerly.' 

wete,  wet,  761;  weete, 
1135.  OE.  wfet. 

we)>er,  see  whe]>er. 

weue,  inf.  come,  318;  pp. 
veued,  976.  OE.  wsefan. 

weuen,  pt.  3  pi.  wove,  71. 
OE.  wefan,  waef. 

wex,  pt.  3  s.  grew,  538,  648  ; 
wax,  flowed,  649.  OE. 

whallej,  gen.  s.  whale's,  212. 
OE.  hwsel. 

wham,  see  quo  (2). 

what,  see  quo. 

whate},     omens,     fortunes, 

1041.      OE.    hwaet  ;    see 


when,  see  quen. 
where,  see  quere. 
whete,     wheat,     32.     OE. 

whe|>er,    adv.    nevertheless, 

581,    826;    conj.    subord. 

with   o>er,   whether  .  .  . 

or,  130,  604;    we>er,  in 
troducing     question,    565. 

OE.  hwaBSer. 
who,  see  quo. 
why,  adv.  interr.  329,  338, 

515,  634;    wy,  290,  533, 

564;     quy,    561;     inter j. 

why,  769.     OE.  hwy. 
whyle,  adv.  once  on  a  time, 

15.  OE.  w.hwil ;  c^.awhyle. 
whyt,  whyte,  see  quyt. 
with,  see  wyth. 
wlonk,     noble,     beauteous, 

1171;      wlonk[e],     122; 

wlonc,  903.     OE.  wlanc. 
wo,  n.  woe,    56,   154,    342. 

OE.  wa. 
wod,forest,i22.    OE.  wudu ; 

cp.  holte-wode^. 
wode,  mad,  743.     OE.  wod. 
wod-schawe3,    pi.    groves, 

284.     OE.  sceaga. 
woghe,     wickedness,     622. 

OE.  woh. 

W036,  wall,  1049.    OE.  wah. 
wolde  (i),  inf.  possess,  812; 

pp.    walte,    held,     1156. 

OE.  waldan. 



wolde  (2),  wolde3,  see  wyl  (2). 
wolen,    adj.    woollen,    731. 

OE.  wyllen. 

wolle,  n.  wool,  844.  OE.  wull. 
wommon,  gen.  pi.  women's, 

236.     OE.  wifmann. 
won  (i),  n.  dwelling-place, 

1049;  pi.  wone3,  917.  924, 

1027 ;  to  wone3,  home,  32. 

OE.  (ge)wuna;  ON.  vani. 
won  (2),  inf.  dwell,  298,  315, 

644;  won[e],  918;  wony, 

284;   pr.  3  s.  wonys,  47; 

3  pi.  wone3,  404.    OE. 

wonde,  inf.  turn  back,  153. 

OE.  wandian. 

wonder,  n.  used  as  adj.  won 
drous,   221,    1095.      OE. 


wonne,  see  wynne  (2). 
wont,  adj.  accustomed,  15; 

wonte,  172.    OE.  wunod, 

pp.  of  wunian. 
wonted,  pt.  3  s.  lacked,  215. 

ON.  vanta. 

wony,  wonys,  see  won  (2). 
worchen,   pr.   3   pi.   work, 

511;     imp.    pi.    wyrke3, 

536;  pt.  3  5.  wro3t,  748; 

wro3t[e],    825  5     wra3te, 

56;  3  pi.  wr03t,  555,  631; 

wro3te,    525 ;     wr03ten, 

622 ;  pp.  wr03t,  638,  824. 

OE.  wyrcan. 
worde,  word,  294 ;  pi.  wor- 

de?,  291,  307,  3M.  367, 

819.     OE.  word. 
wore,  see  be  (i). 
worlde,  world,  65,  424,  476, 

537,  579,  657,  743,  761, 
824;  in  worlde,  at  all, 
293.  OE.  weoruld,  wor- 

worschyp,  n.  honour,  394, 
479.  OE.  weor)>scipe. 

worte3,  pi.  plants,  42.  OE. 

WOF]>e  (i),  adj.  worthy,  100; 
worth,  451.  OE.  weor)?, 

worj>e  (2),  pr.  3  s.  subj.  be, 
362;  pp.  worsen  to,  be 
come,  394.  OE.  weorSan. 

wor>ly,  adj.  noble,  1073; 
worthyly,  846;  used  as 
n.  wor>yly,  47;  adv. 
1133.  OE.  weorSHc; 
ON.  verSuligr. 

wor>y,  noble,  494;  worth, 
616;  cp.  OE.  wyrSig; 
ON.  verftugr. 

[w]ose,  wild  man,  91 1 .  OE. 

wost,  see  wot. 

wot,  pr.  i  s.  know,  47, 
201,  1107;  wate,  502; 
2  s.  wost,  411;  woste, 
293;  pt.  i  s.  wyste,  65, 
376;  2  s.  wyste3,  617. 
OE.  witan. 

woj>e,  n.  open  country,  vch 
a  W0>e,  every  place, 
375.  OE.  wa.J>,  hunting- 
ground,  place;  cp.  G. 

W0[>e],  n.  peril,  154;  pi. 
W0>63,  151.  ON.  vaSi. 

wounde,  n.  wound,  650, 
1135,  1142.  OE.  wund. 


wra^te,  see  worehen. 
wrang,     n.     wrong,      631; 

wrange,  15.     OE.  wrang. 
wrange,  adv.  wrongly,  488; 

wrang,  614. 
wrathjje,    n.     wrath,    362. 

OE.  wra3j)]x>;    cp.  wro>e. 
wreched,    wretched,    made 

miserable,        56.         OE. 

wrecca,  an  outcast. 
writ,  see  wryt. 
WIO,  n.  corner,  866.    ON.  ra. 
wrojt,    wro3ten,    see    wor 
wroken,  pp.  banished,  375. 

OE.  wrecan,  wraec,  wre- 

Wro]>e,     adj.    wroth,     379. 

OE.  wraj>;  cp.  wrath^e. 
wryt,     writing,     Scripture, 

592;  writ,  997.   OE.writ. 
wryte?,  pr.  3  5.  writes,  1033 ; 

pp.  wryten,  834,  866,  871. 

OE.  writan. 
wry^e,  inf.  turn,  350,  488; 

pr.  3  pi.  wry>en,  strain 

themselves,      511.      OE . 

wy,  see  why. 

wyde,  adj.  1135.    OE.  wld. 
wyf,  wife,  846;    vyf,  772; 

pi.  vyue3,  785-     OE.  wif. 
wy3,    n.   person,    100,    131, 

722;  pi.  wy3C3,  71,    579- 

OE.  wiga. 
wy3t,  n.  person,  338 ;  wy3te, 

494.     OE.  wiht. 
wy3te,    adj.    active,    brave, 

694.     ON.   adj.   m.    vigr, 

n.  vlgt,  in  fighting  form. 

wyl  (i),  conj.  till,  528.    OE. 

n.  hwil. 
wyl  (2),  pr.  i  s.  wish,  558; 

3  s.  350,  443,  965;    2  s. 

subj.   794 ;    pt.    (with  pr. 

significance)    i   s.   wolde, 

390,     910;      2     S.     W0ld63, 

410;  3  s.  wolde,  304,  451, 

488,  772,  1195;   pi.  391, 

849;      (with    pt.    signifi 
cance)    i    s.    977,     1155. 

OE.  willan. 
wylle,  n.  will,  56,  131.     OE. 

wylne3,  pr.  2  s.  wishest,  318. 

OE.  wilnian. 

wyn,  wine,  1209.     OE.  win. 
wynge3,  pi.  wings,  93.   ON. 

vengr,  vaengr. 
wynne    (i),    adj.    winsome, 

154,     647.     OE.     wynn, 

joy;     (?)   ME.   adj.  from 

wynnum,  joyfully. 
wynne   (2),   inf.   win,   579, 

722 ;  attain,  694 ;  pt.  i  5. 

wan,    came,     107;      pp. 

wonne,      brought,      32 ; 

come,  517.     OE.  winnan, 

wann,   wunnen. 
wynter,  n.  used  as  adj.  116. 

OE.  winter. 
wyrde,  fate,  249,  273.     OE. 


wyrke3,  see  worehen. 
wys,    adj.   wise,    748.     OE. 

wyschande,  pr.  p.  desiring, 

14.     OE.  wyscan. 
wyse  (i),  n.  manner,  kind, 

101,  133,  1095.    OE.  wise. 



wyse  (2),  inf.  appear,  1135. 
OE.  wlsian. 

wyste,  see  wot. 

wyt,  mind,  understanding, 
903;  wytte,  294.  OE. 

wyth,  prep,  with,  40,  54,  74, 
etc;  with,  200,  202,  837; 
by,  806.  OE.  wi>. 

wyth-dro},  pt.  3  s.  withdrew, 
658;  cp.  dra3,  to-drawe3. 

wyth-inne,  adv. within,  102 7 ; 
prep.  440,  679,  966.  OE. 

wyth-nay,  imp.  s.  refuse, 
916.  ON.  nei,  no;  per 
haps  withnay  on  analogy 
with  denaien,  OF.  de- 
neier,  to  deny. 

wyth-outen,  prep,  without, 
12,  24,  36,  etc.;  wyth- 
oute,  644,  695.  OE. 

wy>er-half,  adj.  the  oppo 

site    side   of,    230.    OE. 
wiser,  contrary ;  cp.  half. 

ydel,  adj.  idle,  514,  515,  531, 

533.     OE.  Idel. 
y3e,  n.  eye,  302,  567,  1153; 

pi.  y3en,  183,  254,  296; 

[ene],  200.     OE.  eage. 
yle,  isle,  detached  or  distant 

region,  693.     OF.  ile;  L. 

ynde,    Indian   dye,    indigo, 

76,  1016.     OF.  inde. 
yor,  see  your, 
yot,  (?)  got,  10.     OE.  gie- 

tan;  cp.  ME.  for^eten. 
your,  pron.  poss.  257,  258, 

3°5,  306,  369,  389,  393, 

497,  924;  yor,  761.     OE. 

eower;   cp.  >ou. 
yow,  see  J>pu. 
Ysaye,  Isaiah,  797,  819. 
yuore,  n.  ivory,   178.     OF. 

ivoire ;  AF.  ivorie. 




OLYMPIA,  the  Latin  text  with  an  English 
rendering,  edited  by  me,  was  printed  by 
the  Florence  Press  (Chatto  &  Windus)  and 
published  in  1913  to  commemorate  the  six 
hundredth  anniversary  of  Boccaccio's  birth. 
The  issue  was  limited  to  550  copies.  The 
present  text  and  translation  represent  a  revision 
of  the  1913  edition. 

My  interest  in  Boccaccio's  OLYMPIA  dates 
from  1904,  when  my  dear  friend  the  late 
Professor  W.  H .  Schofield,  of  Harvard,  reprinted 
from  the  Publications  of  the  Modern  Language 
Association  of  America,  xix.  I,  an  article  on 
"The  Nature  and  Fabric  of  the  Pearl,"  in 
which  he  attempted  to  disprove  the  obvious 
autobiographical  interpretation  of  the  poem, 
and  to  maintain  that  its  elegiac  setting  was 
a  mere  literary  device  for  dealing  with  certain 
theological  problems. 

An  Appendix  was  added  embodying  supple 
mentary  information  concerning  the  source 
of  the  poem,  in  which  Dr.  Schofield  stated 
that  after  his  article  had  been  printed  his 
attention  was  directed  by  Dr.  E.  K.  Rand, 

244          BOCCACCIO'S  OLYMPIA. 

of  Harvard,  to  Boccaccio's  Eclogue.  He 
proceeded  to  demonstrate  the  dependence 
of  the  English  poem  upon  the  Latin  as 
its  direct  source,  and  somewhat  strangely, 
instead  of  being  induced  by  "  the  new  fact " 
to  modify  his  former  contention,  asserted 
that  the  undoubted  elegiac  reality  of  the 
alleged  original  actually  confirmed  his  views 
as  to  the  non-autobiographical  character  of 
"The  Pearl."  After  comparing  the  two 
poems,  he  was,  however,  forced  to  admit  that, 
in  saying  that  the  Eclogue  was  its  source, 
he  did  not  mean  more  than  that  it  was  the 
"starting-point  of  the  author's  conception." 
I  do  not  propose  on  the  present  occasion  to 
traverse  the  arguments.  I  was  none  the  less 
grateful  to  Dr.  Schofield,  although  after  long 
study  of  the  two  poems  I  came  to  the  con 
clusion  that  there  was  no  definite  evidence 
of  any  indebtedness  on  the  part  of  the  author 
of  "  Pearl "  to  Boccaccio's  poem,  and  that 
such  parallels  as  might  be  discovered  in  the  two 
poems  might  be  due  to  the  poets'  common 
knowledge,  ideas,  and  belief.  Moreover,  in  one 
striking  instance  the  alleged  similarity  does  not 
exist.  "  In  both  cases,"  it  was  pointed  out, 
"  the  poet,  grieving  for  a  dead  child,  falls 
asleep  on  the  ground  in  a  leafy  arbor  ; "  but 

BOCCACCIO'S  OLYMPIA.         245 

"  ex  molli  caespite  recubans  "  indicates  a  soft 
pillow,  and  not  the  ground.  With  the 
dangers  of  parallelism  before  me,  I  attempted 
to  consider  the  question  independently  ;  for 
which  purpose  I  found  it  necessary,  in  the 
first  place,  to  prepare  an  adequate  text  of  the 
Eclogue,  and  further,  in  order  to  understand 
it  aright,  to  render  it  into  English. 

The  poem  was  included  in  collections  of 
Latin  Eclogues  printed  in  Florence,  1504, 
and  in  Basle,  1546  ;  and  again  in  "  Carmina 
Illustrium  Poetarum  Italorum,"  Florence, 
1719.  All  these  texts  are  unsatisfactory, 
though  the  last  is  perhaps  the  best  of  them. 
To  Dr.  Oscar  Hecker  belongs  the  high  dis 
tinction  of  having  discovered  what  he  has 
proved  to  be  Boccaccio's  autograph  manuscript 
of  the  Eclogues,  including  "  Olympia."  His 
discovery  is  set  forth  in  a  remarkable  volume, 
"  Boccaccio-Funde,"  1901,  where  among  other 
treasures  he  prints  from  the  precious  volume 
in  the  Bibliotheca  Riccardiana  at  Florence 
the  text  of  "  Olympia,"  letter  for  letter,  in 
the  poet's  own  orthography,  minutely  re 
producing  the  original.  With  the  help  of 
this  text,  I  have  been  able  to  correct  some 
bad  errors  in  the  1719  text,  which  I  have 
taken  as  the  basis  of  the  present  edition.  The 

246         BOCCACCIO'S  OLYMPIA. 

spelling  and  punctuation  have  been  normalised 
in  accordance  with  modern  usage. 

The  extracts  from  Boccaccio's  letters  to 
Petrarch  and  Martin  da  Signa  are  from 
Corrazzi's  "  Le  Lettere  edite  e  inedite  di 
Messer  Giovanni  Boccaccio,"  with  some  slight 

In  addition  to  Dr.  Hecker's  work,  the 
following  investigations  should  be  noted  : 
Hortis,  Studij  sulle  opere  latine  del  Boc 
caccio,  1879;  Zumbini,  Le  Ecloghe  del 
Boccaccio,  Giornale  storico  della  lett.  ital. 
vii  ;  Dobelli,  II  culto  del  Boccaccio  per 
Dante,  Giornale  Dantesco,  An.  v,  fasc.  v,  vi, 
vii  ;  Enrico  Carrara,  Un  oltretomba  Bucolico, 
1899 — the  last  an  interesting  effort  to  explain 
allusions,  proper  names,  and  sources,  with 
special  reference  to  Dante.  So  far  as  diction 
is  concerned,  the  poet's  chief  debt,  directly 
and  indirectly,  is  to  Virgil.  Whatever  occa 
sional  defects  may  be  found  in  the  Latinity 
of  the  poem  are  amply  compensated  by  the 
all-pervading  grace  of  sentiment  and  feeling. 

The  date  of  "Olympia"  is  about  1361, 
some  two  or  three  years  after  the  child's 
death  at  the  age  of  five  and  a  half. 

It  is  not  known  who  is  to  be  understood 
by  Fusca,  probably  the  child's  mother.  Asylas 

BOCCACCIO'S  OLYMPIA.         247 

is  evidently  a  reference  to  Boccaccio's  father. 
By  Mopsus  Homer  may  perhaps  be  under 
stood  ;  Virgil  by  Tityrus  ;  Dante  by  Minci- 
ades,  though  the  name  primarily  would  suggest 
Virgil.  Codrus,  for  Christ,  in  Olympia's 
Hymn,  is  explained  by  the  Athenian  king's 
self-sacrifice  for  his  country's  sake.  Ischiros 
is  the  Greek  'lo^po?,  strong,  mighty.  Simi 
larly,  the  form  Parthenos,  with  the  second 
vowel  as  lengthened,  should  be  noted.  Arce- 
silas  is  probably  used  in  its  etymological  sense 
of  "  Chieftain."  A  gloss  in  the  margin  of  the 
MS.  gives  "  Lycos,"  that  is,  Wolf,  the  name 
of  the  dog,  as  from  the  Greek  and  equivalent 
to  "  albus."  Therapon,  the  source  of  which  the 
poet  forgot,  is  evidently  0epa7rwi/,  an  attendant. 
"  De  Libano,  sponsa,  veni,"  the  song  Asylas 
invites  Olympia  to  sing  with  him,  from  the 
fourth  chapter  of  the  Song  of  Songs  : 

"  Tota  pulchra  es,  arnica  mea,  et  macula  non 

est  in  te. 
Veni  de  Libano,  sponsa  mea,  veni  de  Libano, 

Coronaberis    de    capite    Amana,    de    vertice 

Sanir  et  Hermon,"  etc., 

was  perhaps   suggested    by   Dante,   Purgatorio 
xxx,  ii  : 

248         BOCCACCIO'S  OLYMPIA. 

"  ed  un  di  loro,  quasi  da  ciel  messo, 
'  Veni,  sponsa,  de  Libano '  cantando 
Grido  tre  volte,  e  tutte  gli  altri  appresso." 

The  words,  as  the  burden  of  a  religious  love- 
song,  occur  frequently  in  mediaeval  literature. 
Their  use  in  "  Pearl "  is  very  striking,  though 
the  situation  is  not  parallel.  In  sentiment  the 
two  poems  are  indeed  linked  together  ;  and 
by  way  of  illustrating  this  identity  of  spirit, 
however  different  the  form,  stanza  LXIV  may 
fittingly  be  noted. 

A  like  sorrow  befell  two  poets,  and  each 
found  solace  in  song.  The  one — a  pioneer 
of  the  Renaissance — characteristically,  under 
the  influence  of  his  great  Italian  Master, 
harmonised  Virgilian  form  with  Christian 
belief.  The  other — a  didactic  English  poet, 
far  from  the  new  literary  currents — bethought 
him  of  the  Pearl  of  the  Gospel,  and  found  his 
inspiration  in  the  visionary  scenes  of  the  New 
Jerusalem,  coloured  by  mediaeval  allegory.  In 
his  poem,  "  the  river  from  the  Throne "  of 
the  Apocalypse  met  "  the  waters  of  the  wells," 
devised  by  Sir  Mirth  for  the  Garden  of  the 

In  accordance  with  theological  fancy,  in 
each  poem  the  transfigured  child,  grown  in 
wisdom,  appears  as  matured  also  in  age,  "joined 

BOCCACCIO'S  OLYMPIA.         249 

in  Eternal  Spousal."  No  longer  the  children 
they  were,  they  teach  with  bold  authority 
lessons  of  resignation  and  the  mystic  properties 
of  Heaven — Pearl  more  particularly,  who 
in  her  argumentative  skill  recalls  the  figure 
of  Reason  in  the  "  Romaunt."  Yet,  at  the 
same  time,  to  the  dreamer  Pearl  is  still  "  my 
little  queen,"  and,  for  all  "  her  royal  array," 
his  treasure  "small  and  sweetly  slight."  So, 
too,  Olympiads  voice  and  image  are  those 
of  Violante — "virguncula  mea."  The  child 
angelic,  matured  in  Heaven — "for  spousal  fit" 
— is  still  the  child  for  dreamer  and  poet.  In 
the  Kingdom  all  are  as  children.  And  even 
to  Dante,  in  the  hour  of  his  imperilled  loyalty 
to  her  memory,  Beatrice  first  appears  "con 
quelle  vestimenta  sanguigne,  colle  quali  apparve 
prima  agli  occhi  miei,  e  pareami  giovane  in 
simile  etade  a  quella,  in  che  prima  la  vidi." 

OLYMPIAN  !     From  thy  laurel  that  ne'er  fades 
A  tender  leaf  athwart  our  pathway  falls, 
And,  fragrant  with  sweet  violet,  recalls 
The  dearest  blossom  in  thy  love-lit  glades. 

Far  from  thy  Roses,  with  desire  imbrued, 

Far  from  thy  Garden,  where  with  wanton  lays 

Plague-haunted  dames  and  gallants  sped  their 

A  floweret  all  too  frail  thy  tears  bedew'd. 

Not  Fiammetta,  but  thy  angel-child 

Led  thee  foot-sore  the  Hill-top  to  ascend, 

The  high  Olympus  of  the  undefiled. 

There  Beatrice  on  Violante  smiled, 
And  told  of  fair  Eletta,  thy  child-friend, 
And  played  with  Pleasant  Pearl,  so  wise  and 





Interlocuti  sumus  in  hortulo  tuo,  assistentibus 
ex  amicis  nonnullis,  consedimus  ;  ibi  explic 
ation  placidoque  sermone,  domum,  libros  et 
tua  omnia  obtulit,  et  quantum  in  ea  fuit, 
matronali  semper  gravitate  servata,  sumpsissem. 
Inde  has  inter  oblationes  et  ecce  modestiori 
passu  quam  deceret  aetatem  Electa  tua  dilecta 
mea,  et  antequam  me  nosceret  ridens  aspexit. 
Quam  ego  non  laetus  tantum  sed  avidus  ulnis 
suscepi.  Primo  intuitu  virgunculam  olim  meam 
suspicatus.  Quid  dicam  ?  Si  mihi  non  credis, 
Gulielmo  Ravennati  medico,  et  Donate  nostro 
qui  novere  credito.  Eadem,  quae  meae  fuit, 
Electae  tuae  facies  est,  idem  risus,  eademque 
oculorum  laetitia,  gestus  incessusque  et  eadem 

LETTER  TO  PETRARCH.         253 

DESCRIBING      HlS    VlSIT     TO      FRANCESCA,      P£- 


We  sat  chatting  in  your  garden,  and  some  of 
your  friends  who  were  there  joined  in  the  talk. 
Francesca  most  graciously  pressed  me  to  make 
myself  at  home,  and  proffered  me  your  books 
and  all  your  belongings — all  she  had  I  was  to 
consider  mine  ;  but  not  for  a  moment  did  she 
forget  the  modest  demeanour  of  the  perfect 
wife.  She  was  welcoming  me,  when,  lo,  there 
before  me  was  your  dear  little  Eletta,  my  little 
friend  !  How  gracefully  she  came  along  ! 
One  could  not  have  expected  such  grace  in  so 
young  a  child.  Before  she  could  know  who 
I  was,  she  smiled  at  me  so  sweetly.  What  joy 
was  mine  when  I  saw  her  !  What  a  hunger 
seized  my  heart  as  I  held  her  in  my  arms  ! 
At  first  I  thought  it  was  my  own  girlie — the 
little  maid  once  mine.  Need  I  say  more  ? 
You'll  hardly  believe  me.  But  ask  Doctor 
William  of  Ravenna  and  our  friend  Donatus. 
They  know.  Your  little  Eletta  is  the  very 
image  of  my  lost  one.  She  has  the  same  laugh, 
the  same  joyous  eyes,  the  same  bearing  and 


totius  corpusculi  habitude,  quamquam  gran- 
diuscula  mea,  eoque  aetate  esset  provectior, 
quintum  quippe  jam  annum  attigerat  et  dimi- 
dium,  dum  ultimo  illam  vidi.  Insuper  si  idem 
idioma  fuisset,  verba  eadem  erant  atque  sim- 
plicitas.  Quid  mula  !  In  nihilo  differentes 
esse  cognovi,  nisi  quia  aurea  caesaries  tuae  est, 
meae  inter  nigram  rufamque  fuit.  Heu  mihi  ! 
quotiens  dum  hanc  persaepe  amplector,  et  suis 
delector  collocutionibus,  memoria  subtractae 
mihi  puellulae  lacrimas  ex  oculis  usque  deduxit, 
quas  demum  in  suspirium  versas  emisi,  adver- 
tente  nemine. 


Quarta  decima  Ecloga  Olympia  dicitur  :  Olym- 
pos  graece,  quod  splendidum  seu  lucidum  latine 
sonat,  et  inde  caelum  ;  et  ideo  huic  eclogae 
attributum  est,  quoniam  in  ea  plurimum  de 
qualitate  caelestis  regionis  habeatur  sermo. 
Collocutores  quattuor  sunt  :  Silvius,  Camalus, 
Therapon,  et  Olympia.  Pro  Silvio  me  ipsum 
intellego,  quern  sic  nuncupo  eo  quod  in  sylva 
quadam  hujus  eclogae  primam  cogitationem 
habuerim.  Camalos  graece,  latine  sonat  hebes 
vel  torpens,  eo  quod  in  eo  demonstrentur  mores 

LETTER  TO  PETRARCH.         255 

gait  ;  she  holds  her  dear  little  body  just  the 
same  way.  My  girlie  was  perhaps  slightly 
taller,  but  then  she  was  older  ;  she  was  five 
and  a  half  when  I  saw  her  last.  Had  their 
dialect  been  the  same,  they  would  have  spoken 
the  same  words — the  same  simple  artless  words. 
I  can  see  no  difference,  except  that  Eletta's  hair 
is  golden,  while  my  girlie's  was  chestnut  brown. 
Ah  me  !  how  often,  while  I  fondled  your  little 
one,  and  listened  to  her  sweet  prattle,  did  the 
memory  of  the  little  daughter  reft  from  me 
bring  tears  to  my  eyes  !  How  often,  when  no 
one  observed,  did  I  sigh  away  my  tears  ! 


This  fourteenth  Eclogue  is  called  Olympia, 
from  the  Greek  Olympos,  signifying  in  Latin 
splendidus  or  lucidus,  and  so  Heaven.  Hence 
the  name  Olympia  is  given  to  this  Eclogue, 
since  much  is  told  herein  concerning  the 
heavenly  realm.  The  speakers  are  four  in 
number  :  Silvius,  Camalus,  Therapon,  and 
Olympia.  By  Silvius  I  mean  myself,  and  so 
I  name  myself  here,  because  the  first  thought 
of  this  Eclogue  came  to  me  in  a  wood.  Cama 
lus  is  from  a  Greek  word  signifying  hebes  or 
torpens,  that  is,  dull  or  sluggish — a  type  of  the 


torpentis  servi.  Therapon,  hujus  significatum 
non  pono,  quia  non  memini,  nisi  iterum  re- 
visam  librum,  ex  quo  de  caeteris  sumpsi,  et  ideo 
ignoscas.  Scis  hominis  memoriam  labilem  esse 
et  potissime  senum.  Pro  Olympia  intellego 
parvulam  filiam  meam  olim  mortuam  ea  in 
aetate  in  qua  morientes  caelestes  effici  cives 
credimus  :  et  ideo  ex  Violante  dum  viveret 
mortuam  caelestem,  id  est  Olympiam,  voco. 



lazy  servant.  Of  Therapon  I  am  not  giving 
you  the  meaning  ;  indeed  I  cannot  recall  it 
unless  I  refer  to  the  book  whence  I  took  the 
rest.  So  please  pardon  me.  You  know  how 
slippery  is  memory,  and  especially  the  memory 
of  old  men.  By  Olympia  I  mean  my  little 
daughter,  who  died  at  that  age  at  which,  as  we 
believe,  those  who  die  become  the  citizens  of 
heaven.  And  so  for  Violante,  as  she  was  named 
when  living,  I  call  her  now  Olympia — the 






Si/v.  Sentio,  ni  fallor,  pueri,  pia  numina  ruris 
Lsetari,  et  cantu  volucrum  nemus  omne  repleri. 
Itque   reditque   Lycos    blando   cum    murmure ; 


Viderit  ignore  ;  cauda  testatur  amicum. 
Ite  igitur,  jam  clara  dies  difFunditur  umbris        5 
Prxcantata  diu  ;   quid  sit  perquirite,  quidve 
Viderit  inde  Lycos  noster,  compertaque  ferte. 
Cam.  Dum  nequit  in  somnum  miserum  com- 

ponere  pectus, 

Imperat  ex  molli  recubans  heu  cespite  moestus 
Silvius,  etnoctis  pavidas  lustrare  tenebras         10 
Vult  pueros  longo  fessos  in  luce  labore. 

Si/v.    Camale,   dum    primes    terris   prasstabit 


Nocturnes  ignes,  currus  dum  Delia  fratris 
Ducet  ad  occasum,  dum  sternet  cerva  leones,   14 
Obsequium  praestabit  hero  sine  murmure  servus. 




Silv.  If  I  err  not,  the  sylvan  sprites  rejoice. 
List,  boys  !  with  song  of  birds  the  grove  is  filled. 
With  gentle  whine  Wolf  scampers  to  and  fro ; 
something  he  sees ;  as  for  a  friend  he  wags. 
Bright  day,  long  heralded,  bestreaks  the  shades  : 
go,  seek  ye  what  it  is,  and  what  good  Wolf 
yonder  has  seen  ;  and  quickly  bring  me  word. 
Cam.  Our  master,  when  alack !    he    cannot 


his  aching  heart  to  sleep,  from  downy  bed 
gives  orders,  and  poor  we,  toil-weary  boys, 
what  recketh  he  ? —  must  forth  and  view  dread 

Silv.  In  Western  Ocean  when   the  Dawn's 

first  streak 

illumines  Earth,  when  Delia  westward  leads 
her  brother's  team,  when  hinds  o'er  lions  vaunt, 
a  servant  then  perchance  will  do  as  bid. 


O  Therapon,  stabuli  tu  solve  repagula  nostri, 
Pone    metum,     videas     catulus     quid    viderit, 

Ther.  Festina,  fac,  surge  senex  !   Jam  corripit 


Jam  veteres  quercus,  et  noctem  lumine  vincit ; 
Uritur  omne  nemus,  fervens  jam  flamma  penates 
Lambit,  et  occursu  lucis  perterritus  intra         21 
Festinus  redii.      Lambit  jam  flamma  penates  ! 
Silv .  Pastorum  venerande  Deus,  Pan,  deprecor 

adsis ! 

Et  vos,  o  pueri,  flammis  occurrite  lymphis. 
Siste  parum,  Therapon,  paulum  consiste.     Quid 

istud  ?  25 

Quid  video  ?  sanusne  satis  sum  ?  dormio  forsan. 
Non  facio !    Lux  ista  quidem,  non   flamma  vel 


Nonne  vides  laetas  frondes  corylosque  virentes 
Luminis  in  medio,  validas  ac  undique  fagos 
Intactas  ?  Immo,  nee  nos  malus  ardor  adurit.  30 
Ther.  Si  spectes  coelo  testantur  sidera  noctem, 
In  silvis  lux  alma  diem.     Quid  grande  paratur  ? 
Silv.  Sic     natura     vices    variat,    noctemque 

Explicuit  mixtos  terris ;  nee  lumina  Phcebae 

OLYMPIA.  261 

But,  Therapon,  do  thou  unbar  the  door ! 
Fear  not ;    see  thou,  I  pray,  what  Wolf  has 
seen. — 

Ther.  Haste,    sir,    arise,  come  forth !     Our 

ancient  oaks 

are  all  by  fire  possessed  ;   light  conquers  night, 
the  grove  is  all  a-glow ;   fierce  flames  now  lap 
the  very  gods  within.     Awed  by  the  sight, 
1  hied  me  thence.    The  flames  the  gods  now  lap  ! 
Silv.  Pan,  holy  God  of  shepherds,  be  my  help ! 
Go  ye,  my  boys,  with  water  face  the  flames. 
Stay,  Therapon  !   stay  here  awhile. — What  is't  ? 
What  see  I  ?    Am  I  sane  ?    Perchance  I  sleep  : 
Nay,  yonder  light,  it  is  nor  flame  nor  fire. 
Seest  not  the  branches  fair,  the  hazels  green 
amid  the  glow,  the  beech-trees  all  about 
inviolate  ?     Here  burns  no  evil  heat. 

Ther.  Look  skyward  !  spangled  stars  betoken 

Daylight   the    wood    illumes.     What    wonder 

next  ? 
Silv.  So  Nature  marks  her  changes  ;  day  and 

commingled  she  displays.     But  here  I  see 


Nee  Solis  radios  cerno.     Non  sends  odores    35 
Insolitos  silvis,  nemus  hoc  si  forte  Sabaeum 
Fecisset  natura  parens  ?  Quos  inde  recentes 
Nox  peperit  flores  ?  Quos  insuper  audio  cantus  ? 
Haec  superos  ambire  locos  et  pascua  signant. — 


O/y m.  Salve  dulce  decus  nostrum,  pater  optime, 
salve !  40 

Ne  timeas,  sum  nata  tibi.    Quid  lumina  flectis  ? 
Silv.  Nescio  num  vigilem,  fateor,  seu  somnia 


Nam  coram  genitae  voces  et  dulcis  imago 
Stant    equidem ;    timeo    falli,    quia     sxpe    per 


Illusere  dei  stolidos  ;  nos  claustra  petamus  !    45 
Olym.  Silvi,  quid  dubitas  ?  an  credis,  Olym- 

pia  patrem 

Ludat,  et  in  lucem  sese  sine  numine  divum 
Praebeat  ?  Hue  veni  lacrimas  demptura  dolentes. 
Silv.  Agnosco,  nee  fallit  amor,    nee  somnia 


O  nimium  dilecta  mihi,  spes  unica  patris,          50 
Quis  te,  nata,  deus  tenuit  ?       Te  Fusca  ferebat, 

OLYMPIA.  263 

nor  Phoebe's  beams  nor  Sol's.      Rare  fragrances 
feel'st  not,  as  if  Dame  Nature  here  had  made 
a  grove  of  Araby  ?     What  flowers  fresh 
has  Night  brought  forth  ?     What  strains  hear  I 

above  ? 
God-haunted  spots  and    pastures    these    things 

show. — 


Olym.  Hail,    chiefest    glory,  dearest    father, 


Fear  not,  I  am  thy  daughter.     Why  this  look  ? 
Silv.  I'  faith,   I   know  not,   do   I   wake   or 

dream ! 

My  child's  voice  hear  I,  and  her  image  sweet 
stands  here  before  me.    Fool !    Too  oft  the  gods 
with  shadows  trick  dull  mortals.     Let  us  home  ! 
Olym.  Silvius,    doubt     not !     think'st    thou 


would  mock  her  father,  or  herself  reveal 
against  God's  will  ?     To  dry  thy  tears  I  come. 
Silv.  Now  know  I,  'tis  no  trick  of  love  or 


O  too  beloved  !   thy  father's  dearest  hope  ! 
What  god  restrained  thee,  child  ?     Me  Fusca 


Chalcidicos  colles,  et  pascua  lata  Vesevi 
Dum  petii,  raptam  nobis,  Cybelisque  sacrato 
Absconsam  gremio,  nee  post  base  posse  videri. 
Quod  credens,  moerensque  miser,  mea  virgo,  per 

altos  55 

Te  monies,  umbrasque  graves,  saltusque  remotos 
Ingemui  flevique  diu,  multumque  vocavi. 
Sed  tu,  si  mereor,  resera  quibus,  obsecro,  lustris 
Te  tenuit  tarn  longa  dies  ?     Die  munere  cujus 
Intertexta  auro  vestis  tibi  Candida  flavo  ?          60 
Quae  tibi  lux  oculis  olim  non  visa  refulget  ? 
Qui    comites  ?       Mirum,   quam    grandis    facta 


In  paucis  !   Matura  viro  mihi,  nata,  videris. 
Olym.  Exuvias  quas    ipse    mihi,    venerande, 


Ingenti  gremio  servat  Berecynthia  mater.         65 
Has  vestes  formamque  dedit,  faciemque  coruscam 
Parthenos,  secumque  fui.     Sed  respice,  numquid 
Videris  hos  usquam  comites  ;  vidisse  juvabit ! 
Silv.  Non  memini  vidisse  quidem,   nee  pul- 

chrior,  inquam,  69 

His  Narcissus  erat,  non  talis  denique  Daphnis, 
Qui  Dryadum  spes  laeta  fuit,  non  pulcher  Alexis  ! 
Olym.  Non  Marium  Julumque  tuos  dulcesque 

Noscis,  et  egregios  vultus  ?       Tua  pulchra  pro- 

pago  est ! 

OLYMPIA.  265 

that,  whilst  I  journey' d  to  Campania's  hills, 
Vesuvian  pastures,  thou  from  us  wast  reft, 
and,  hid  in  sacred  soil,  wast  lost  to  sight. 
Thinking  'twas  so,  in  misery  I  mourn'd ; 
I  wailed  thee,daughter  mine,on  mountain  heights, 
in  woods  and  far-off  glades,  and  call'd  thee  oft. 
But  me,  if  I  be  worthy,  tell  what  haunts 
have  held  thee  this  long  day.     Who  gave  to  thee 
thy  robe  so  white,  entwined  with  yellow  gold  ? 
What    light    shines    in    thine    eyes,  ne'er    seen 

before  ? 
Thy  comrades — who  ?     Wondrous,  how  grown 

art  thou 

in  so  brief  time  !     Thou  seem'st  for  spousal  fit. 
Olym.  The  vestments,  sire,  which  thou  to  me 

didst  give, 

Great  Mother  Earth  holds  in  her  mighty  lap. 
These  robes,   this  form,   this  glorious    beauty, 

heavenly  bright 

the  Virgin  gave ;  with  Her  I  was.     But,  lo, 
my  comrades  hast  ne'er  seen  before  ?     Rejoice ! 
Silv .  I  call  them  not  to  mind.    More  beaute 
ous  sure 

was  not  Narcissus,  nor  was  Daphnis  such, 
the  wood-nymphs'  darling,  nor  Alexis  fair  ! 
Olym.  Know'st   thou   thy  Marius   not,  thy 

Julus,  too, 
and  these  sweet  sisters  mine  ?    Thy  dear  ones  all ! 


Si/v.  Abstulit  effigies  notas  lanugine  malas  74 
Umbratas  vidisse.    Meis  jam  jungite  dextras, 
Amplexusque  meos  ac  oscula  laeta  venite 
Ut  prasstem,  satiemque   animam  !     Quas,  Pan, 

tibi  laudes, 

Quas,  Silvane,  canam  ?    Pueri,  nudate  palaestras, 
Et  ludos  agitotc  patrum.     Stent  munera  fagis 
Victorum  suspensa  sacris,  paterasque  parate    80 
Spumantes  vino  ;  laetum  cantate  Lyaeum, 
Et  sertis  ornate  lares ;  altaria  surgant 
Caespite  gramineo  ;  Triviae  mactate  bidentem 
Candidulam,  Noctique  piae  sic  caedite  fulvam.  84 
Fer  calamos  pueris,  Therapon,  fer  serta  puellis. 
Olym.  Sunt,  Silvi,  calami,  sunt  serta  decentia 

nobis  ; 

Et  si  tanta  tibi  cura  est  deducere  festum, 
Ignotos  silvis  modules  cantabimus  istis. 

Silv.  Immo,  silva  silet,  tacitus  nunc  defluit 

Et  silet  omnis  ager,  pueri,  vos  atque  silete.    90 

Olym.  Vivimus     csternum    mentis   et    numine 

OLYMPIA.  267 

Silv.  The  sight  of  cheeks  down-shaded  reft 

from  me 

the  faces  that  I  know.     Now  join  we  hands  ; 
come  ye  to  my  embrace  and  kisses  glad, 
and  let  me  sate  my  soul.     Thy  praises,  Pan, 
how  shall  I  sing,  and  thine,  'Sylvanus  ?     Boys, 
strip    you    for    wrestling  ;    lead    our    ancient 

games  ! 

From  sacred  beeches  hang  the  victor's  meeds  ! 
Let  beakers  foam  ;  and  jocund  Bacchus  laud  ! 
With  garlands  deck  the  gods  ;  with  grassy  turf 
heap  high  their  altars.     To  Diana  slay 
a  heifer  white  ;  to  Night  a  tawny  beast  ! 
Reeds    for    the   lads,  good    youth  ;    for  lasses 

wreaths  ! 
Olym.  Reeds,    Silvius,    have    we    here,    and 

goodly  wreaths  ; 

and,  if  so  please  thee  festal  cheer  to  stir, 
strains  will  we  chant  these  woods  have  never 

Silv .  Hushed    is     the    wood ;    Arno    flows 

silently  ; 
hush'd  are  the  fields ;  and   hushed  be  yc,  my 


Olym.  "  Endless    our    life    by    Codrus*  grace 
divine  ! 


Aurea  qui  nuper  celso  demissus  Olympo 
Parthenu  in  gremium,  revocavit  sgecula  terris ; 
Turpia  pastorum  passus  convitia,  cedro 
Affixus,  letho  concessit  sponte  triumphum.      95 
Vivimus  teternum  mentis  et  numine  Codrl. 
Sic  priscas  sordes,  morbos,  scabiemque  vetustam 
Infecti  pecoris  prseclaro  sanguine  lavit. 
Hincque  petens  valles  Plutarchi  ssepta  refrinxit, 
In  solem  retrahens  pecudes,  armentaque  patrum  : 
Vivimus  sternum  mentis  et  numine  Codri.         i  o  i 
Morte  hinc  prostrata,  campos  reseravit  odoros 
Elysii,  sacrumque  gregem  deduxit  in  hortos 
Mellifluos,  victor  lauro  quercuque  refulgens, 
Optandasque  dedit  nobis  per  saecula  sedes :    105 
Vivimus  eeternum  mentis  et  numine  Codri. 
Exuvias  in  fine  sibi  pecus  omne  resumet ; 
Ipse,  iterum  veniens,  capros  distinguet  ab  agnis, 
Hosque  feris  linquet,  componet  sedibus  illas 
Perpetuis  cceloque  novo  post  tempora  claudet. 
Vivimus  sternum  mentis  et  numine  Codri.        1 1 1 

Silv.  Sentis,  quam  stulti  Latios  cantare  putamus 
Pastores  calamis  perdentes  tempora  yocum  ? 
Mxnalios  vidi  juvenes  per  dorsa  Lycaei, 

OLYMPIA.  269 

He,  sent  of  late  from  high  Olympus  down 

into  the  Maid,  the  Golden  Age  recalled ; 

shepherds'  vile  scorn  He  dreed,  on  cedar  hung ; 

a  triumph  gave  He  Death,  of  His  free  will. 

Endless  our  life  by  Codrus*  grace  divine  ! 

So  from  the  blemished  sheep  He  washed  old 

old  maladies  and  sores,  with  His  bright  blood ; 

then  sought  He  Pluto's  dales,  broke  up  his  folds, 

and  brought  to  light  the  Father's  flocks  and  herds. 

Endless  our  life  by  Codrus'  grace  divine  ! 

Death  slain,  Elysium's  fragrant  fields  He  oped ; 

to  gardens  honey-sweet  His  host  He  led, 

Victor  all- bright  with  laurel  and  with  oak, 

and  gave  us  evermore  the  wish'd-for  homes. 

Endless  our  life  by  Codrus'  grace  divine. 

At  doomsday,  when  their  slough  all  kinds  re 

He  comes  again,  to  part  the  lambs  from  goats, — 

these  to  wild  beasts,  to  Thrones  eternal  those : 

anon  a  heaven  new  will  compass  them. 

Endless  our  life  by  Codrus'*  grace  divine" 

Silv.  What  fools  be  we,  to  think  that  Latin 


can  pipe  and  sing  !     Their  notes  are  out  of  time. 
Arcadian  youths  upon  their  mountain-slopes, 


Threicium  et  vatem  solitum  deducere  cautes 
Carmine,  nee  quemquam  possum  concedere  tanti, 
Ut  similem  natis  faciam.     Quae  guttura  ?  quas 

vox  ?  117 

Quis  concentus  erat  ?  stipulis  quis  denique  flatus  ? 
Non  equidem  nemoris  custos  regina  canori 
Calliopes,  non  ipse  Deus,  qui  prassidet  antro 
Gorgoneo,     aequiparet !        Flexere     cacumina 

quercus,  1 2 1 

Et  tenues  nymphae  tacitos  petiere  regressus 
In  lucem  ;  mansere  lupi,  catulique  tacentes. 
*  Praeterea,  o  juvenes,  sensistis  carminis  hujus 
Coelestes  sensus  ?  Numquam  mihi  Tityrus  olim 
Cantavit  similes,  senior  nee  Mopsus  apricis  126 
Parrhasius  silvis.    Sanctum  et  memorabile  totum 


Virginibus  niveas  dentur,  mea  cura,  columbae  ; 
Ast  pueris  fortes  dederat  quos  Ischiros  arcus. 
Olym.  Sint  tua,  nil  fertur  quod  sit  mortale 

per  oras 

Quas  dites  colimus ;  renuunt  asterna  caducum  ! 
Silv.  Quas  oras,    mea    nata,    refers  ?     Quas, 

deprecor,  oras  ?  132 

Nos  omnes  teget  ilia  domus,  somnosque  quietos 

OLYMPIA.  271 

the  Thracian  sire  who  with  his  song  drew  rocks, 
all  have  I  known  ;  yet  none  so  high  I  hold 
as  like  unto  these  youths.    What  throats  !  what 

tones  ! 

what  harmony  !    What  music  from  their  reeds  ! 
The  Sov'ran  Guardian  of  the  tuneful  grove, 
Calliope,  nor  e'en  the  God  who  rules 
o'er  Helicon,  could  vie  !     The  oaks  bent  low, 
and    tender    wood-nymphs    sought    the    silent 

unto  the  light  ;  yea,  wolves  and  hounds  stood 

Tell   me,   ye  youths,  caught  ye  the   heavenly 


of  yon  sweet  strain  ?     Ne'er  Tityrus  sang  so, 
nor  aged  Mopsus  in  his  sunny  wood. 
Sacred  it  is,  to  be  remembered  aye  ! 
Unto   the   maids,  from   me,  give   snow-white 

doves  ; 
unto  the  lads  strong  bows  from  Ischiros  ! 

O/ym.  Hold  thou  them  !     To  the  glorious 

climes  we  haunt 
nought  mortal  comes.      Immortals  shun  things 

Silv .  What    climes  ?     oh,     daughter     mine, 

what  climes,  I  pray  ? 
Yon  roof  us  all  will  cover  ;  quiet  sleep 


Herba  dabit  viridis,  csespesque  sub  ilice  mensam. 
Vitreus  is  large  praestabit  pocula  rivus,  1 3  5 

Castaneas  mites,  et  poma  recentia  nobis 
Rustica  silva  feret,  teneros  grex  fertilis  hxdos, 
Lacque  simul    pressum.     Quas  ergo  exquiritis 

oras  ? 
Olym.  Non  tibi,  care  pater,  dixi,  Berecynthia 


Exuvias  gremio  servat,  quas  ipse  dedisti  ?      140 
Non  sum  quae  fueram  dum  tecum  parvula  vixi ; 
Nam  numero    sum  juncta    deum ;    me  pulcher 


Expectat,  comitesque  meos.     Stat  vertere  gressus 
In  patriam.     Tu  vive,  pater  dulcissime,  felix  ! 
Silv.   Heu  !  moriar  lacrimans,  miserum  si  nata 

relinquis.  145 

Olym.  Pone,  precor,  luctus;  credisne  refringere 


Nunc  lacrimis  ?    Omnes  silvis  quotcumque  creati 
Nascimur  in  mortem  ;  feci  quod  tu  quoque,  Silvi, 
Post  facies.    Noli,  quasso,  lacerare  deorum 
Invidia  seternos  annos.  Tibi  crede  quietem     1 50 
Post  funus,  laudesque  pias  mi  reddito  coelo, 
Quod  moriens  fugi  mortem,  nemorumque  labores. 
Separor  ad  tempus,  post  haec  me  quippe  videbis ; 

OLYMPIA.  273 

green  sward  will  give;  a  turf  'neath  oak    our 

board ; 

the  crystal  brook  our  fount  of  richest  draughts  ; 
and  our  wild  woodlands  chestnuts  ripe  will  bring, 
and  apples  fresh  ;  our  fruitful  herd  young  kids 
and  cheese.     What  other  climes,  then,    would 

ye  seek  ? 
Olym.  Have  I  not  told  thee,  father  dear,  that 

the   trappings    keeps    that   thou   to    me    didst 


I  am  not  what  I  was,  the  child  thou  knewest ; 
now  am  I  numbered  with  the  god-like  throng. 
Me  fair  Olympus  calls,  my  comrades  eke  ; 
homeward  we  turn.     Sweet  father  mine,  fare 
well  ! 
Silv.  Leav'st  thou  me  wretched  thus,  I  weep 

to  death. 
Olym.  Away  with  grief !      Think'st  thou  to 

burst  thy  fate 

with  tears  ?     As  many  as  created  be, 
we  all  are  born  for  death.     I  have  but  done 
what  thou  shalt  do.     Rate  not  with  spleen,  I 


the  gods'  eternal  years.     Trow  peace  is  thine 
hereafter  ;  render  praise  to  Heav'n  for  me, 
that,  dying,  I  'scaped  death  and  toils  below. 
Awhile  apart,  sure  thou  wilt  see  me  soon, 


Perpetuosque  trahes  mecum  feliciter  annos. 
Silv.  In  lacrimis  oculos  fundam,  tristemque 
senectam  !  155 

Heu,  quibus  in  silvis  post  anxia  fata  requiram 
Te  profugam,  ex  nostris  bis  raptam  viribus  ulnis  ? 
Otym.  Elysium  repeto,  quod  tu  scansurus  es 

Silv.   Elysium,   memini,     quondam     cantare 


Minciades  stipula,  qua  nemo  doctior  usquam.  1 60 
Estne,    quod    ille    canit,    vestrum  ?     Didicisse 

O/ym.  Senserat  ille  quidem  vi  mentis  grandia 


Ac  in  parte  loci  faciem,  sed  pauca  canebat, 
Si  videas,  quam  multa  tenet,quam  pulchra  piorum 
Elysium  sedesque  deum  gratissima  nostrum.  165 
Silv.  Quos  tenet  iste  locus  montes  ?     Quibus 

insitus  oris  ? 

Quae  non  Minciades  vidit,  seu  sponte  reliquit, 
Da  nobis.     Audire  fuit  persaepe  laborum 
Utile  solamen  ;  veniet  mens  forte  videndi.  1 69 
O/ym.  Est  in  secessu  pecori  mons  invius  aegro, 
Lumine  perpetuo  clarus,  quo  primus  ab  imis 
Insurgit  terris  Phoebus,  cui  vertice  summo 
Silva  sedet  palmas  tollens  ad  sidera  celsas, 
Et  laetas  pariter  lauros,  cedrosque  perennes, 

OLYMPIA.  275 

and  lead  with  me  in  bliss  unending  years. 
Silv.  Mine  eyes  will  waste  with  tears,  mine 

age  will  pine. 

After  life's  woes  in  what  wood  shall  I  seek 
thee,  fleeing  hence,  twice  reft  from  these  mine 

arms  ? 

Olym.  Elysium  I  seek,  where  thou  wilt  come. 
Silv.   Elysium  !     The  Mantuan    bard,    me- 

sang  once  and  piped  thereof;   was   none  more 


Is  thine  the  spot  he  sang  ?    Fain  would  I  learn. 
Olym.  His  mighty  mind,  indeed,  some  glories 


some  beauties  of  the  place  ;  he  sang  but  few 
of  all  the  many  joys  Elysium  holds, — 
home  of  the  blest,  our  Gods'  most  fair  abode  ! 
Silv.  What  mountains  hath  it?  in  what  regions 


What  he  saw  not,  or  what  he  left  unsung, 
tell  me  !    To  hear  was  oft  sweet  balm  for  toil. 
Perchance  the  soul  will  yearn  those  sights  to  see. 
Olym.   Remote,  beyond   the  reach  of  sickly 


bright  with  perpetual  light,  a  mountain  rears ; 
there  Phoebus  first,  from  Earth  below,  ascends; 
on  topmost  peak  a  wood,  with  towering  palms, 
with  festal  laurels,  cedars  ever-green, 


Palladia  ac  oleas  optatas  pacis  arnicas.  175 

Quis  queat  hinc  varies  flores,  quis  posset  odores 
Quos  lenis  fert  aura  loco,  quis  dicere  rivos 
Argenta  similes,  mira  scaturigine  circum 
Omnia  rorantes,  lepido  cum  murmure  flexus 
Arbustis  mixtos  nunc  hinc  nunc  inde  trahentes  ? 
Hesperidum  potiora  locus  fert  aurea  poma.     1 8 1 
Sunt  auro  volucres  pictse,  sunt  cornibus  aureis 
Capreoli  et  mites  damae,  sunt  insuper  agnae 
Velleribus  niveis,  claro  rutilantibus  auro  ; 
Suntque    boves,    taurique     simul,    pinguesque 

juvencae  185 

Insignes  omnes  auro,  mitesque  leones, 
Crinibus  et  mites  gryphes  radiantibus  auro  : 
Aureus  est  nobis  sol,  ac  argentea  luna  ; 
Et  majora  quidem  quam  vobis  sidera  fulgent. 
Ver  ibi  perpetuum,  nullis  offenditur  austris,      1 90 
Laetaque  temperies  loca  possidet,  exulat  inde 
Terrestris  nebula  et  nox  et  discordia  rerum  ; 
Mors  ibi  nulla  manet  gregibus,  non  aegra  senec- 


Atque  graves  absunt  curae  maciesque  dolorque. 
Sponte  sua  veniunt  cunctis  optata.     Quid  ultra  ? 

OLYMPIA.  277 

peace-loving  olive-trees,  to  Pallas  dear. 

Who   could   describe  the   many   flowers  ?    the 

the    zephyrs     waft  ?     and    who     the     silvery 


their  wondrous  waters  sprinkling  all  about, 
meandering  here  and  there  with  murmur  sweet, 
and  drawing  in  their  course  full  many  a  bough  ? 
Such  golden  fruit  th*  Hesperides  ne'er  saw ; 
gold-hued   are   birds   there;    and   gold -horned 


and  gentle  deer  ;  moreover,  lambs  are  there 
whose  snowy  fleeces  gleam  with  brightest  gold  ; 
and  oxen,  too,  and  bulls,  and  fatted  cows, 
resplendent  all  with  gold  ;  yea,  lions  tame, 
and    griffins   tame,  their    manes    with   gold   all 


Golden  our  sun,  and  silvern  is  our  moon ; 
grander  than  yours  the  stars  that  shine  on  us. 
'Tis  ever  Spring  ;  no  southern  gale  strikes  there  ; 
a    joyous    calm    the    place     pervades.     Earth's 

and    Night,    all    things    that   jar,   are   banished 


Death  comes  not  to  the  flocks,  nor  ailing  Age  ; 
and  far  are  grievous  cares,  and  want,  and  grief. 
Things  wished  for  freely  come  to  all.      What 

more  ? 


Dulcisono  resonat  cantu  mitissimus  aer.         196 
Silv .  Mira  refers,  sanctamque  puto  sedemque 

Quam  memoras  silvam.     Sed  quisnam  praesidet 

illi  ? 

Et  comites,  mea  nata,  refer,  ritusque  locorum. 
Olym.  Hac  in  gramineo  summo  sedetaggere 

grandis  200 

Arcesilas,  servatque  greges,  et  temperat  orbes, 
Cujus  enim  si  forte  velis  describere  vultus, 
Incassum      facies ;       nequeunt      comprendere 


Est  alacer,  pulcherque  nimis,  totusque  serenus, 
Hujus  et  in  gremio  jacet  agnus  candidus,  ex  quo 
Silvicolis  gratus  cibus  est,  et  vescimur  illo.   206 
Inde  salus  venit  nobis,  et  vita  renatis. 
Ex  his  ambobus  pariter  sic  evolat  ignis, 
Ut  mirum  credas  ;  hoc  lumen  ad  omnia  confert, 
Solatur  mcestos,  et  mentis  lumina  purgat,    210 
Consilium  miseris  praestat,  viresque  cadentum 
Instaurat,  dulcesque  animis  infundit  amores. 
Stat  Satyrum    longreva    cohors,    hinc    undique 


Omnis  cana  quidem,  roseis  ornata  coronis, 
Et  cytharis  agni  laudes  et  carmine  cantat.    2 1 5 
Purpureus  post  ordo  virum  venerabilis,  inquam, 
Et  viridi  cunctis  cinguntur  tempora  lauro. 
Hi  cecinere  Deum  stipulis  per  compita  verum. 

OLYMPIA.  279 

The    air,  so   soft,  with   sweet-toned   song  re 
Silv.  Marvels   thou  tell'st  !     Sure,  sacred  is 

that  wood, 

the  Gods'  abode  !     But  who  o'errules  it,  say  ; 
who  dwell  therein,  and  what  the  usages  ? 

Olym.   High,  on  a  grassy  mound,  in  glory  sits 
Arcesilas,  shepherding  flocks  and  worlds. 
But,  verily,  would'st  thou  His  aspect  know, 
it  were  in  vain  ;   the  mind  this  cannot  grasp. 
All  life  is  He,  too  fair,  wholly  serene  ; 
and  in  His  bosom  rests  a  Lamb,  milk-white, 
sweet  sustenance  for  folk,  whereby  we  live  ; 
thence  comes  our  weal,  and  life  to  those  re-born. 
And  from  Them  both  alike  there  flames  a  fire, 
wondrous  to  trow  !     To  all  things  spreads  that 

light  : 

the  sad  it  comforts,  purges  the  mind's  eye, 
counsels  the  wretched,  strengthens  those  that  fall, 
with  sweetest  love  informs  the  souls  of  men. 
An  aged  band  of  Satyrs,  suppliant, 
their  hoary  locks  with  rosy  chaplets  crowned, 
stand   there  ;    with  lute  and  song    the  Lamb 

they  praise. 

And  then  the  Purple  Order,  well  revered, 
their  temples  all  engirt  with  laurel  green. 
At  cross-roads  these  with  pipes  the  true  God 


Et  forti  S9EVOS  ammo  vicere  labores. 

Agmen  adest  niveum  post  hos,  cui  lilia  frontes 

Circumdant,  huic  juncta  cohors  tua  pulchra  ma- 

nemus  221 

Natorum.  Crocei  sequitur  post  ordo  coloris 
Inclitus  ;  et  magno  fulgens  splendore,  sonora 
Voce  deum  laudes  cantat,  regique  ministrat. 
Quos  inter  placido  vultu  cantabat  Asylas,  225 
Dum  silvis  assumpta  prius  sum  monte  levatis. 
Silv.  Ergo,  precor,  noster  montem  conscendit 


Emeruit,  nam  mitis  erat,  fideique  vetustge 
Praeclarum    specimen.      Faciat  Deus    ipse    re- 

visam  ! 
Sed    die ;     tene,    precor,    novit,    dum    culmen 

adires  ?  230 

Olym.  Immo  equidem  applaudens  injecit  bra- 

chia  collo ; 

Et  postquam  amplexus  laetos  ac  oscula  centum 
Impressit  fronti,  multis  comitantibus,  inquit, — 
*  Venisti,  o  nostri  soboles  carissima  Silvi  ? 
De  Libanoy  nunc,  sponsa  veni  sacrosque  hymenasos 
Cantemus,  matremque  viri  mea  neptis  honora.' 
Meque  trahens,genibus  flexis,quo  pulchra  sedebat 
Parthenos  posuit.      Lseta  haec  suscepit  in  ulnis 
Ancillam,  dixitque  pie  :   "  Mea  filia  nostris 
Ecce  choris  jungere  piis,  sponsique  frueris     240 
^Eternis  thalamis,  et  semper  Olympia  coelo 

OLYMPIA.  281 

and,    strong    of    soul,    they    conquered     cruel 

Then  come  the  Snow-white  Host ;   lilies  their 


enwreathe.     To  these  is  joined  our  little  band, 
thy  children  fair.     The  Saffron  Order  next, 
illustrious,  resplendent,  with  loud  voice 
sing  praises  of  the  Gods,  and  serve  the  King. 
'Mong  these  Asylas  sang ;    how  calm  his  look, 
when  first  the  mount  received  me  from  the  woods  ! 
Silv.  Did  my  Asylas  then  ascend  the  mount  ? 
Worthy  was  he,  gentle,  of  ancient  faith 
a  noble  type.     God  grant  we  meet  again  ! 
But   knew   he  thee,  when  to  the  heights  thou 

earnest  ? 
Olym.  Gleeful,  he  threw  his  arms  about  my 


kissed  me  a  hundred  times,  embrac'd  me  oft ; 
and  then,  a  mighty  concourse  with  him,  said  : 
"  Hast  come,  my  Silvius'  beloved  child  ? 
1  Come  hither,  love,'  and  Hymen's  holy  lays 
sing  we  ;  and  Manhood's  Mother  honour  thou  !" 
Then  me  he  led,  and  down  I  knelt  where  sat 
the  Virgin  beauteous.     Joyful  She  clasped 
Her  maid,  and  kindly  spake  :    "  Now,  daughter 


enter  Our  blissful  choirs ;  thou  shalt  enjoy 
eternal  Spousal,  as  Olympia 


Quae  fueras  terris  Violantes  inclita  fies." 
Inque  dedit  vestes  quas  cernis.      Si  tibi  narrem 
Quos  cantus  tune  silva  dedit,  quos  fistula  versus 
Pastoris  lyrici,  credes  vix.     Omne  per  antrum 
Insonuit  carmen  mentis,  tantusque  refulsit      246 
Ignis,  ut  exuri  dixisses  omnia  flammis, 
Et  totum  rosei  cecidere  per  ae'ra  flores. 

Silv.  Quae  sit  Parthenos  nobis  super  adde,  pre- 

Olym.  Alma  Jovis  genitrix  haec  est,  et  filia 

nati,  250 

Splendens  aula  deum,  coeli  decus,  inscia  noctis. 
jEthereum  sidus,  pastorum  certa  salutis 
Spes,  custosque  gregum,  requiesque  optata  labo- 

Hanc  fauni  nymphaeque  colunt,    hanc    grandis 


Laudibus  extollit  cythara,  dominamque  fatetur. 
Quae  residens  solio  patris  veneranda  vetusti,  256 
A  dextris  geniti,  tanto  splendore  refulget, 
Ut  facie  silvam,  montem,  collesque  polosque 
Laetificet  Formosa  nimis.     Cui  Candida  circum 
Agmina    cygnorum    volitant,    matremque    salu- 

tant,  260 

Luminis  aeterni  sponsam,  genitamque  cientes. 
Silv.   Et  vos  quid,  pueri,  plaudunt  dum  gutture 

cygni  ? 

OLYMPIA.  283 

in  Heaven  known,  who  Violante  wast." 
The  raiment  that  thou  seest  she  gave  me  then. 
Were  I  to  tell  the  strains  the  woods  then  gave, 
the  tuneful  Shepherds'    notes,  thou'dst     scarce 


The  mountain's  song  resounded  through  the  cave ; 
and  fire  so  flashed,  that  all  things  seemed  a-glow; 
and  scattered  from  above  fell  roseate  flowers. 
Sifo.  Who  is  the  Virgin?    Tell  me  now,  I 

Olym.    Jove's    gracious    Mother    She,     His 

Daughter  eke, 
the  Gods'  Queen-Mother,Heav'n's  Gem,Night's 


Celestial  Star,  the  Shepherds'  certain  hope, 
their  flocks'  sure  guard,  their  wish'd-for  rest  from 


Fauns  Her  adore,  and  nymphs  ;  Apollo  great 
with  lute  exalts  Her  praise,  and  owns  Her  Queen. 
She,  worshipful,  upon  the  Father's  throne, 
on  right-hand  of  the  Son,  full  brightly  shines. 
Her  look  the  woods   and  mountains,  hills  and 


makes  glad.     Too  fair  is  She.     About  Her  fly 
white  swan-like  bands  ;  as  Mother  hail  they  Her, 
as  Spouse  and  Daughter  of  Eternal  Light ! 
Silv.  And  what  do  ye,  while  thus  the  swans 

acclaim  ? 


O/ym.  Nos    pueri    legimus    flores,    factisque 


Cingimus  intonsos  crines,  laetisque  choreis 
Ambimus  silvam,  fontes,  rivosque  sonoros.    265 
Et,  mediis  herbis  ludentes,  vocibus  altis 
Parthenu  placidae  meritos  cantamus  honores 
Et  geniti  laudes  pariter.     Quis  gaudia  silvas 
Enumerare  queat  ?   Quis  verbis  pandere  ?   Nemo  ! 
Induat  ut  volucres  pennas,  quibus  alta  volatu 
Expetat  et  videat,  opus  est ;  sunt  cetera  frustra. 

Silv.   Sunt    optanda  quidem,  sed    quis    mihi 
Daedalus  usquam  272 

Qui  tribuat  pennas  agiles,  nectatque  lacertis, 
Ostendatque  viam  facilem,  doceatque  volatum  ? 

Oly m.  Pascefamem  fratris,  lactis  da  pocula  fessis, 
Adsis  detentis,  et  nudos  contege,  lapsos          276 
Erige  dum  possis,  pateatque  forensibus  antrum ; 
Hsec  aquilas  volucres  prsestabunt  munera  pennas 
Atque,  Deo  monstrante  viam,  volitabis  in  altum. 

Sih.  Quo  tendis  ?  quo,  nata,  fugis,  miserum- 
que  parentem  280 

Implicitum  linquis  lacrimis  ?    Heu  cessit  in  auras 
/Ethereas,  traxitque  simul,  quos  duxit,  odores. 
In  mortem  lacrimis  ibo,  ducamque  senectam. 
Vos  pueri  vitulos  in  pascua  pellite  ;  surgit 
Lucifer,  et  mediis  jam  sol  emittitur  umbris.     285 

OLYMPIA.  285 

O/ym.  We  youths  cull  flowers ;  and,  with  the 

wreaths  we  make, 

our  unshorn  locks  we  crown.  With  dances  glad 
we  circle  woods  and  founts  and  sounding  brooks ; 
and,  sporting  'mid  the  grasses,  with  loud  voice 
we  chant  due  praises  of  the  gentle  Maid ; 
and  eke  the  Son  we  laud.     The  wood's  delights 
who  can  recount  ?  Who  tell  in  words  ?  Not  one ! 
First  must  he  put  on  wings,  as  bird,  by  flight 
to  seek  and  see  the  heights  ;    else  all  is  vain. 
Silv.  'Twere    to    be  wished  !     But  who,  as 


will  give  me  agile  wings,  and  bind  them  on, 
show  me  the  easy  way,  and  teach  me  flight  ? 

O/ym.  Thy  brother  feed,  give  to  the  weary  milk, 
to  prisoners  alms  ;   the  naked  clothe,  the  fallen 
raise,  whilst  thou  canst ;  take   strangers  to  thy 


Such  offices  will  give  thee  eagle's  wings ; 
and,  God  thy  guide,  thou  wilt  to  Heaven  fly. — 

Silv.  Whither,  my  daughter,  whither  fleest  thou, 
leaving  thy  father  tearful  ? — Ah,  she  passed 
to  upper  air,  and  drew  the  scents  she  brought. 
With  tears  my  life  I'll  dree,  and  fare  to  death. 
Boys,   drive  the  calves  afield !     Lo,  Phosphor 

and  Sol  emerges  now  from  misty  shades. 





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By  the  SAME  ;  a  picture  of  English  social  and  monastic  life  in  the 
1 2th  century.  Translated  from  the  Latin  and  edited  with  notes 
by  L.  C.  JANE,  M.A.  With  an  introduction  by  CARDINAL  GASQUET 
and  a  photogravure  frontispiece,  llnd  Impression. 

1 6.  THE   VISION   OF   PIERS   THE   PLOWMAN      l— 

By  WILLIAM  LANGLAND  ;  English,  I4th  century.  Done  into  modern 
metrical  English  with  introduction  and  notes  by  Prof.  W.  W.  SKEAT. 
With  frontispiece  after  contemporary  MS.  IVth  Impression. 

17.  THE    PLAYS   OF   ROSWITHA  i 

By  the  SAME  ;  German,  loth  century.  Translated  from  the  Latin 
by  CHRISTOPHER  ST.  JOHN.  With  an  introduction  by  CARDINAL 
GASQUET  and  a  frontispiece  after  ALBRECHT  DURER. 

1 8.  THE    NUN'S   RULE  or  THE   ANCREN    RIWLE        u- 
ANONYMOUS;  English,  I  3th  century.     Translated  from  the  Latin 
by  JAMES  MORTON.     With  an  introduction  by  CARDINAL  GASQUET 
and  a  frontispiece  of  the  seal  of  Bishop  Poore,  the  probable  author. 


By  the  SAME  and  his  friends  in  England ;  English,  8th  century. 
Translated  from  the  Latin  and  edited  with  an  introduction  by 
EDWARD  KYLIE,  M.A.  With  a  photogravure  frontispiece. 


From  BARTHOLOMAEUS  ANGLICUS  ;  English,  1 3th  century.  Selected 
and  modernised  by  ROBERT  STEELE  from  the  I4th  century  English 
translation  from  the  original  Latin  by  JOHN  TREVISA.  With  an 
introduction  by  WILLIAM  MORRIS  and  a  photogravure  frontispiece. 
llnd  Impression. 


21.  THE   SONG   OF   ROLAND 

ANONYMOUS  and  TRADITIONAL;  French,  i  ith  century.  Translated 
from  the  Old  French  by  JESSIE  CROSLAND.  With  a  photogravure 
reproduction  of  a  page  from  the  Oxford  MS.  Revised  Edition. 


By  ASSER  ;  English,  9th  century.  Translated  from  the  Latin  with 
an  introduction  and  notes  by  L.  C.  JANE,  M.A.  With  a  photo 
gravure  reproduction  of  King  Alfred's  Jewel  as  frontispiece. 

TRADITIONAL  ;  Icelandic,  from  the  9th  century  onwards.     Selected 
and  translated  with  notes,  as  an  introduction  to  Iceland  Literature, 
by  the  Rev.  W.  C.  GREEN,  M.A.     With  a  photogravure  repro 
duction  of  the  Thor  Cross,  Kirk  Bride,  Isle  of  Man. 

de  BURY.  By  the  SAME  ;  English,  I4th  century.  Translated 
with  notes  from  the  Latin  by  E.  C.  THOMAS  and  edited  by  Sir 
ISRAEL  GOLLANCZ,  Litt.D.,  F.B.A.  With  photogravure  frontispiece 
of  the  Seal  of  Richard  de  Bury.  1 1  nd  Impression. 


By  the  SAME  ;  Italian,  6th  century.  Translated  with  an  intro 
duction  from  the  Latin  by  CARDINAL  GASQUET.  With  photo 
gravure  of  St.  Benedict  after  Sassoferrato.  llnd  Impression. 

26.  WINE,    WOMEN    AND    SONG  :     MEDIEVAL     LATIN 
1 2th  century.     Translated  from  the  Latin  into  English  verse,  and 
with  essay,  by  JOHN  ADDINGTON  SYMONDS.     Illrd  Impression. 


TRADITIONAL  ;  Anglo-Saxon,  yth  century  and  earlier.  Translated 
into  English  verse,  with  a  preface,  by  D.  H,  CRAWFORD.  Autumn, 


CHATTO  6f  WINDUS:    97  &f  99 



^  O 


University  of  joronto          Robarts 

O2       -Ju.1 




Pearl:  an  English  poem,  of  the  14th 
century.    Edited,  wi 
DUEs  30